AP Psych Important People Flashcards

Terms Definitions
reciprocal determinism
multiple intelligences
cognitive dissonance
rational emotive therapy
language acquisition device
William MacDougall
instinct theory
Sigmund Freud
introduced psychoanalysis
Robert Yerkes
intelligence, comparative; Yerkes-Dodson law: level of arousal as related to performance
psychosexual stages of development
Edward Thorndike
law of effect
Francis Galton
1822-1911; Field: differential psychology AKA "London School" of Experimental Psychology; Contributions: behavioral genetics, maintains that personality & ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance; Studies: Twin Studies-compare identical & fraternal twins, Hereditary Genius-used bell curve for normal distribution, & "Law of Errors"-differences in intellectual ability
Henry Murray
1893-1988; Field: intelligence, testing; Contributions: devised the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) with Christina Morgan, stated that the need to achieve varied in strength in different people and influenced their tendency to approach and evaluate their own performances
Karl Wernicke
1848-1905; Field: perception; Contributions: area of left temporal lobe involved language understanding; Studies: person damaged in this area uses correct words but they do not make sense
Martin Seligman
1942-present; Field: learning; Contributions: Positive Psychology, learned helplessness; Studies: Dogs demonstrating learned helplessness
Alfred Adler
1870-1937; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: basic mistakes, style of life, inferiority/superiority complexes, childhood influences personality formation; Studies: Birth Order
Ancient Greek philosopher. Promoted introspection by saying, "Know thyself."
feminine perspective to moral development
Kurt Lewin
social psychology, interdisciplinary method of observing and interpreting social phenomena
Harry Harlow
developmental psychology, experimented w/ infant monkeys and attachment
John Watson
behaviorism (Little Albert Experiment--classical conditioning)
Little Albert
ca. 1920; Field: behaviorism; Contributions: subject in John Watson's experiment, proved classical conditioning principles: Studies: Little Albert-generalization of fear
Clark Hull
motivation theory, drive reduction; maintained that the goal of all motivated behavior is the reduction or alleviation of a drive state, mechanism through which reinforcement operates
Konrad Lorenz
ethology (animal behavior); studied imprinting and critical periods in geese
costa & mcrae
big 5 personality factors
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
stages of death and dying
Ewald Hering
opponent-process theory of color vision
Ernest Hilgard
divided consciousness theory of hypnosis, hidden observer
Lawrence Kohlberg
developmental psychology, stage theory of moral development (preconventional, conventional, postconventional)
H. Rorshach
Developed 'ink blot' projective personality tests
Mary Cover Jones
She supported systematic desensitization, maintained that fears can be unlearned
Philip Zimbardo
(Stanford Prison Experiment) how people behave in certain situations
Abraham Maslow
Hierarchy of Needs (Physiological Needs, Personal Safety, Seek Love, Seek Self Esteem, Self Actualization)
Robert Rosenthal
social psychology; focus on nonverbal communication, self-fulfilling prophecies; Studies: Pygmalion Effect-effect of teacher's expectations on students
Darley & Latane
social psychology; bystander apathy, diffusion of responsibility
John Garcia
Researched taste aversion. Showed that when rats ate a novel substance before being nauseated by a drug or radiation, they developed a conditioned taste aversion for the substance.
Eleanor Maccoby
explores the development of children's social behavior as it relates to gender, family functioning, and parental child-rearing methods
Carl Jung
expanded/ modified Freud's views of unconscious, proposing concepts of personal unconscious, collective unconscious, and archetypes
Darley, Latame
studied bystander effect, diffusion of responsibility
David McClelland
included research into motivation and entrepreneurship
James Olds
discovered pleasure centers of the brain
Karen Horney
Critical of Freud; said that personality is continually molded by fears and impulses
Walter Mischel
people don't act w/ predictable consistency
Karl Lashley
memories aren't in one specific place
David Rosenhan
did study in which healthy patients were admitted to psychiatric hospitals and diagnoses with schizophrenia; showed that once you are diagnosed with a disorder, the label, even when behavior indicates otherwise, is hard to overcome in a mental health setting
Phineas Gage
famous for having rod pass through head
William Sheldon
He linked personality to physique on the grounds that both are governed by genetic endowment. His types consisted of Endomorphic (large), Mesomorphic (medium) and Ectomorphic (skinny)
Robert Sternberg
He developed the Triarchic theory of intelligence- Academic problem solving intelligence, practical intelligence and creative intelligence
schacter & singer
2 factor theory of intelligence (2 ppl)
Noam Chomsky
He felt there are infinite number of sentences in language. Said Humans have inborn ability to develop language.
Lev Vygotsky
by age 7 kids no longer think aloud (internalize cultural language/rely on inner thoughts)
Irving Janis
attachment/love over food
stages of grief/dying
Sperry, Gazziniga
split-brain experiment
Edward Titchener
started structuralism
GAS (general adaptation syndrome)
Lewis Terman
studied gifted children
Elizabeth Loftus
1944-present; Field: memory; Contributions: expert in eyewitness testimony (false memories or misinformation effect); Studies: Reconstruction of Auto. Destruction, Jane Doe Case (repressed memories of Nicole Taus' sex abuse)
Aaron Beck
1921-present; Field: cognitive; Contributions: father of Cognitive Therapy, created Beck Scales-depression inventory, hopelessness scale, suicidal ideation, anxiety inventory, and youth inventories
Raymond Cattell
1905-1998; Field: intelligence; Contributions: fluid & crystal intelligence; 3 domains of personality sphere (personality, ability, & motivation), 16 Personality Factors (personality test)
William James
1842-1910; Field: functionalism; Contributions: studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; Studies: Pragmatism, The Meaning of Truth
Charles Spearman
1863-1945; Field: intelligence; Contributions: found that specific mental talents were highly correlated, concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a common core which he labeled 'g' (general ability)
William Wundt
1832-1920; Field: structuralism, voluntarism; Contributions: introspection, basic units of experience; Studies: 1st psychological laboratory in world at University of Leipzig
Leon Festinger
social cognition, cognitive dissonance; Study Basics: Studied and demonstrated cognitive dissonance
womb envy/parental indifference causes neurosis
Elain Hatfield
studied attraction and love
hearing and vision, Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision, color-specific cones
with Singer, Theory of Emotions
Erik Erikson
developmental psychology, psychosocial stage theory of development, neo-Freudian
Kenneth Clark
1914-2005; Field: social psychology; Contributions: research evidence of internalized racism caused by stigmatization; Studies: Doll experiments-black children chose white dolls
Jean Piaget
cognitive psychology; created a 4-stage theory of cognitive development, said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth (assimilation and accommodation)
formation of identity in adolescents (4types)
L.L. Thurstone
splitter, seven primary mental abilities
Gordon Allport
social psychology, complexity and persistence of prejudice, trait theorist
Carl Rogers
treatment of psychological disorders, personality, humanistic psychologist--person (client)-centered therapy and unconditional positive regard, self theory of personality, intro'd humanism
Studied activities of neurons in visual cortex
BF Skinner
behaviorism; created operant chamber (Skinner's box) - released rewards and proved operant conditioning
Alfred Binet
pioneer in intelligence (IQ) tests, designed a test to identify slow learners in need of help-not applicable in the U.S. because it was too culture-bound (French)
Robert Zajonc
motivation; believes that we invent explanations to label feelings
being sane in insane places; study showed danger of labels
Ivan Pavlov
known for the classical conditioning in dogs- an unconditional stimulus naturally elicits a reflexive behavior. When paired with a nuetral stimulus, it will soon elicit same response.
Hermann Rorschach
developed one of the first projective tests, the Inkblot test which consists of 10 standardized inkblots where the subject tells a story, the observer then derives aspects of the personality from the subject's commentary
Anna Freud
focused on child development and ego psych, modified and expanded work of father
David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel
sensation and perception, discovered feature detectors, groups of neurons in the visual cortex that respond to different types of visual stimuli
Howard Gardner
we don't have intelligence --> we have multiple (independent) intelligences
Young-Helmholz-Trichromatic theory of color vision
stated that there are three types of color receptors in the eye (Red green blue)
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