AP Psychology 10 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
SAME
sensory=afferent
motor=efferent
Anxiety Disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Paranoid Schizophrenia
Delusions of Persecution
Repressed
Burried in the unconscious
phoneme
in language, smallest distinctive sound unit
coping
alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods.
Moratorium
according to Erikson, experimenting and wrestling with your identity
tardive dyskenia
involves involuntary, repetitive movements manifesting as a side effect of long-term or high-dose use of dopamine antagonists, usually antipsychotics
Affective disorders
psychological disturbances of mood
cerebellum
processes sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
standardization
Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested "standardization group".
retrograde amnesia
cannot remember old memories
Jean Piaget
cognitive psychology; created a 4-stage theory of cognitive development, said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth (assimilation and accommodation)
threshold
the minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gap between nuerons
Negative ions
potassium ions on the INSIDE
pons
connect the hindbrain with the midbrain and borebrain, involved in the control of facial expressions
endorphins
neurotransmitters that give one a feeling of well-being, euphoria or eliminate pain
Psychologist
Can provide personal therapy and proscribe medication
task leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
hypnosis
state with deep relaxation and heightened suggestibility
amygdala
two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
Pituitary Gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
reflex
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
Null Hypothesis: the assertion that the independent variable will have no effect on the dependent variable
Rods
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond.
maturity
-learning to repress powerful sexual and aggressive urges (to express them in proper contexts)
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between the two variables?
-.12
blindsight
a condition that a brain-damaged person may demonstrate by responding to a stimulus that is not consciously perceived.
Dissociation
The splitting of consciousness into two or more simultaneous streams of mental activity
limbic system
a donut ring-shaped of loosely connected structures located in the forebrain between the central core and cerebral hemispheres; consists of: septum, cingulate gyrus, endowments, hypothalamus, and to campus, and amygdala; associated with emotions and memories
companionate love
deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
Chunking
is the memory technique of organizing material into familiar, meaningful units.
Theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
Lawrence Kohlberg
PSYCHOLOGIST: his theory states there are 3 levels of moral reasoning and each level can be divided into 2 stages. 1. pre-conventional, 2. conventional, and 3. post-conventional. His theory focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behavior
pancreas
an endocrine gland located near the stomach that produces the hormone insulin
Semantic Encoding
Understanding what something means; a way of encoding that makes material easier to remember
Hardiness
based on Suzanne Kobasa's research, a stress-protective factor among people with high stress jobs involving their commitment, control, and challenges.
Experiment
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variables) By random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors
River Blindness
#1 most preventable cause of blindness
cornea
the transparent outer covering of the eye
Meditation
A state of consciousness often induced by focusing on a repetitive behavior, assuming certain body position, and minimizing external stimulation. It may be intended to enhance self-knowledge, well-being, and spirituality.
Thanatology
The study of the psychological and medical aspects of death and dying
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
inferential statistics
numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance
reciprocal determinism
Bandura's idea that though our environment affects us, we also affect our environment
Fetus
The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
Cardinal Trait
salient in an individual's personality and so dominant in the person's behavior that almost everything the person does somehow relates back to this trait.
Regression
A defense mechanism where one reverts to an earlier stage of development.
Stage 3&4 of sleep
slow-wave sleep (30 minutes)
secondary reinforcer
something neutral that when paired with a primary reinforcer, becomes rewarding
APA
Wilheim Wundt was the first president of the American Psychological Associations
Lobotomy
Destruction of brain tissue done on purpose in surgery
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviros followed be favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of over-eating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
agonists
molecules which mimic the shape of natural neurotransmitters (morphine)
double-blind procedure
technique in which neither the persons involved for those conducting the experiment know in what group to participate is involved
vestibular sense
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance
intelligence test
a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
superego
in Freud's theory, the part of the personality that acts as a moral guide telling us what we should and should not do
systematic desensitization
a type of counter conditioning that assoicates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
Homeostasis
Don't feel any needs; the goal of drive reduction
Self Serving Bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
Illusory Correlation
the perception of a relationship where there is none
reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
Expectancy Theories
Explanations of behavior that focus on people's expectations about reaching a goal and their need for achievement as energizing factors
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
Bottoms up processing
processes in perception that are driven solely by the information input, and that don't involve the organism's prior knowledge.
Authoritarian Family
parents attempt to control shape and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of children, child has now say
Reliability
The extent to which a test yields consistent results.
episodic memory
memories of specific events stored in a sequential series
referred
pain felt on surface of body, away from origin point
Zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
Passionate love
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
role
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those inteh position ought to behave
Language acquisition device
Chomsky's concept of an innate, prewired mechanism in the brain that allows children to acquire language naturally.
representative heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
posthypnotic amnesia
supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist's suggestion
Linear perspective
created by converging lines in the distance. It's an important feature allowing us to perceive depth and size.
Sexual Response Cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
Olfactory Bulb
the first brain structure to pick up smell information from the nose
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in good mood
statistical significance
(wtf again?) means that it is very unlikely that a particular finding occurs by chance alone
Terminal branches
The parts of a neuron that sends messages to other neurons or muscles or glands
iris
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
central nervous system (CNS)
The _____________consists of the brain and spinal cord; it is located at the center, or internal core, of the body. (p. 41)
endocrine system
the slow messenger system of the body; produces hormones that affect many bodily functions
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
CAT scan
x-ray photos of brain to search for damage
Information Processing
the means by which a person handles information they acquire.
In a recent car accident, Tamiko sustained damage to his right cerebral hemisphere. This injury is most likely to reduce Tamiko's ability to
facially express emotions
place theory
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated.
Wernicke's Area
* A brain area involved in language comprehension and expression, usually in the left temporal lobe
*Damage= can speak but can't understand
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
sensory cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations.
At 3 o'clock in the morning, John has already slept for 4 hours. As long as his sleep continues we can expect an increasing occurrence of
REM sleep
Threshold of Excitation
At or above this stage, a brief change occurs in the electrochemical balance inside and outside the neuron.
internal vs. external locus of control
(locus = location)
internals tend to attribute outcomes of events to their own control; externals attribute outcomes of events to external circumstances (luck)
agonists
mimic a neurotransmitter
neural networks
interconnected neural cells
Habituation
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation.
Re-extinction
behavior goes away again
Hormones
Chemical "messengers" produced by endocrine system
Transference
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
psychotherarpy
an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
John watson
behavioralist; determined that pscyhology should be based on observable phenomena
Middle Ear
vibrations of movable bones
Embryo
Embryonic StageWeeks 2-8 most important
Stressor
An environmental stimulus that affects an organism in physically or psychologically injurious ways, usually producing anxiety, tension, and physiological arousal
Plasticity
the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experiance on brain development
factor analysis
statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test
intelligence
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
echoic
term that describes memory of sounds
interneurons
central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
Behavioral Perspective
A contemporary perspective in psychology that advocates an expanded view of the principles that re the foundation of the school of behaviorism
cochlea
snail-shaped fluid-filled tube in the inner ear involved in transduction
top-down processing
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
applied research
scientific investigations intended to solve practical problems
Maslow's hierarchy
1)physiological needs 2)safety needs 3)Belongingness and love needs 4) Esteem needs 5)Self actualization
Nerves
Neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons connect the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
Vestibular system
sense of equilibrium/ body orientation, inner era has semicircular canals are right angles to each other, hair-like receptors are stimulated by acceleration of the head
Norepinephrine
Helps control alertness and arousal. Too little can lead to depression. Too much can lead to manic episodes.
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reuinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
Genome
The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes.
babbling
stage of language development at about 4 months when an infant spontaneously utters nonsense sounds
Variable
A factor or characteristic that is manipulated or measured in research
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
Deja Vu
the eerie sense that "i''ve experienced this before" cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
self-esteem
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
Fluid Intelligence
cognitive abilities requiring speed or rapid learning which tend to diminish with age
medulla
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
REM
describes sleep in which vivid dreams typically occur; this type of sleep increases as the night progresses while stage 4 sleep decreases
structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
independent
type of variable manipulated by the experimenter
Explicit Memory
the process in which people intentionally try to remember something
Paul Ekman
emotion; found that facial expressions are universal
Insight
A sudden and often novel realization the solution to a problem; it contrasts with the strategy based solutions.
chaining
using operant conditioning to teach a complex response by linking together less complex skills
round window
The membrane that relieves pressure from the vibrating waves in the cochlear fluid.
Halo Effect
The tendency to assign generally positive or generally negative traits to a person after observing one specific positive or negative trait, respectively.
Axon
The part of the neuron conducting messages down the length of the cell toward connections with other neurons; usually the longest opart of a neuron
Sensation
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
DSM-IV
A widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
syntax
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
Monocular Cues
distance cues, such as linear perspective and overlap available to either eye alone
heuristics
a strategy, guiding principle, or rule of thumb used in solving problems or making decisions
Aversive conditioning
A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
Melatonin
A hormone manufactured by the pineal gland that produces sleepiness
Overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements
Semantics
The study of the relation of words, signs, and symbols, and what they mean or denote
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Opponent-Process Theory
Explains how color is distinguished by ganglions and receptive fields
Fovea
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
Psychological causes of Aggression
Frustration, reinforcement for being aggressive, observing aggressive behavior, norms of some groups
synapse
junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
PET scan
a brain color scan Positron emission tomography
transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
antagonist
chemical that opposes the actions of a neurotransmitter
sensory interaction
the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste
Liking
is the pleasure you experience in the moment.
spontaneous recovery
when a single presentation of the conditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response, even though no presentation of either the conditioned stimulus or unconditioned stimulus has been present for a long period of time
circadian rhythm
the biological clock ;; regular bodily rhythms ( temp, wakefullness) that occur during a 24 hour cycle
dreams
occur most often during REM sleep; may be caused by activation-synthesis, or may be a way of cementing memories
colorblindness
the inability to see a certain color due to the lack of receptor that is denoted to that wavelength
Consciousness processes information serially
Description of consciousness suggester by the Core concept for this section.
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth or the relative distance of different objects
Inner Ear
The innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions; rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, and assesses conclusions.
learning curve
was first developed by Pavlov to describe the processes of: Acquisition, Extinction, Relearning, Reextinction and Spontaneous Recovery
Lucid Dreaming
Awareness that a dream is a dream while it is happening.
human factors psychology
a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.
two-word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.
Obsessive Compulsion Disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions
Action Potential
is part of the process that occurs during the firing of a neuron. part of the neural membrane opens to allow positively charged ions inside the cell and negatively charged ions out. This process causes a rapid increase in the positive charge of the nerve fiber
Conductive deafness
refers to injury to the outer or middle ear structures, such as the ear drum
The sexual response cycle
described by Masters and Johnson consists of four stages of bodily reac­tion: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. (p. 351)
reticular formation
a network of cells in the brainstem that filters sensory information and is involved in arousal and alertness
binocular cues
distance is up to 50 feet/ requires use of two eyes (helps estimate distance)
Slow-Wave Sleep
Sleep stages 3 and 4 which are accompanied by slow, deep breathing; a calm, regular heartbeat; and reduced blood pressure.
absolute threshold
the lowest level of stimulation that a person can detect.
*Means that the presence or absence of a stimulus is detected correctly half the time over many trials
psychopharmacology
study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
prototype
a mental image or best example of a category; matching new items to this provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing featured creatures to a typical bird, such as a robin).
The two facto theory of emotion was developed by
Stanley Schatner
sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.
Babbling stage
Beginning at 3 to 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate.
opponent-process theory of visual processing
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green; yellow-blue; white-black) e nable color vision. For ex., some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressant
drugs are highly addictive class and slow the operation of the CNS. like alcohol and sedatives.
hierarchy of needs theory by Abraham Maslow
The lowest needs must be met before higher-level needs may be met.  Levels include: physiological, safety and security, belonginess, cognitive, and self-actualization (realization of potential)
/ 191
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online