Flight Instructor Oral Exam Guide - FOI Flashcards

Terms Definitions
A1. Human Behavior
Product of factors that cause people to act in predictable ways
A2. Human Needs
PSBSCAS
Physiological - food, air, water, rest
Security
Belonging
Self-esteem
Cognitive
Aesthetic
Self-actualization - born to do
A3. What are Defense Mechanisms
Subconscious, ego-protecting reactions to unpleasant situations
A4. What are the 8 Common Defense Mechanisms
FPCRRRDD

Fantasy
Projection
Compensation
Rationalization
Repression
Reaction Formation
Denial
Displacement
A5. What is anxiety
Worrying
A6. How can an instructor help students counter their anxieties?
1) Reinforce their enjoyment of flying
2) Explain that everyone has fears
A7. What are several examples of Normal and Abnormal reactions to stress
Normal - Responds rapidly and exactly w/ in the limits of their training. Thinks rationally

Abnormal - Response may be abscent, inadequate, illogical (laughing)
A8. What are the 3 basic elements of communication
Source - speaker
Symbols - words, signs
Receiver - student
A9. What are the three characteristics of receivers that instructors must understand in order to effectively communicate with their students
AAE

Abilities
Attitudes
Experiences
'10' A10. What are the barriers to effective communication
COIL

Confusion b/w the symbol and the symbolized object
Overuse of abstractions - a/c vs. plane
Interference - physical (hearing), psychological (fear), environment (noise)
Lack of common experience
'11' A11. How can flight instructors develop their instructional communication skills?
RILIQ

Role playing
Instructional communication -ensure commo has taken place
Listening
Instructional enhancement
Questioning
'12' B1. What is the definition of the term "Learning Theory"
Learning theory is the body of principles that explain how people acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes.
'13' B2. How can you tell if your student has "learned" what you have taught?
There is a change in behavior through experience.
14 B3. Behaviorism
is based off of PRAISE
15 B3. Cognitive Theory
is focused on what is going on inside the students mind
16 B4. Why are perceptions so important to learning?
we learn throught our perceptions
17 B5. What factors affect perception?
PGSET

Physical organism
Goals and values
Self-concept - self-image
Element of threat
Time and opportunity
18 B6. Define "Insight"
grouping of perceptions into meaningful wholes
19 B7. How can an instructor ensure that a student develops insight during flight training?
1) help the student understand how each PIECE RELATES
2) Provide a secure non-threatening environment
3) Help the student acquire and maintain a favorable self-concept
'20' B8. How does a student acquire knowledge
MUA

Memorization
Understanding
Application
21 B9. How can an instructor help students in acquiring knowledge?
practice, questions, problems, demonstrate
22 B10. What are the principles (Laws) of learning
REEPIR

Readiness
Exercise
Effect
Primacy
Intensity
Recency
23 B11. What are the 3 Domains of learning
CAP

Cognitive - thinking
Affective - feelings
Psychomotor - doing
24 B12. What are the 4 basic levels of learning
RUAC

Rote
Understanding
Application
Correlation
25 B13. Briefly describe the 6 major levels of the COGNITIVE DOMAIN
KCAASE

Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Analaysis - breaking it into pieces
Synthesis - putting pieces together towards something new
Evaluation
26 B14. Briefly describe the five levels of the AFFECTIVE DOMAIN
RRVOC

Receiving
Responding
Valuing - accepting
Organization - rearrangement of value system
Characterization - incorporates value into life; most complex level
27 B15. Briefly describe the 7 educational objective levels of the PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN
PSG MCAO

Perception - awareness
Set - relates cues/knows
Guided Response - performs as demonstrated
Mechanism - performs simple acts well
Complex Overt Response - performs complex acts
Adaptation - modifies
Origination - new movement patterns, creativity
28 B16. What are the 4 practical instructional levels of the psychomotor domain?
OIPH

Observation
Imitation
Practice
Habit

Cognitive
Associative - no longer memorized steps
Automatic Response Stage - muscle memory
29 B17. what are the basic characteristics of learning?
PEMA

Purposeful
Experience
Multifaceted - verbal, conceptual, perceptual, emotional elements happening symultaneously
Active Process
'30' B18. What are the 3 stages of Acquiring Skill Knowledge?
CAA

Cognitive
Associative - no longer memorized steps
Automatic Response - muscle memory
31 B19. How does a student become proficient at a skill?
Practice
32 B20. Why is it important for a flight instructor to always make certain that a student is aware of their progress?
Primacy
33 B21. What is a learning plateau and how can an instructor help a student who has reached a learning plateau?
Learning slows or stops.
1) move to a new subject
2) reteach the subject better
34 B22. 3 types of practice
DBR

Deliberate
Blocked
Random - best retention
35 B23. How much practice is needed by a student in order to attain proficiency?
All students vary. Experience plays a big part.
Less experienced students can't study as long. It can become UNPRODUCTIVE and HARMFUL
36 B24. What is scenario-based training and what makes a good scenario?
HEE, CTC

Highly structured script, using real-world experiences, in an aviation environment

Clear set of objectives
Taylored to the students needs
Capitalizes on the local environment

not a Test
not a Single correct answer
answer is not Obvious
engages all 3 learning Domains
is Interactive
does not promote Errors
promotes Situational Awareness
37 B25. For SBT instruction to be effective, what information should the instructor and student establish before training begins?
DOPP

Scenario DESTINATION(S)
Desired student learning OUTCOME(S)
Desired level of student PERFORMANCE
POSSIBLE inflight scenario Changes
38 B26. What are the characteristics of a good scenario?
TSODIESA

Not a TEST
No SINGLE correct answer
Answer is not Obvious
Engages all 3 learning DOMAINS
Is INTERACTIVE
Should not promote ERRORS
Should promote Situational Awareness
39 B27. What are the 2 kinds of errors?
Slip
Mistake
'40' B28. Although ERRORS cannot be eliminated entirely, what are several ways to REDUCE them?
PTCUDR
ERRA

Learning and PRACTICE
Taking TIME
CHECKING for ERRORS
USING REMINDERS
DEVELOPING ROUTINES
RAISING AWARENESS
41 B29. How can a student making errors be a valuable learning resource?
Great opportunity to learn from your own mistakes.
42 B30. Define "Memory"
ESR
The ability for people to ENCODE, STORE, and RETRIEVE information.
43 B31. What are the 3 types of memory
SENSORY - environment
SHORT-TERM
LONG-TERM
44 B32. The ability to RETRIEVE KNOWLEDGE from memory depends on what 2 things?
FR

Frequency
Recency
45 B33. What are several THREATS TO REMEMBERING what has been learned during training?
FU

Lack of FREQUENCY
Lack of UNDERSTANDING
46 B34. Why do students FORGET INFORMATION?
FIRR

FADING
INTERFERENCE - another experience overshadowes it
REPRESSION or suppression
Retrieval failure
47 B35. What principles FACILITATE RETENTION of learning or remembering?
PAASR

PRAISE
ASSOCIATION
ATTITUDES
SENSES
REPETITION
48 B36. What is meant by the term "TRANSFER of LEARNING"
Ability to apply 1 skill to another
49 B37. When learning 2 skills, when does a positive tran)sfer of learning occur?
When does a negative transfer of learning occur
Positive transfer - occurs if the learning of (Skill A helps to learn Skill B)
Negative transfer - occurs if the learning of (Skill A hinders learning of Skill B)
'50' B38. Why does use of the building block technique of instruction ensure proper habits and correct techniques are learned during training?
b/c your learning builds off of the base of what you have already learned. E.G. Straight Climb to Climbing Turn
51 B39. How can an instructor help students remember what they have learned?
MR FUMIC

-Discuss the types of MEMORY
-Explain the effect of RECENT and FREQUENT usage of knowledge
-Explain the effect of UNDERSTANDING
-Encourage MNEMONICS
-Explain benefits of INTERVAL studying
-Explain disadvantage of CRAMMING
52 C1. What are the 4 TEACHING SKILLS that are essential to being an effective instructor?
SPAM

Subject matter expert
People skills
Assessment skills
Management skills
53 C2. Explain the 4 basic steps involved in the teaching process.
PPARE

Preparation
Presentation
Application
Review and Evaluate
54 C3. Describe the steps necessary in preparing a lesson plan.
ORMOAL

Determine the OBJECTIVE.
RESEARCH the subject.
Determine the METHOD OF INSTRUCTION and lesson plan format.
Decide how to ORGANIZE the lesson.
ASSEMBLE training aids.
Write the LESSON plan outline.
55 C4. What elements should a lesson plan contain?
CLAASEC

CONTENT
LESSON objective
student ACTIONS
instructor ACTIONS
SCHEDULE
EQUIPMENT
COMPLETION standards
56 C5. The traditional organization for a lesson consists of what steps?
IDC, AMO

INTRODUCTION- (Attention, Motivation, Overview)

DEVELOPMENT

CONCLUSION
57 C6. Define Course of training
A complete series of studies leading to a certificate or degree
58 C6. Define Curriculum
SPECIALIZED COURSES
E.G. flight school - AV classes
59 C6. Define Training Course Outline
Content in a particular course ( stating specific criteria & objectives)
'60' C6. Syllabus
general summary of a course of study
61 C7. What are the initial steps in planning a course of training?
DDI

Determine the overall objectives and standards
Design and develop the blocks of learning
Identify the blocks of learning
62 C8. What are the 2 types of training objectives used in aviation training?
PERFORMANCE-based
consist of (description, conditions, and criteria)

DECISION-based
teaches critical thinking (risk management, ADM)
63 C9. What are several common teaching methods an instructor may use to present instructional material?
LGEDDP

Lecture method
Guided discussion
E-learning (computer)
Demonstration-performance
Drill and Practice
Problem-based learning
64 C10. Describe the "LECTURE" method of teaching
This method is usually delivered by an instructor to a group of students with the use of instructional aids and training devices.
65 C11. Explain the "GUIDED DISCUSSION" method of teaching.
based on the student having some knowledge before hand.

Goal is to draw out what the students know.
66 C12. What is meant by the term "E-LEARNING"
Any type of learning through electronic devices.

easily updated, cost competitive.
67 C13. Explain the "DEMONSTRATION-PERFORMANCE" method of teaching.
Based on the principal that PEOPLE LEARN BY DOING.

Instructor does then student attempts to do.
68 C14. What are the 5 essential phases of the demonstration-performance method of teaching?
EDSIE

Explanation
Demonstration
Student performance
Instructor supervision
Evaluation
69 C15. Describe the "DRILL and PRACTICE" method of teaching.
Based on the principle of "EXERCISE"

things most often repeated are best remembered.
'70' C16. Describe the "PROBLEM-BASED" approach to teaching.
Problem-based learning confronts students with problems that are encountered in real life that have multiple solutions.

benefit of PBL helps learners gain a DEEPER UNDERSTANDING
71 C17. What are the 3 types of problem-based instruction?
SCC

"SCENARIO BASED" - Highly structured script, using real-world experiences, in an aviation environment

"COLLABORATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING" - 2 or more people working together to solve a problem

"CASE STUDY" - a written or oral account of a real-world situation that
72 C18. Explain the difference between instructional aids and training media.
INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS - assist, but are not self supporting

TRAINING MEDIA - any PHYSICAL means that communicates an instructional message. e.g. "FTD"
73 C19. When planning a lesson, what general guidelines may be used concerning the use of INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS?
CROS

CLEARLY establish the lesson objectives
RESEARCH the material
ORGANIZE the material
SELECT the ideas to be supported w/ instructional aids.
74 C20. When is use of INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS appropriate?
LPIP

For LONG segments of a technical description
When a POINT is too complex to put into words
When INSTRUCTORS find themselves forming visual images
When students are puzzled by the explanation
75 C21. Why are instructional aids useful in helping students learns?
AKICS

Gain students ATTENTION
Increase students KNOWLEDGE
Provide an accurate visual IMAGE
CLARILY info
Teach more in a SHORTER time
76 D1. What term describes the process of gathering measurable information to meet evaluation needs?
Assessment.
77 D2. Why is an effective assessment an important component in the teaching and learning process?
PPCE

Provides info on how well the student is "PROGRESSING"
Provides info on how to improve "PERFORMANCE"
Contributes to "ADM"
Provides info on where more "EMPHASIS" is needed
78 D3. What are the general characteristics of an effective assessment?
COCO S FAT

COMPREHENSIVE - covers everything (weaknesses & strengths)
OBJECTIVE - based on performance not biases
CONSTRUCTIVE - points toward improvement
ORGANIZED - in any order that is logical
SPECIFIC - should have not doubt about +/- of assessment
FLEXIBLE - allow instructor to say or omit points
ACCEPTABLE - student must accept instructor, then advice
THOUGHTFUL - show care for students feelings
79 D4. Briefly describe the 2 broad categories of assessment.
TA

TRADITIONAL ASSESSMENT - (T-F, matching, multiple choice) rote, understanding levels

AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT - real world tasks (involves critical thinking)
'80' D5. What is one of the most common forms of assessment used by instructors?
DIRECT or INDIRECT questioning

Incorporates 'fact' or 'HOTS' which is more in depth analytical questions
81 D6. What are the characteristics of effective questions that instructors must consider?
ACAOP

APPLY to the subject
CLEAR & concise
ADAPTED to the Ability, Experience, and Stage of training (AES)
ONE idea - 1 of 5w's or How (not a combination)
CHALLENGING
82 D7. Effective oral assessment should never include what types of questions?
POTBIT

PUZZLE - questions w/ many subparts
OVERSIZE - too general
TOSS UP - q's w/ more than 1 correct answer
BEWILDERMENT - q's w/ unclear content
IRRELEVANT - q's that are unrelated
TRICK - q's that cause them to think they are in a battle of wits
83 D8. Describe the characteristics of an effective critique.
PIRI considers

PERFORMANCE - good, bad, overall
INDIVIDUAL PARTS
RELATIONSHIP of individual parts
IMMEDIATELY - do critique after event
84 D9. Name several useful methods for "CRITIQUE" of a student's performance.
WIISSS

WRITTEN critique - 3 advantages (time, keep, records)
INDIVIDUAL STUDENT critique by another student - allow the group to accept more ownership of the ideas
INSTRUCTOR/student critique - Instructor leads a group, carefully controlled, organized w/ clear purpose
SELF critique - must be controlled by instructor
STUDENT-LED critique - generates student interest. not efficient w/ inexperienced students
SMALL GROUP critique - class is divided into small groups, each assigned a specific are to analyze. Combined report results in a comprehensive assessment.
85 D10. During
a student's training, when is an assessment more appropriate than a critique?
Initial stages - suggestions are more valuable than a grade.

Provides a check on teaching effectiveness.
86 E1. What are the 5 main responsibilities of all flight instructors w/ regards to the learning process?
DEEP H

DEMAND adequate standarts of performance
EMPHASIZE the positive - + INST = + learning
ENSURE aviation safety
Provide adequate instruction
Help students learn - keep if fun and interesting
87 E2. What additional responsibilities do flight instructors have?
SESE

See & avoid
Evaluate student piloting ability
Additional training and endorsements
Supervision of pilot
88 E3. Why is it important to use standards of performance when training students?
Provides satisfaction for students & helps them learn.
89 E4. How can an instructor ensure that an adequate level of instruction is provided to a student?
No 2 students are alike. Taylor teaching techniques to students needs by 1st analyzing the student's personality, thinking, and ability. (PTA)
'90' E5. When should application of the minimum standards in the practical test standard be introduced during flight training?
Later in the training.
91 E6. How can an instructor minimize student frustrations during training?
MACK BAG

MOTIVATE students
APPROACH students as individuals
CRITICIZE constructively
KEEP students informed
BE consistent
ADMIT errors
GIVE credit when due
92 E7. To teach effectively, why must an instructor make sure that a student's physiological needs are met 1st?
Student will react Physiological needs before he can learn.

Don't ignore his reactions, help him student understand which will help him overcome the nature of these causes.
93 E8. Professionalism can be achieved by practicing certain characteristics when teaching a student. What are some of those characterisitcs?
DAPP S

Demeanor- attitude
Acceptance of the student - accept them as they are
Personal appearance and habits - image
Proper language - profane language leads to distrust
Sincerity - Care
94 E9. When evaluating a student's ability to perform a maneuver or procedure, an instructor should follow what general guidelines?
Established standards modified by experience.

Student's mastery of the elements rather than overall performance.

Keeping the student informed of their progress by identifying deficiencies and suggesting corrective actions.

Not immediately correcting student errors.
95 E10. How can an instructor ensure that a student has developed the ability and required skills necessary to conduct their first solo flight safely?
(Preflight - engine start - engine shutdown)
Performs consistently, without the need from the instructor.
96 E11. Describe your overall responsibility as an instructor regarding endorsements and recommendations for knowledge tests and practical tests.
Serious responsibility
FAA holds me accountable
It's a breach of faith w/ the applicant
97 E12. How can instructors improve upon their effectiveness and qualifications as teachers?
CONTINUE EDUCATION - Pilot Proficiency Awards Program, Gold Seal CFI certificate, FAA Safety Seminars, AOPA

Maintain current publications - FAR/AIM, PTS, handbooks
98 E13. What are the 2 main reasons why an instructor should maintain a source of current information and publications?
Keep it

Interesting
&
Current
99 F1. What are several common obstacles to learning during flight instruction?
FAA DWI

Feeling of unfair treatment
Apathy due to inadequate instruction
Anxiety
Discomfort, illness, fatigue, dehydration
Worry or lack of interest
Impatience to proceed to more interesting operations
'100' F2. Explain the (Demonstration-Performance) technique of flight instruction.
People learn by doing.

EDSIE

Explanation, demonstration, student performance, instructor supervision, and evaluation.
101 F3. Explain the "positive exchange of flight controls" concept as it relates to flight training.
There must always be a (Clear Understanding) of who has the controls

there should be a (Preflight Briefing)

Positive 3 step process
102 F4. Describe the 3 step process used for the positive exchange of flight controls.
You have the controls
I have the controls
You have the controls

Visual check is recommended
103 F5. What is the "sterile cockpit rule"?
14 CFR 121.542
Refrain from nonessential activities during critical phases of flight
104 F6. What is the purpose of using distractions during flight training?
To determine the student can COPE with distractions while continuing to fly the aircraft safely.
105 F7. How should an instructor incorporate the use of distractions into flight instruction?
Teaching the student to divide his attention.

Drop a pencil
Determine heading to A/P using a Chart
E6B
106 F8. Define the term "Integrated flight instruction"
Using INSTRUMENTS & VISUAL REFERENCE from the time a maneuver is first introduced.
107 F9. What are the different methods a flight instrucor can use to assess piloting ability?
There are many types.
Review
Collaborative assessment
Written tests
Performance-based tests
108 F10. Why is the assessment of piloting ability so essential to the teaching precess?
It shows how much a person learned.
It gives guidance on where to improve.
109 F11. Define the term "ADM"
A systematic approach to determine the best course of action.
'110' F12. What are the basic steps to the decision making process?
DEFINE - the problem
CHOOSE - a course of action
IMPLEMENT - the decision
EVALUATE - the outcome
111 F13. What 2 models are commonly used when practicing ADM?
DECIDE
3P
112 F14. The DECIDE model of decision making involves which elements?
DETECT
ESTIMATE
CHOOSE
IDENTIFY
DO
EVALUATE
113 F15. Describe the 3P model used in ADM.
(PERCEIVE, PROCESS, PERFORM)
in reference to
PAVE - Pilot, A/C, enVironment, Ext psi
CARE - Consequences, Alternatives, Reality, Ext psi
TEAM - Transfer, Eliminate, Accept, Mitigate
114 F16. Explain how often a pilot should use the 3P model of ADM throughout a flight.
Continiousely
115 F17. What are 3 types of stressors that can affect pilot performance?
Physical - environment
Physiological - fatigue
Psychological - family issues
116 G1. Define the term "risk management"
Weighing 'Risk' vs. 'Reward'
117 G2. What 4 basic principles of risk management are useful when trying to determine what constitues an ''acceptable'' level of risk?
Accept no unnecessary risk
Make risk decisions at the appropriate level
Accept risk when benefits outweigh the costs
Integrate risk management at all levels.
118 G3. What is the risk management process?
Process to reduce risk
119 G4. Explain the 6 steps involved in risk management process.
IDENTIFY - the hazard
ASSESS - the risk
ANALYZE - the risk control measures
Make - control decisions
Implement - risk controls
Supervise and Review
'120' G5. How will you implement the risk management process?
Apply the steps in sequence.
121 G6. How is the level of risk posed by a given hazard measured?
Severity & Probability
122 G7. The likelihood "probability" of an event occuring can be classified into what 4 categories?
IROP

Improbably
Remote
Occasional
Probable
123 G8. The severity of an event occurring can be classified into what 4 categories?
Negligible
Marginal
Critical
Catastrophic
124 G9. How can the use of the "PAVE" checklist during flight planning help a pilot to assess and mitigate risk?
A simple acrynm to identify risk.
125 G10. Explain how the IMSAFE checklist can help a pilot mitigate risk.
Illness
Medication
Stress
Alcohol
Fatigue
Eating
126 G11. Define the term "Single-Pilot Resource Management"
Art of managing all outside and inside resources prior to and during flight.
127 G12. What practical application provides a pilot with an effective method to practice SRM?
"Five P' checklist
Plan,
Plane,
Pilot,
Passengers,
Programming
128 G13. Explain the use of the "Five P' model to assess risk associated with each of the five factors
Plan - wx, ppc
Plane - airworthy, structural,
Pilot - IMSAFE
Passengers - nervous quiet, new or experienced
Programming - autopilot, GPS
129 G14. When is the use of the "Five P" checklist recommended
Key points / as needed

preflight, pre takeoff, hourly
130 G15. How will you assess your student's SRM Skills?
By having him explain and practice.
/ 130
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