ap psychology - memory Flashcards

Terms Definitions
State-dependent
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amnesia
the loss of memory.
Misinformation Effect
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
Misinformation Affect
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
chunking
grouping information into meaningful units for easier handling by STM
LTM
The relatively permanent adn limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory.)
Primng
the implicit activation of particular associations in memory.
Cognition
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communication.
REpression
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mehcanims that banishes from sconsciouness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
retrograde amnesia
typically caused by head injury; forgetting what happened shortly before the accident (theory-memories aren't anchored in to LTM)
LTP
An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
Motivated forgetting/repression
Strong desire or motive to forget,usually experience is to disturbing/upsetting to remember
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless store-house of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Proactive Interference
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
Retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage
memory
the ability to remember the things that we have experienced, imagined, and learned
Language
Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
Incomplete Knowledge
When the subject retrieves information some feature of a concept but not enough to identify it.
Relearning
A memory measure that assess the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Acoustic Codes
Represent information as sequence of sounds.
Mood-congruent
memory is the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood.
Acoustic Encoding
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
Recall
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier.
method of loci
Uses a well-learned sequence of locations as a series of retrieval cues for the information to be recalled
semantic encoding
Although Jordan could not recall the exact words of a poem he had recently heard, he clearly remembered the meaning of the poem. This best illustrates the importance of:
recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
Deja Vu
The eerie sense that "I've experienced this before" Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
Echoic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
Context Effects
Putting yourself back in the context where you experienced something can prime your memory retrieval.
Explicit Memory
When the subject intentionally try to remember something and is consciously aware of doing so.
State-Dependent Memory
When the subject's internal state aid or hamper retrieval.
Iconic Memory
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli.
Flashbulb memory
an unusually vivid memory of an emotionally important moment in one's life.
Short Term Memory
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly.
encoding failure
After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Adam cannot form new memories. He can, however, remember his life experiences before the accident. Adam's memory difficulty clearly illustrates:
Fixation
The inability to see a problem from a new perspective.
Visual Encoding
When the image of the information is represented in the memory is a picture.
Sensory Memory
Very brief type of memory for sensory information located in your sense organs
Te eye holds onto an image for a few tenths of a second
The ear holds onto sound for 3 to 4 seconds
If enough attention is paid to sensory memory, it is locked into short term memory
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
Method of Savings (measure of forgetting)
Involves computing (processing) the difference between the number of trials needed to learn a list and the number of trailed needed to relearn it after some time has passed. (Basically the curve at which the subject forgets information over time.)
the serial position effect
At a block party, Cindi is introduced to eight new neighbors. Moments later, she can only remember the names of the first three and the last two neighbors. Her experience illustrates:
peg word
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Transcience
Storage decay over time.
Mnemonics
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Implicit Memories
Procedural memories; retention independent of conscious recollection. (ex: riding a bike)
Semantic Processing
Very strong, association
Information is stored based on what it means
Forgetting
Caused by decay, interference, or inability to access (retrieve) information
childhood amnesia
difficulty adults have remembering experiences for their first two years of life
Automatic Processing
Unconscious encoding of less significant information such as space, time, and frequency.
Semantic distinctiveness
Something that is unique/different will stand out
Also known as the Von Restorff Effect
memory construction
In one study, children were periodically asked whether they remembered going to the hospital with a mousetrap on their finger. This experiment best illustrated the dynamics of:
autobiographical memory
our recollection of events that happened in our life and when those events took place
Brown-Peterson Procedure
Research format that involves the subject looking at a stimulus/i, asked to recall something relevant but is not the stimulus/i, then asked to recall the original stimulus/i. Ex: If you're presented with a set of number, the conductor may ask you to count backward from 100 for 10 seconds and then ask you to recall the original set of numbers.
Retroactive interference
New information interferes with the retrieval of old information
Transfer-Appropriate Processing
Theory suggests that the critical determinant of memory is how the encoding process matches up with what is ultimately retrieved.
long-term potentiation
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
Spacing Effect
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention that is achieved through massed study or practice.
Semantic Codes
Represent an experience by its general meaning.
hippocampus
a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage.
Short-Term Memory
Memory that holds a few items briefly before it is stored and forgotten.
Parallel Distributed Model
New information not only provide new facts but is also integrated with existing knowledge of memories.
Elizabeth Loftus
The biggest name in the study of memory
Famous for her studies on eyewitness testimony and the misinformation effect
information processing (IP)
model to explain the way humans create memories; in code, store, and retrieve information like a computer
Recognition (in retrieval)
Retrieval aided by clues, such as the response alternative given on multiple-choice tests.
a conditioned fear of guns
Which of the following is most likely to be stored as an implicit memory?
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