AP Psychology 12 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Latency
calm
'cooties'
distance cues
binocular; monocular
William Wundt
PSYCHOLOGIST: introspection-psychology become the scientific study of conscious experience (rather than science)
experiment parts
-develop hypothesis
-perform controlled test
-gather objective data
-analyze results
-publish, criticize, and replicate results
affective disorders
psychological disturbances of mood
CAT scan
slices, not as good
psychological disorder
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
broca's area
responsible for maing speech
Prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior
social leadership
Group-oriented leadership building teamwork, mediating conflict, and offering support
Tolerance
when an individual progressively experiences fewer effects for a given amount of the drug.
pons
helps regulate sleep and arousal;
retroactive interference
newly learned information interferes with the ability to recall previously learned information
PNS
peripheral nervous system; the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
aerobic exercise
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety
Central nervous system
Brain & Spinal chord
perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change
perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information
Embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
PYY
Digestive tract hormone; sends "I'm not hungry" signals to the brain.
Phobic disorders
Anxiety disorders characterized by excessive and irrational fear of, and consequent attempted avoidance of, specific objects or situations.
grouping
the perceptual tendency to organize information into coherent groups
Hierarchical Organization
Dividing information from braod concepts into narrow concepts
Ex: grocery list - catagorize by section e.g. meats
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
nerves
neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
Subliminal
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
sucking
(Reflexes)
-When an object is placed into a baby's mouth the infant will suck
Testes
Male reproductive gonads that secrete testosterone and produce sperm.
Nightmare
A frightening or unpleasant anxiety dream that occurs during REM sleep
genetic mapping
dividing the chromosomes into smaller fragments that can be characterized and ordered so that the fragments reflect their respective locations on specific chromosomes
punishment
take away (cell phone) or give something (spanking) for behavior to STOP!
Storage
is the passive process by which encoded information is maintained over time.
Case study
a descriptive research strategy in which one person is studied in great depth
altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Myelin sheath
Covers axon and speeds up transmission
Hawthorne Effect
People work harder because they're part of an experiment and feel special; shows need for a control group
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon).
Amacrine Cells
large retinal neurons that connect ganglion cells laterall; function is unknown
semantics
in language, study of meanings of words
Depressants
Drugs that slow down mental and physical activity by inhibiting transmission of nerve impulses in the CNS.
Lewis Terman
revised Binet's IQ test and established norms for American children; tested group of young geniuses and followed in a longitudinal study that lasted beyond his own lifetime to show that high IQ does not necessarily lead to wonderful things in life
stanger anxiety
fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning by about 8 months of age
kholer and koffka
gesalt psychology, studied how sensations are assembled in to perceptual experiences
sleep apnea
a disorder characterized by cessation of breathing during sleep
Attachment
An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
Reciprocal Determinism
attributes human functioning to the interactions of behaviors, personal variables, and the environment.
Authoritarian [parents]
Parenting style focused on excessive rules, rigid belief systems, and the expectation of unquestioned obedience.
Endorphins
like the drugs heroine and morphine, modulate pain, reduce stress and promote a sensation of floaty, oceanic calm. They also depress physical functions like breathing and may produce physical dependence
left hemisphere
better on tasks involving verbal processing, such as language, speech, reading, and writing.
Agonist
A drug that has chemical properties similar to a particular neurotransmitter and thus mimics the effects of the neurotransmitter
Amygdala
Part of limbic system involved in emotion and aggression
Phonemes
Basic units of sound in a language.
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock; any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response; is not a punishment.
modeling
a form of learning where individuals ascertain how to act or perform by observing another individual. Think of it this way, you may know how to tell a joke better because you have watched Jay Leno's standup routine on TV. Or, if you have ever felt uncomfortable at a party and someone gives you the advice of: "When in Rome, do as the Romans do"
forebrain
top of the brain which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex; responsible for emotional regulation, complex thought, memory aspect of personality
Intelligence Test
a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others using numerical scores
visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
latency stage
in Freud's theory, the stage, between age 5 and puberty, during which there is little psychosexual development
Phallic stage
pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings (3-6 years).
Placebo Effect
Therapy has no effect, but patient improves temporarily because he/she expected good things to happen
SVO [Subject-Verb-Object]
the word order subject verb object, such as English; SOV more common worldwide; all combination are found among the world's 5,000 languages
hypothesis testing
2nd step in scientific research, a tentative explanation for an observation,phenomenon, or scientific problem
parietal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
convolutions
the folds in the cerebral cortex that increase the surface area of the brain
fundamental attribution error
tendency, when observing behavior of others, to attribute too much to dispositional factors and too little to situational factors
Language-Acquisition Device (LAD)
hypothetical construct of an innate human predisposition to acquire language.
Fluid Intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 184)
Three parts of Triarchic Theory
Analytical, Creative, and Practical.
representativeness heuristic
judging a situation based on how similar the aspects are to prototypes the person holds in his mind
statistical significance
statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Acoustic encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
manifest content
-actual events in the dream (the word-for-word narrative)
Neuronal networks
Memory circuits in the brain that consist of complicated etworks of nerve cells.
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one's own group
Weber's law
Discovered by Ernest Heinrich Weber in 1834. States that the smallest detectable change (jnd) in intensity is a constant fraction of the level of stimulation; "Weber's law explains why you don't notice your headlights are on in the daytime;” principal that, to perceive the difference between two stimuli, they must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than by a constant amount).
Natural Selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
Frequency Theory
Theory that pitch is determined by the frequency by which hair cells in the cochlea fire
X Chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two of these chromosomes; males have one. One of these chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
Two-Word Stage
beginning about age 2 the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two word statements
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
grammar
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
__________ is an anxiety disorder in which the person experiences uncontrollable and repetitive thoughts (obses­sions) and actions (compulsions), (p. 469)
human factors psychology
a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and psychical environments can be adapted to human behaviors
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
achievement test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned.
selective attention
-focusing on only one thing at a time
-focused awareness on a limited aspect of all that is capable of experiencing
Psychological differences between the genders are
far outweighed by gender similarities
relative clarity
objects that appear hazy are seen as farther away.
Glial Cells
*Cells in the nervous system that are not neurons but that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
*Make up the myelin sheath on axons
*Repair and rebuild
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
Serial Position Effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
organ of Corti
A sensory receptor in the cochlea that transduces sound waves into coded neural impulses.
An extensive survey revealed that children with relatively high self-steem tend to picture God as kind and loving, whereas those with lower self-esteem tend to perceive God as angry. The researchers concluded that the children's self esteem had apparently
assuming that correlation proves causation
Trichromatic Theory of Vision
The theory that there are three kinds of cones in the retina, each of which responds primarily to a specific range of wavelengths
Francis Bacon & John Locke
The English scientists who helped form modern empiricism.
lesion
tissue destruction
John Watson
founded behavior
sensation
stimulation of sense organs.
Parasomnia
sleepwalking and talking; envresis-bed wetting.
episodic
personal experiences linked with specific times and places
-subset of declarative memory
Intuition
An immediate, automatic, and effortless feeling or thought.
Episodic Memory
Memory of personal experiences
Jean Piaget
developmental psychology, cognitive development
Touch
newborns and touch
pressure, warmth, cold, and pain
rubber-hand illision-illustrates top-down processing
Pre-conscious
defined as memories and stored knowledge, easily recalled
Discrimination
Behavior targeted at individuals or groups and intended to hold them apart and treat them differently.
nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Contingency
The dependent relationship between the occurrence of an unconditioned stimulus and the occurrence of a conditioned stimulus.
Deinstitutionalization
Policy of removing patients, whenever possible, from mental hospitals
Extinction
The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
androgyny
the presence of desirable masculine and feminine characteristics in one individual
Down Syndrome
condition of retardation and associated by physical disorders caused by an extra chromosone in one's genetic makeup
aggression
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
hypothalamus
regulation of basic biological needs (4 F's: fighting, fleeing, feeding, mating (f******))
Insomnia
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
Overconfidence
Overestimate ability to predict future events
Can be caused by hindsight, we think we know more than we do
Everyone thinks they are a safe driver
Everyone thinks they are good looking
Can mess up experiments because you find all evidence to prove you right
neurons
individual cells that are the smallest units of the nervous system
preconscious
level of consciousness that is outside awareness but contains feelings and memories that can easily be brought into conscious awareness
Evolutionary approach
behavior patterns have evolved to solve adaptive problems; natural selection favors behaviors that enhance reproductive success (Buss, Daly, Wilson, Cosmides, Tooby)
frequency
theory of hearing which states that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the tone's frequency
Primary Reinforcers
Those stimuli that are immediately rewarding.
intimacy
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
Psychoanalysis
An approach to psychology based on Freud's assertions whcih emphasizes unconcious process
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
Teratogens
Any chemicals and viruses that cross the mother's placenta and can harm the developing embryo or fetus.
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
Prejudice
#19, Pg. 714, chpt. 18.
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude towards a group and its members; usually/generally involves stereotype beliefs.
generativity
in Erikson's theory, a process of making a commitment beyond oneself to family, work, society, or future generations
romantic love
a temporary and highly emotional condition based on infatuation and sexual desire
Emotional intelligence
The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
acquisition
a process in classical conditioning by which the association of a neutral stimulus with a natural stimulus is first established
Companionate Love
The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
systematic desensitization
behavioral therapy used to cure phobias by gradually reducing bond between S (ex spider) and response (fear) by slowing introducing the stimulus and getting the phobic to relax. a heirarchy of fear is also used.
assimilation; accommodation
incorporating new info into existing theories is to ___ as modifying existing theories in light of new info is to ____
integrated perspective that focuses on biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis for a given behavior or mental processes.
biopsychosocial approach
Placebo
Pill with no medicine in it
Placebo Effect-just thinking you are receiving treatment may make you feel better
formal operations
One of Piaget's stages; includes the ability to use abstract thinking
Extinction (classical conditioning)
The procedure of withholding the unconditioned stimulus and presenting the conditioned stimulus alone, which gradually reduces the probability of the conditioned response
token economy
a technique in operant conditioning by which desired behaviors receive forms of currency that can be exchanged for rewards
*Corpus Callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
experiment
is a research method in which a researcher directly manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) in order to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable); experiments therefore make it possible to establish cause-effect relationships
brainstem
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
recall
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
implicit memory
a non conscious recollection of prior experience that is revealed indirectly, by its effects on performance
observational learning
learning that takes place when one observes and models the behavior of others
Standard Deviation
computed measure of how much scores vary about the mean score.
Reciprocity
liking that occurs as a response to behavior indication that another likes us
catatonic
a form of schizophrenia in which the patient has muscle immobility and does not move
TV/Violence Correlation
homicide rate doubled with the spread of television between 1954 and 1974
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 326)
periodic limb movement disorder
sleep disorder characterized by rhythmic spasms of the arms and legs during sleep
Wernicke's area
temporal lobe of left hemisphere. Cant understand but can speak. Comprehension of language.
structured interviews
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 502)
Groupthink
The tendency of people in a group to seek concurrence with one another when reaching a decision, rather than effectively evaluating options.
motion parallax
a depth cue in which the relative movement of elements in a scene gives depth information when the observer moves relative to the scene
Encoding specificity principle
The doctrine that memory is encodes and stored with soecific sues related to the content in which it was formed. The more closely the retrieval cues match the form in which the information was encoded, the better it will be remembered
Predictive Validity
The extent to which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict. Also called criterion-related validity.
depth perception
the ability to judge the distance of objects
Bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
problem solving
a form of thinking focused on finding a solution to a particular problem
Fragile X Syndrome
Caused by a defect in chromosome 23
behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 096)
the study of the links between biology and behavior
Biological psychology
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
group of abnormalities that occur in the babies of mothers who drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy
short term memory (STM)
a memory storage system that holds about 7 items for up to 20 seconds before the material is transferred to long-term memory or is forgotten
Babinsky reflex
in response to a touch on the bottom of the foot, the infant's toes will splay outward and curl in.
Kohlbergs theory of moral reasoning
1. preconventional 2. conventional 3. postconventional
Stages 3 and 4 sleep
stage of sleep associated with delta waves
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