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|A1. Human Behavior||
Product of factors that cause people to act in predictable ways
|A2. Human Needs||
Physiological - food, air, water, rest
Self-actualization - born to do
|A3. What are Defense Mechanisms||
Subconscious, ego-protecting reactions to unpleasant situations
|A4. What are the 8 Common Defense Mechanisms||
|A5. What is anxiety||
|A6. How can an instructor help students counter their anxieties?||
1) Reinforce their enjoyment of flying
2) Explain that everyone has fears
|A7. What are several examples of Normal and Abnormal reactions to stress||
Normal - Responds rapidly and exactly w/ in the limits of their training. Thinks rationally
Abnormal - Response may be abscent, inadequate, illogical (laughing)
|A8. What are the 3 basic elements of communication||
Source - speaker
Symbols - words, signs
Receiver - student
|A9. What are the three characteristics of receivers that instructors must understand in order to effectively communicate with their students||
|'10' A10. What are the barriers to effective communication||
Confusion b/w the symbol and the symbolized object
Overuse of abstractions - a/c vs. plane
Interference - physical (hearing), psychological (fear), environment (noise)
Lack of common experience
|'11' A11. How can flight instructors develop their instructional communication skills?||
Instructional communication -ensure commo has taken place
|'12' B1. What is the definition of the term "Learning Theory"||
Learning theory is the body of principles that explain how people acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes.
|'13' B2. How can you tell if your student has "learned" what you have taught?||
There is a change in behavior through experience.
|14 B3. Behaviorism||
is based off of PRAISE
|15 B3. Cognitive Theory||
is focused on what is going on inside the students mind
|16 B4. Why are perceptions so important to learning?||
we learn throught our perceptions
|17 B5. What factors affect perception?||
Goals and values
Self-concept - self-image
Element of threat
Time and opportunity
|18 B6. Define "Insight"||
grouping of perceptions into meaningful wholes
|19 B7. How can an instructor ensure that a student develops insight during flight training?||
1) help the student understand how each PIECE RELATES
2) Provide a secure non-threatening environment
3) Help the student acquire and maintain a favorable self-concept
|'20' B8. How does a student acquire knowledge||
|21 B9. How can an instructor help students in acquiring knowledge?||
practice, questions, problems, demonstrate
|22 B10. What are the principles (Laws) of learning||
|23 B11. What are the 3 Domains of learning||
Cognitive - thinking
Affective - feelings
Psychomotor - doing
|24 B12. What are the 4 basic levels of learning||
|25 B13. Briefly describe the 6 major levels of the COGNITIVE DOMAIN||
Analaysis - breaking it into pieces
Synthesis - putting pieces together towards something new
|26 B14. Briefly describe the five levels of the AFFECTIVE DOMAIN||
Valuing - accepting
Organization - rearrangement of value system
Characterization - incorporates value into life; most complex level
|27 B15. Briefly describe the 7 educational objective levels of the PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN||
Perception - awareness
Set - relates cues/knows
Guided Response - performs as demonstrated
Mechanism - performs simple acts well
Complex Overt Response - performs complex acts
Adaptation - modifies
Origination - new movement patterns, creativity
|28 B16. What are the 4 practical instructional levels of the psychomotor domain?||
Associative - no longer memorized steps
Automatic Response Stage - muscle memory
|29 B17. what are the basic characteristics of learning?||
Multifaceted - verbal, conceptual, perceptual, emotional elements happening symultaneously
|'30' B18. What are the 3 stages of Acquiring Skill Knowledge?||
Associative - no longer memorized steps
Automatic Response - muscle memory
|31 B19. How does a student become proficient at a skill?||
|32 B20. Why is it important for a flight instructor to always make certain that a student is aware of their progress?||
|33 B21. What is a learning plateau and how can an instructor help a student who has reached a learning plateau?||
Learning slows or stops.
1) move to a new subject
2) reteach the subject better
|34 B22. 3 types of practice||
Random - best retention
|35 B23. How much practice is needed by a student in order to attain proficiency?||
All students vary. Experience plays a big part.
Less experienced students can't study as long. It can become UNPRODUCTIVE and HARMFUL
|36 B24. What is scenario-based training and what makes a good scenario?||
Highly structured script, using real-world experiences, in an aviation environment
Clear set of objectives
Taylored to the students needs
Capitalizes on the local environment
not a Test
not a Single correct answer
answer is not Obvious
engages all 3 learning Domains
does not promote Errors
promotes Situational Awareness
|37 B25. For SBT instruction to be effective, what information should the instructor and student establish before training begins?||
Desired student learning OUTCOME(S)
Desired level of student PERFORMANCE
POSSIBLE inflight scenario Changes
|38 B26. What are the characteristics of a good scenario?||
Not a TEST
No SINGLE correct answer
Answer is not Obvious
Engages all 3 learning DOMAINS
Should not promote ERRORS
Should promote Situational Awareness
|39 B27. What are the 2 kinds of errors?||
|'40' B28. Although ERRORS cannot be eliminated entirely, what are several ways to REDUCE them?||
Learning and PRACTICE
CHECKING for ERRORS
|41 B29. How can a student making errors be a valuable learning resource?||
Great opportunity to learn from your own mistakes.
|42 B30. Define "Memory"||
The ability for people to ENCODE, STORE, and RETRIEVE information.
|43 B31. What are the 3 types of memory||
SENSORY - environment
|44 B32. The ability to RETRIEVE KNOWLEDGE from memory depends on what 2 things?||
|45 B33. What are several THREATS TO REMEMBERING what has been learned during training?||
Lack of FREQUENCY
Lack of UNDERSTANDING
|46 B34. Why do students FORGET INFORMATION?||
INTERFERENCE - another experience overshadowes it
REPRESSION or suppression
|47 B35. What principles FACILITATE RETENTION of learning or remembering?||
|48 B36. What is meant by the term "TRANSFER of LEARNING"||
Ability to apply 1 skill to another
49 B37. When learning 2 skills, when does a positive tran)sfer of learning occur?
When does a negative transfer of learning occur
Positive transfer - occurs if the learning of (Skill A helps to learn Skill B)
Negative transfer - occurs if the learning of (Skill A hinders learning of Skill B)
|'50' B38. Why does use of the building block technique of instruction ensure proper habits and correct techniques are learned during training?||
b/c your learning builds off of the base of what you have already learned. E.G. Straight Climb to Climbing Turn
|51 B39. How can an instructor help students remember what they have learned?||
-Discuss the types of MEMORY
-Explain the effect of RECENT and FREQUENT usage of knowledge
-Explain the effect of UNDERSTANDING
-Explain benefits of INTERVAL studying
-Explain disadvantage of CRAMMING
|52 C1. What are the 4 TEACHING SKILLS that are essential to being an effective instructor?||
Subject matter expert
|53 C2. Explain the 4 basic steps involved in the teaching process.||
Review and Evaluate
|54 C3. Describe the steps necessary in preparing a lesson plan.||
Determine the OBJECTIVE.
RESEARCH the subject.
Determine the METHOD OF INSTRUCTION and lesson plan format.
Decide how to ORGANIZE the lesson.
ASSEMBLE training aids.
Write the LESSON plan outline.
|55 C4. What elements should a lesson plan contain?||
|56 C5. The traditional organization for a lesson consists of what steps?||
INTRODUCTION- (Attention, Motivation, Overview)
|57 C6. Define Course of training||
A complete series of studies leading to a certificate or degree
|58 C6. Define Curriculum||
E.G. flight school - AV classes
|59 C6. Define Training Course Outline||
Content in a particular course ( stating specific criteria & objectives)
|'60' C6. Syllabus||
general summary of a course of study
|61 C7. What are the initial steps in planning a course of training?||
Determine the overall objectives and standards
Design and develop the blocks of learning
Identify the blocks of learning
|62 C8. What are the 2 types of training objectives used in aviation training?||
consist of (description, conditions, and criteria)
teaches critical thinking (risk management, ADM)
|63 C9. What are several common teaching methods an instructor may use to present instructional material?||
Drill and Practice
|64 C10. Describe the "LECTURE" method of teaching||
This method is usually delivered by an instructor to a group of students with the use of instructional aids and training devices.
|65 C11. Explain the "GUIDED DISCUSSION" method of teaching.||
based on the student having some knowledge before hand.
Goal is to draw out what the students know.
|66 C12. What is meant by the term "E-LEARNING"||
Any type of learning through electronic devices.
easily updated, cost competitive.
|67 C13. Explain the "DEMONSTRATION-PERFORMANCE" method of teaching.||
Based on the principal that PEOPLE LEARN BY DOING.
Instructor does then student attempts to do.
|68 C14. What are the 5 essential phases of the demonstration-performance method of teaching?||
|69 C15. Describe the "DRILL and PRACTICE" method of teaching.||
Based on the principle of "EXERCISE"
things most often repeated are best remembered.
|'70' C16. Describe the "PROBLEM-BASED" approach to teaching.||
Problem-based learning confronts students with problems that are encountered in real life that have multiple solutions.
benefit of PBL helps learners gain a DEEPER UNDERSTANDING
|71 C17. What are the 3 types of problem-based instruction?||
"SCENARIO BASED" - Highly structured script, using real-world experiences, in an aviation environment
"COLLABORATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING" - 2 or more people working together to solve a problem
"CASE STUDY" - a written or oral account of a real-world situation that
|72 C18. Explain the difference between instructional aids and training media.||
INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS - assist, but are not self supporting
TRAINING MEDIA - any PHYSICAL means that communicates an instructional message. e.g. "FTD"
|73 C19. When planning a lesson, what general guidelines may be used concerning the use of INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS?||
CLEARLY establish the lesson objectives
RESEARCH the material
ORGANIZE the material
SELECT the ideas to be supported w/ instructional aids.
|74 C20. When is use of INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS appropriate?||
For LONG segments of a technical description
When a POINT is too complex to put into words
When INSTRUCTORS find themselves forming visual images
When students are puzzled by the explanation
|75 C21. Why are instructional aids useful in helping students learns?||
Gain students ATTENTION
Increase students KNOWLEDGE
Provide an accurate visual IMAGE
Teach more in a SHORTER time
|76 D1. What term describes the process of gathering measurable information to meet evaluation needs?||
|77 D2. Why is an effective assessment an important component in the teaching and learning process?||
Provides info on how well the student is "PROGRESSING"
Provides info on how to improve "PERFORMANCE"
Contributes to "ADM"
Provides info on where more "EMPHASIS" is needed
|78 D3. What are the general characteristics of an effective assessment?||
COCO S FAT
COMPREHENSIVE - covers everything (weaknesses & strengths)
OBJECTIVE - based on performance not biases
CONSTRUCTIVE - points toward improvement
ORGANIZED - in any order that is logical
SPECIFIC - should have not doubt about +/- of assessment
FLEXIBLE - allow instructor to say or omit points
ACCEPTABLE - student must accept instructor, then advice
THOUGHTFUL - show care for students feelings
|79 D4. Briefly describe the 2 broad categories of assessment.||
TRADITIONAL ASSESSMENT - (T-F, matching, multiple choice) rote, understanding levels
AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT - real world tasks (involves critical thinking)
|'80' D5. What is one of the most common forms of assessment used by instructors?||
DIRECT or INDIRECT questioning
Incorporates 'fact' or 'HOTS' which is more in depth analytical questions
|81 D6. What are the characteristics of effective questions that instructors must consider?||
APPLY to the subject
CLEAR & concise
ADAPTED to the Ability, Experience, and Stage of training (AES)
ONE idea - 1 of 5w's or How (not a combination)
|82 D7. Effective oral assessment should never include what types of questions?||
PUZZLE - questions w/ many subparts
OVERSIZE - too general
TOSS UP - q's w/ more than 1 correct answer
BEWILDERMENT - q's w/ unclear content
IRRELEVANT - q's that are unrelated
TRICK - q's that cause them to think they are in a battle of wits
|83 D8. Describe the characteristics of an effective critique.||
PERFORMANCE - good, bad, overall
RELATIONSHIP of individual parts
IMMEDIATELY - do critique after event
|84 D9. Name several useful methods for "CRITIQUE" of a student's performance.||
WRITTEN critique - 3 advantages (time, keep, records)
INDIVIDUAL STUDENT critique by another student - allow the group to accept more ownership of the ideas
INSTRUCTOR/student critique - Instructor leads a group, carefully controlled, organized w/ clear purpose
SELF critique - must be controlled by instructor
STUDENT-LED critique - generates student interest. not efficient w/ inexperienced students
SMALL GROUP critique - class is divided into small groups, each assigned a specific are to analyze. Combined report results in a comprehensive assessment.
85 D10. During
a student's training, when is an assessment more appropriate than a critique?
Initial stages - suggestions are more valuable than a grade.
Provides a check on teaching effectiveness.
|86 E1. What are the 5 main responsibilities of all flight instructors w/ regards to the learning process?||
DEMAND adequate standarts of performance
EMPHASIZE the positive - + INST = + learning
ENSURE aviation safety
Provide adequate instruction
Help students learn - keep if fun and interesting
|87 E2. What additional responsibilities do flight instructors have?||
See & avoid
Evaluate student piloting ability
Additional training and endorsements
Supervision of pilot
|88 E3. Why is it important to use standards of performance when training students?||
Provides satisfaction for students & helps them learn.
|89 E4. How can an instructor ensure that an adequate level of instruction is provided to a student?||
No 2 students are alike. Taylor teaching techniques to students needs by 1st analyzing the student's personality, thinking, and ability. (PTA)
|'90' E5. When should application of the minimum standards in the practical test standard be introduced during flight training?||
Later in the training.
|91 E6. How can an instructor minimize student frustrations during training?||
APPROACH students as individuals
KEEP students informed
GIVE credit when due
|92 E7. To teach effectively, why must an instructor make sure that a student's physiological needs are met 1st?||
Student will react Physiological needs before he can learn.
Don't ignore his reactions, help him student understand which will help him overcome the nature of these causes.
|93 E8. Professionalism can be achieved by practicing certain characteristics when teaching a student. What are some of those characterisitcs?||
Acceptance of the student - accept them as they are
Personal appearance and habits - image
Proper language - profane language leads to distrust
Sincerity - Care
|94 E9. When evaluating a student's ability to perform a maneuver or procedure, an instructor should follow what general guidelines?||
Established standards modified by experience.
Student's mastery of the elements rather than overall performance.
Keeping the student informed of their progress by identifying deficiencies and suggesting corrective actions.
Not immediately correcting student errors.
|95 E10. How can an instructor ensure that a student has developed the ability and required skills necessary to conduct their first solo flight safely?||
(Preflight - engine start - engine shutdown)
Performs consistently, without the need from the instructor.
|96 E11. Describe your overall responsibility as an instructor regarding endorsements and recommendations for knowledge tests and practical tests.||
FAA holds me accountable
It's a breach of faith w/ the applicant
|97 E12. How can instructors improve upon their effectiveness and qualifications as teachers?||
CONTINUE EDUCATION - Pilot Proficiency Awards Program, Gold Seal CFI certificate, FAA Safety Seminars, AOPA
Maintain current publications - FAR/AIM, PTS, handbooks
|98 E13. What are the 2 main reasons why an instructor should maintain a source of current information and publications?||
|99 F1. What are several common obstacles to learning during flight instruction?||
Feeling of unfair treatment
Apathy due to inadequate instruction
Discomfort, illness, fatigue, dehydration
Worry or lack of interest
Impatience to proceed to more interesting operations
|'100' F2. Explain the (Demonstration-Performance) technique of flight instruction.||
People learn by doing.
Explanation, demonstration, student performance, instructor supervision, and evaluation.
|101 F3. Explain the "positive exchange of flight controls" concept as it relates to flight training.||
There must always be a (Clear Understanding) of who has the controls
there should be a (Preflight Briefing)
Positive 3 step process
|102 F4. Describe the 3 step process used for the positive exchange of flight controls.||
You have the controls
I have the controls
You have the controls
Visual check is recommended
|103 F5. What is the "sterile cockpit rule"?||
14 CFR 121.542
Refrain from nonessential activities during critical phases of flight
|104 F6. What is the purpose of using distractions during flight training?||
To determine the student can COPE with distractions while continuing to fly the aircraft safely.
|105 F7. How should an instructor incorporate the use of distractions into flight instruction?||
Teaching the student to divide his attention.
Drop a pencil
Determine heading to A/P using a Chart
|106 F8. Define the term "Integrated flight instruction"||
Using INSTRUMENTS & VISUAL REFERENCE from the time a maneuver is first introduced.
|107 F9. What are the different methods a flight instrucor can use to assess piloting ability?||
There are many types.
|108 F10. Why is the assessment of piloting ability so essential to the teaching precess?||
It shows how much a person learned.
It gives guidance on where to improve.
|109 F11. Define the term "ADM"||
A systematic approach to determine the best course of action.
|'110' F12. What are the basic steps to the decision making process?||
DEFINE - the problem
CHOOSE - a course of action
IMPLEMENT - the decision
EVALUATE - the outcome
|111 F13. What 2 models are commonly used when practicing ADM?||
|112 F14. The DECIDE model of decision making involves which elements?||
|113 F15. Describe the 3P model used in ADM.||
(PERCEIVE, PROCESS, PERFORM)
in reference to
PAVE - Pilot, A/C, enVironment, Ext psi
CARE - Consequences, Alternatives, Reality, Ext psi
TEAM - Transfer, Eliminate, Accept, Mitigate
|114 F16. Explain how often a pilot should use the 3P model of ADM throughout a flight.||
|115 F17. What are 3 types of stressors that can affect pilot performance?||
Physical - environment
Physiological - fatigue
Psychological - family issues
|116 G1. Define the term "risk management"||
Weighing 'Risk' vs. 'Reward'
|117 G2. What 4 basic principles of risk management are useful when trying to determine what constitues an ''acceptable'' level of risk?||
Accept no unnecessary risk
Make risk decisions at the appropriate level
Accept risk when benefits outweigh the costs
Integrate risk management at all levels.
|118 G3. What is the risk management process?||
Process to reduce risk
|119 G4. Explain the 6 steps involved in risk management process.||
IDENTIFY - the hazard
ASSESS - the risk
ANALYZE - the risk control measures
Make - control decisions
Implement - risk controls
Supervise and Review
|'120' G5. How will you implement the risk management process?||
Apply the steps in sequence.
|121 G6. How is the level of risk posed by a given hazard measured?||
Severity & Probability
|122 G7. The likelihood "probability" of an event occuring can be classified into what 4 categories?||
|123 G8. The severity of an event occurring can be classified into what 4 categories?||
|124 G9. How can the use of the "PAVE" checklist during flight planning help a pilot to assess and mitigate risk?||
A simple acrynm to identify risk.
|125 G10. Explain how the IMSAFE checklist can help a pilot mitigate risk.||
|126 G11. Define the term "Single-Pilot Resource Management"||
Art of managing all outside and inside resources prior to and during flight.
|127 G12. What practical application provides a pilot with an effective method to practice SRM?||
"Five P' checklist
|128 G13. Explain the use of the "Five P' model to assess risk associated with each of the five factors||
Plan - wx, ppc
Plane - airworthy, structural,
Pilot - IMSAFE
Passengers - nervous quiet, new or experienced
Programming - autopilot, GPS
|129 G14. When is the use of the "Five P" checklist recommended||
Key points / as needed
preflight, pre takeoff, hourly
|130 G15. How will you assess your student's SRM Skills?||
By having him explain and practice.