AP Psych 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
phobia
fear
occipital lobes
visual center
olfaction
the experience of smelling
crowding
the psychological and psychological respinse to the belieft that there are too many people in a specified area
summation
the arithmetic operation of summing
mood disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
estrogen
secreted by ovaries. activates reproductvie system
Adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
Behaviorism
an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior (John B. Watson); organisms learn to behave in certain ways because they are reinforced to do so (B.F. Skinner)
erogenous zones
oral (mouth-sucking, biting, chewing), anal (bowel/bladder-elimination, coping with demands for control), phallic (genitals-coping with incestuous sexual feelings), latency (dormant sexual feelings), genital (maturation of sexual interests
antidepressant drugs
Medications that gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of a depression.
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites.
hypothalamus
main control center for autonomic nervous system; regulates sleep cycles, body temperatures, awareness of hunger/thirst; acts as endocrine gland by producing hormones
efferent neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands (motor neurons)
storage
the retention of encoded information over time
Correlation
a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two factors vary together and thus how well one factor can be predicted from the other. Correlations can be positive or negative.
implicit memory
unintentional influence of prior experience
Informal reasoning
assessing credibility of conclusion based on available evidence
opiates
opium and its derivavatives such as morophine and heroin; they depress neural activity temproarily lessening pain and anxiety
stimulants
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
dissociative identity disorder
also called multiple personality disorder
Dendrites
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
Aversive Conditioning
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
population
a complete group of organisms or events
general intelligence
a general intelligence factor that underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
Empiricism
the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
manifest content
the remembered storyline of a dream
hallucinogen
a substance that alters or distorts sensory impressions.
Forgetting
inability to recall or recognize what has previously been remembered
dependent variable
the variable that the experimenter measures at the end of the experiment
echoic memory
sensory memory that allows auditory information to be stored for brief durations
clinical
The branch of psychology that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.
acoustic encoding
mental representation of info as sequence of sounds
dominates SHORT TERM MEMORY
motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
Concurrent Validity
A measurements ability to correlate or vary directly with an accepted measure of the same construct
recall
measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
Cognitive Therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
availability heuristic
basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind.
ingroup
"us" --people with whom one shares a common identity.
Myelin sheath
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next - fully develops at age 25 and lack there of causes Multiple Sclerosis
lucid
describes a dream in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and is able to influence the progress of the dream narrative
negative correlation
if one even increases the other decreases (vice versa)
primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
barbiturates
Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but imparing memory and judgment
molecular genetics
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
optic nerve
the axons of the ganglion cells form this
rooting
a reflex in which a newborn turns its head in response to a gentle stimulus on its cheek
Retina
The area of the inner surface of the eye that contains rods and cones.
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning. The response is always involuntary(Myers Psychology 8e p. 315)
initiative vs guilt
Erikson's third stage in which the child finds independence in planning, playing and other activities
avoidance conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism responds to a signal in a way that prevents exposure to an aversive stimulus ex: go to school early to avoid trafficd
trace conditioning
the CS and US do not overlap. Instead, the CS is presented, a period of time is allowed to elapse then the US is presented (no overlap).
Appraisal of Stress
Each perspective has its own view on the causes of stress.
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Consists of our brain and spinal cord- all the nerves housed within bone (the skull and the vertebrae).
determinism
answer
stimulus response psychology
answer
Gender
culturally constructed distinctions between femininity and masculinity
displacement
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet, see sublimation
Psychotherapy
An emotionally charged confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties.
self-concept
a sense of one's identity
projection
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
plasticity
the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage
Reflex
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
anal stage
Freud's pychosexual period during which a child learns to control his bodily excretions
shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
lens
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus images onto the retina
empiricist
person who believes knowledges comes from experience with the environment
preoperational
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, when egocentrism declines
mania
mood disorder marked by hyperactive, widely optimistic state
dishabituation
a stimulus appears different, infants resume looking when a stimulus changes
naturalistic
term refers to observations made of individual's behavior in an everyday life setting
individualism
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
perceiving loudness
brain interprets loudness by the number of hair cells activated
object permanence
recognition that things continue to exist even though hidden from sight; infants generally gain this after 3 to 7 months of age
Middle adult
Stage of psychosocial development with generativity vs. stagntion
case study
scientific investigation in which a single subject is studied in great detail
Type B
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people.
biological psychology
seeks to understand the interactions between anatomy and physiology
Active Listening
Empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
Special clock
The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain events or emotions will occur
Jean Piaget
Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
sexual response
its four stages are excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution
normal curve
The symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes - most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
representative sample
group of research participants whose characteristics fairly reflect the characteristics of the population from which they were selected
Reuptake Inhibitors
block reuptake sites on transmitting neuron
functional fixedness
the tendency to think about things only in terms of their usual uses; can be a hindrance to creative thinking
Depth Perception
Our ability to perceive the distance of objects from us (how close, how far, etc.)
Action Potential
A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down a neuron.
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images the retina receives of an object, the closer the object is to the viewer
intimacy vs isolation
Erikson's stage in which individuals form deeply personal relationships, marry, begin families
cumulative recorder
creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time
Preoperational Stage
in Piaget's theory the stage during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
resting potential
the electrical charge across the cell membrane of a neuron in its resting state (not the number; opposite of action potential)
learned helplessness
lack of motivation to avoid unpleasant stimuli after one has failed before to escape similar stimuli
afterimages
the image/color seen when you stare at something for a long time; you see the opponent color/design
respondent behavior
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
secondary reinforcers
reward that organisms learn to like, previously a NS, but when paried with primary reinforcer it takes on reinforcing properties
Deterministic Behaviorists
Theorize that all behaviors are caused by past conditioning.
ESP (Extrasensory Perception)
apparent power to perceive things that are not present to the senses
primary appraisal
evaluate changes, first , in terms of whether they have a lot or a little at stake
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
intensity
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave
Oral stage
age 0-15 months, when mouth is primary source of stimulation and gratification
problem space
the elements that make up a problem: the initial state, the incomplete information or unsatisfactory conditions the person starts with; the goal state, the set of information or state the person wishes to achieve; and the set of operations, the steps the person takes to move from the initial state to the goal state
skinner box
Box that is often used in operant conditioning of animals. It limits the avalible responses the thus increases the likelihood that the desired response will occur
stress and cancer
stress doe not cause cancer, but it apparently impairs the immune system so that cancerous cells are better able to establish themselves and spread throughout the body
cocktail party effect
ability to attend to only one voice among many; this changes when someone says your name, or something else that jumps out at you
Cell Body or Soma
Contains the nucleus and other parts of the cell needed to sustain its life.
Wertheimer
Gestalt
menarche
the first menstrual period
sublimination
defense mechanism of re-channeling unacceptable impulses into approves activities
personality
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
denial
a defense mechanism in which unpleasant thought or desires are ignored or excluded from consciousness
mental illness
clinically diagnosable disorder that significantly interferes with an individual's cognitive, emotional or social abilities
loudness
the perceptual dimension of sound influences by the amplitude of a sound wave; sound waves with large amplitudes are generally experienced as loud and those with small amplitudes as soft
James-Lange
theory of emotion in which physiological arousal precedes the emotion
flow
A completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
accommodation
According to Piaget, adapting one's current understanding (schemas) to incorporate new information
archetypes
According to Jung, emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning, emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning
achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
attraction
feeling of being drawn toward another and desiring the company of a person
stress
process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening and challenging
gender stability
childs understanding that sexs is stable over time
declarative memory
that part of long-term memory containing specific factual information. (random facts)
Instrumental
a type of aggression characterized by goal driven aggression, motivation
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effecr is being studied
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
Alzheimer's disease
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning
Down Syndrome
a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup
chromosomes
strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic informatio
Critical period
An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
schedules of reinforcement
these include fixed interval and variable ratio
social trap
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interests, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
health psychology
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
Cooing stage
Beginning about 3-4 months, the stage of speech developmetn in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds. In the beginning, these sounds are unrelated to the household language.
hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
self esteem
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
transduction
Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses
glial cell
this acts as a support system for neurons
bipolar cells
nerve cells in the visual system that combine impulses from many receptors and transmit the results to ganglion cells
social psychology
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
coronary heart disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries
method of loci
taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking
internal locus of control
The perception that one controls one's own fate
explicit memory (declarative memory)
memory of facts and experiences that on can consciously know and "declare"
empirically derived test
A test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
telepathy
Mind-to-mind extrasensory perception.
memes
self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person
cocaine
freud was addicted to ________
Kohlberg
developed theory related moral development
psychological disorder
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
variables
any measurable condtiotions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study.
decibel
Measuring unit for sound energy.
DNA
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
genome
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
sigmund freud
developed psychoanalysis, people are driven by unconscious thought
rods
responsible for black and white vision
narcolepsy
a disorder characterized by sudden sleep attacks, often at inopportune times
behavioral
perspective on psychology that sees psychology as an objective science without reference to mental states
OCD
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions
internalization
the process of absorbing information from specified social environmental context
inferential statistics
interpret data and draw conclusions
accommodate
adapting ones current understanding to incorporate new information
biological
The perspective of studying the physical aspects of behavior and mental processes. Also emphasizes studying the specific systems and genetics.
strange situation
Ainsworth's method for assessing infant attachment to the mother, based on a series of brief separations and reunions with the mother in a playoom situation.
reuptake
The process in which excess neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the sending neuron.
accomodate
Adapting one's current schemas to incorporate new information.
crystallized intelligence
One's accumulated knowledge which increases with age.
genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
split brain
a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them
william wundt
founded the first laboratory dedicated to the scientific study of the mind at the University of Leipzig
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
insomnia
inability to fall asleep or remain asleep long enough for sufficient rest
informed consent
agreement to participate in psychology research, after being appraised of the dangers and benefits of the research
cerebral cortex
the fabric of interconnecting cells that blankets the brain hemispheres; the brain's center for information processing and control
bones of the middle ear
malleus, incus, stapes
sensory neurons
nervous system cells that receive information from the environment
sensorimotor
describes Piaget's stage in which the child explores the world through interaction of his mouth and hands with the environment
schema
a collection of basic knowledge about a category of information; serves as a means of organization and interpretation of that information
paranoia
(in schizophrenia) a mental illness of unreasonable anxiety, especially believing someone is out to get you
sensorimotor stage
piaget's first stage (0-2) during which the infant experiences the world through sense and action patterns; progresses from reflexes to object permanence and symbolic thinking
egocentrism
seeing the world from one's own perspective; the inability to see reality from the persepctive of another person, characteristic of the preoperatinal child
experimenter bias
when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
threshold
The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
psychology
The science of behavior and mental processes.
pituitary gland
The endocrine systems most influential gland. Regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
experiment
A research method in which an investigation manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
generativity vs. stagnation
Issue experience during Erikson's seventh stage of psychosocial development, middle adulthood.
initiative vs. guilt
Issue experience during Erikson's third stage of psychosocial development, preschooler.
Role
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
social-learning theory
theory we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by reward and punishment
synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron; the tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft
edward thorndike
in the US, reported the first experiments on animal learning
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
flashbulb
term describes a vivid memory of a personally significant and emotional event
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that supports one's preconceptions
control group
consists of similar subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimetnal group
refractory period
The "recharging phase" when a neuron, after firing, cannot generate another action potential.
conventional morality
In Kohlbergs theory, the level of moral reasoning in which judgments are based on rules or norms of a group to which the person belongs.
Gender Role
a set of expected behaviors for males and for females
evolutionary psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
correlation coefficient
a positive one near 1.0 indicates two variable are positively related; a negative number indicates a negative relationship; zero indicates no relationship
all or none
description of the action of neurons when firing
CAT scan
a method of creating static images of the brain through computerized axial tomography
fetal alcohol syndrome
a cluster of abnormalities that occurs in babies of mothers who drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, which includes low intelligence, small head with flat face, misshapen eyes, flat nose, and thin upper lip, as well as some degree of intellectual impairment
BF Skinner
thought babies learned how to talk in same way animals learn to press bars
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating by being rewarded or punished
feature detectors
Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or measure.
CT (computed tomography) scan
a series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body (also called a CAT scan)
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
sensory cortex
The area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
nature vs nurture
name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior
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