ap psych midterm review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
observer effect
answer
repressed
buried in the subconscious
chunking
(psychology) the configuration of smaller units of information into large coordinated units
standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group
sleep
periodic, natural loss of consciousness
serotonin
a neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep,arousal,and mood. appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons
genital stage
Freud's stage of psychosexual development when adult sexuality is prominent
Right Hemisphere
(perceptual tasks) recognizing faces, copying drawings, perceiving objects, understands simple requests, reading emotions
structuralism
school of psychology developed by Wilhelm Wundt
culture
the widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations.
Resistance
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
Cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating
Assimilation
Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
sensory adaptation
reduced responsiveness caused by prolonged stimulation
range
difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Nerves
Bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
interneurons
central n. system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
hill climbing
heuristic problem-solving strategy in which each step moves you progressively closer to the final goal
conduction
one type of hearing impairment caused by mechanical problems in the ear structures
Sleep Apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings. CO2 builds up; linked to obesity or some people naturally have it.
testwiseness
the ability to use the characteristics and format of a cognitive test to maximize one's score
echoic memory
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; sounds can be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
empiricism
the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation. Empiricism is crucial to the scientific method that psychology embraced in the late 19th century. To say that psycology is empirical means that its concludsions are based on direct observation rather than on reasoning, speculation, traditional beliefs, or common sense.
mental age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8
avoidant attachment
Strange Situation test: no attachment to mother, not frightened when stranger present
cognitive needs (HN)
needs for knowledge, understanding, novelty
intuition
quick, impulsive thought that does not make use of formal logic or clear reasoning.
psychology
the science that studies behavior and physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems
incentive
an external stimulus that tends to encourage behavior
Primary Reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Central Nervous Systems
The brain and spinal cord
fluid intelligence
the aspect of intelligence that involves the ability to see complex relationships and solve problems
sensory registers
temporary storage bins for sensory info
Theory
Aims to explain some phenomenon and allows researchers to generate testable hypotheses with the hope of collecting data that support the theory.
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
pons
(Latin for Bridge) has role in sleep patterns and alertness
perceptual expectancy
a readiness to perceive in a particular manner, induced by strong expectations.
Nervous System
A complex combination of cells whose primary function is to allow an organism to gain info about what is going on inside and outside the body.
convergence
the occurrence of two or more things coming together
intelligence test
a method for assessing an individuals' mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others
Action potential
A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
parietal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
Axon
The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Corpus Callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
Gender Stereotypes
widely held beliefs about females' and males' abilities, personality traits, and social behavior
in-group bias
tendency to favor one's own group over other groups
Collective Unconscious
according to Jung, the content of the unconscious mind that is passed down from geteration to generation in all humans
Eyewitness accounts
are affected by schemas and improve in accuracy with two witnesses
functional fixedness
tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use.
Parasympathetic nervous system
The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
law of similarity
gestalt principle that we tend to group similar objects
organ of Corti
organ located in the cochlea; contains receptors (hair cells) that receive vibrations and generate nerve impulses for hearing
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
opponent process theory
term used in both vision theory and emotion theory
blocking effect
The failure of a second CS to become classically conditioned because the first CS blocks the second one in eliciting a CR.
activation synthesis
the idea that dreams are the result of the cerebral cortex interpreting and organizing random flashes of brain activity, originating in the lower brain structures, especially the pons
serial position effect
this tells us that the best recall of a list of items will be of those at the beginning of the list
Resting Potential
positive-outside/negative-inside
wernicke's area
temporal lobe
acuity
sharpness of vision
Audition
The act of hearing.
survey
techinque for ascertaining self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people
capabilities of the nervous sysytem:
-input-processing-output
Darley/Latane
Social Psych-bystander intervention in emergencies
accomodation
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new info
industrial/organizational psychologist
applies psychological principles to the workplace to improve productivity and the quality of work life
DNA
a complex molecule containing genetic info that makes up the chromosomes.
convenient sample
populations that are conveniently available
Puberty
period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
Sensation
The process where our sensory receptors receive information (stimulus) from the outside environment.
Garcia
Learning-Gave animal specific food or drinks and then induced sickness or nausea several hours after the food or drink (conditioned taste aversion, Garcia effect)
amphetamines
drugs that stimuulate neural activity - speeded up body functions
crebral cortex
intricate fabric of interconnected nerual cells that covers the crebral hemispheres: body's ultimate control and information-processing center
self-actualization
the human need to fulfill one's potential
monism
seeing mind and body as different aspects of the same thing
teratogens
agents such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
associative learning
learning that certain events occur togetherevents may be two stimulior a response and its consequence
Acetylcholine
used by neurons in the autonomic system. movement and memory. linked to alzeiheimers
Reflexes
Controled by CNS, is an automatic responses to stimuli. 1 sensory and 1 motor neuron communicating through 1 interneuron in the spine. Also deals with pain.
reciprocity
liking those who show they like us
Cones
Retinal receptor cells in the fovea that detect color and work well in daylight situations.
concrete operational
7-11 thinking logically about concrete events
operant behavior
operates on the environment, producing consequences
barbituates
drugss that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
threshold
level of stimulation needed to elicit response
wave length
the distance, measured in the direction of propagation of a wave, between two successive points in the wave that are characterized by the same phase of oscillation.
variability
the extent to which scores differ from one another
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
critical thinking
the process of assessing claims or assertions and making judgments about them on the basis of well-supported evidence.
Myelin Sheath
fatty layer around some axons -> speeds up transmission time
external attributions
attributing the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints
Transduction
Conversion of one form of energy to another.
role
set of norms about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
control group
subjects and not exposed to a changing variable in an experiment
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males and for females.
Theory of Mind
People's ideas about their own and other's mental states - about their feelings, etc.
Parallel processing
The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously.
occipital lobes
portion lying at the back of head: visual area
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
blind spot
a small area on the retina that is insensitive to light due to the interruption, where the optic nerve joins the retina, of the normal pattern of light-sensitive rods and cones.
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