AP Psychology 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Somnambulism
Sleepwalking
control group
no treatment
serotonin
neurotransmitter that LSD resembles
IQ
(Intelligence Quotient) Mental Age/Chronological Age x 100 (so IQ of 100 is completely average)
Brainstem
survival - breath, heart
Rehearsal
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
inhibitory
inhibit next cell from firing
Basic Memory Process
encoding, storage, retrieval
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 383) ex: How fast did the cars SMASH into each other? -Elizabeth Loftus
Proactive interference
previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information.
Acetylcholine
Activates motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles, contributes to the regulation of attention, arousal, and memory, some stimulated by nicotine
Etiology
Causal relationships of diseases; theories regarding how the specific disease or disorder began
Noam Chomsky
language development; disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite # of sentences in a language, humans have an inborn native ability to develop language
Psychophysiological Illness
literally, "mind-body" illness; any sress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches
B.F. Skinner
BEHAVIORIST; pioneer in operant conditioning; behavior is based on an organism's reinforcement history; worked with pigeons
trait
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
Confirmation Bias
Searching for information that supports what you already believe and ignoring contradictory information
memory
functions associated with this include encoding, storage and retrieval
nerves
neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axon, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands and sense organs
frequency
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second)
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior naturally without trying to manipulate and control the situation
cognition
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering
habituation
when organisms stop paying attention to stimuli that are often repeated and are of little or no importance
Median
the middle score in a distribution
Frontal lobe
fine motor movement, controlling emotion planning, speech
Sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
Astigmatism
irregular cornea shape/ lens shape; distorts/ blurs image at retina
Meditation
state of awareness that alternates from different consciousnesses/contemplation. like from outward awareness to inward awareness.
task leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
mean
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
dyslexia
a learning disability that results in difficulty reading and writing
Conditioned Stimulus
The originally neutral stimulus that, through pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a conditioned response.
identity
one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
Theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principals that organizes and predicts observations
lateral fissure
large fissure that runs horizontally and marks the division bewteen the frontal and temporal lobe
Pituitary Gland
The "master gland," regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
closure
closing up or completing figures that are not, in fact, complete
hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain events or emotions will occur
hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
prejudice
a negative attitude formed toward an individual or group without sufficient experience with the person or group
Variable-Interval Schedule
a partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response after varying periods of time
sensory neurons
afferent neurons; neurons that carry messages from sensory organs to the brain and spinal cords
absolute threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
relearning
a memory measure that assessed the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
synapse
a region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received - encompassing the axon terminal of a neuron that releases neurotransmitters in response to an impulse - an extremely small gap across which the neurotransmitters travel, and the adjacent membrane of an axon - dendrite - or muscle or gland cell with the appropriate receptor molecules for picking up the neurotransmitters.
Fetish
A condition in which arousal and/or sexual gratification is attained through inanimate objects (shoes, pantyhose) or non-sexual body parts (feet, hair). Is considered a problem when the object is needed in order to obtain arousal or gratification and the individual can not can not complete a sexual act without this object present.
Phonemic encoding
emphasizes what a word sounds like
psychoanalysis (psychological persective)
explain personality and behavior; develop techniques for teaching mental disorders
****Sigmund Freud
focused attention
selective attention, trying to attend to one task over other
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
Color Constancy
Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
Insomnia
A condition in which a person regularly experiences an inability to fall asleep, to stay asleep, or to feel adequately rested by sleep
gene
a DNA segment on a chromosome that controls transmission of traits
Parietal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receieves sensory input for touch and body position
Algorithm
A method for attacking a problem which is assured of success; often involves repetitive operations which survey the possibilities at each step.
Applied Research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
brightness constancy
the tendency to perceive objects as retaining their brightness even when they are viewed in dim light
Schedules of Reinforcement
Predetermined plans for timing the delivery of reinforcement.
Emotion-Focused Coping
Dealing with stress by learning to accept the existing situation; best when problem cannot be solved.
Fluid Intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
3 parts of a neuron
cell body, axon, dendrites
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
variable-ratio schedule
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
neural impulse
action potential; the firing of a nerve cell; the entire process of the electrical charge (message/impulse) traveling through inner on; can be as fast as 400 fps (with myelin) or 3 fps (no myelin)
Linear Perspective
a monocular cue for perceiving depth; the more parallel lines converge, the greater their perceived distance
Centration
The Piagetian term for the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem and neglect other important features
sensory memory
information from the senses that gets held in sensory registers for a fraction of a second
dependent variable
The experimental factor that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
double blind
this term describes an experiment in which neither the subjects nor the experimenter knows whether a subject is a member of the experimental group or the control group
warning system
pain carried by large nerve fibers; sharp, bright, fast pain that tells your body damage may be occuring (ex. knife cut)
Vestibular sense
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance.
distal stimulus
-external source of stimulation as it exists in the world
Broca's Area
What controls speech muscles via the motor cortex?
spillover effect
when one's emotions affect the way they perceive other events.
basic trust
according to Erickson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthing; said to be formed during infancy by appropraite experiences with responsive caregivers.
fixation (Freud)
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved
Sexual Identity
the sex with which a person identifies, or is identified. The term is used by some recent writers in the general area of sexology
One's self-identity as homosexual, heterosexual, or bisexual.
longitudinal study
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
hindsight bias
tendency after the fact to think you knew what the outcome would be
functional fixedness
tendency to think of things only of their usual functions; an important to solving problems
Classical Conditioning
A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli
Cross-sectional method
seeks at a given time to compare groups of people of various ages on similar tasks
Respondent behavior
___________ is that which occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus, (p. 232)
hemispheres
we have two, right and left, and some brain functions seem to centered in one or the other
Fixed Ratio Schedule
A schedule in which the reinforcement is presented after a specific number of responses.
acuity
a term that refers to the quality of vision-specifically, to the eye's ability to make spatial discriminations
refractory period
the resting period for a neuron, when it pumps the positively charged ions back out.
relative deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whome one compares oneself.
glial cells (glia)
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
Visual angle
The angle of an object relative to an observer's eyes. This angle can be determined by extending two lines from the eye—one to one end of an object and the other to the other end of the object. Because an object's visual angle is always determined relative to an observer, its visual angle changes as the distance between the object and the observer changes.
Height in Plane
more distant objects are higher in the field than nearer objects
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Erikson's stage in which a toddler learns to exercise will and to do things independently; failure to do so causes shame and doubt
relative motion (motion parallax)
As we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move
phobia
fear
Metacognition
thinking about thinking
biological rhythm
periodic physiological fluctuations
schemata
plural form of schema
Zygote
0-2 weeks
55% dont implant
Forebrain
Near what becomes the face.
behavior
how we learn observable responses
hindbrain
division which includes the cerebellum, Pons, and medulla; responsible for involuntary processes: blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, breathing, sleep cycles
Environment
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
transference
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Dementia
Impairment of mental functioning and global cognitive abilities in otherwise alert individuals, causing memory loss and related symptoms and typically having a progressive nature
Visual Encoding
The encoding of picture images.
Retrieval
Getting material out of long-term memory
attachment
theory developed by Harlow; types include secure and insecure
attitudes
positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought.
tolerance
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the use to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Graphical record of brain-wave activity obtained through electrodes placed on the scalp and forehead
social leadership
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
Imprinting
the process of forming attachments during the critical period
perception
The process of organizing and interpreting information received from the outside world.
Reinforcer
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
Eardrum (tympanum)
tightly stretched, highly sensitive membrane
Test-Retest Reliability
Estimated by comparing subjects' scores on two administrations of a test. (Take the test twice).
problem-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress directly--by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
endocrine
the body's slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
correlational research
establish the relationship between two variables
Independent variable
the factor being manipulated and tested by the investigator.
Heuristic
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
Wernicke's Area
responsible for interpretation of both written and spoken speech;understanding language and making meaningful sentences
spine
the protective bony column that houses the spinal cord
Need for Achievement
Want to accomplish something significant, do better than others, be an expert
Teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
SQ3R
a study method incorporating 5 steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review
fetus
a stage in human development extending from about ten weeks after conception to birth
Introspection
study within yourself; used by Wilhem Wundt
ethnocentrism
tendency to believe that one's own group is the standard, the reference point by which other people and groups should be judged
Difference Threshold
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference. (Also called just noticeable difference or jnd.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 201)
active listening
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Carl Rogers' client-centered therapy
displacement
-things not currently present in time and here and now
-can talk about there and then rather than just here and now
genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; they are segments of the DNA molecules capable of synthesizing a protein.
Introversion
The tendency to focus energy inward resulting in decreased social interaction.
Scientific method
method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses
Hertz
Unit for frequency: 1 cycle per second. High frequencies = high pitch.
afferent neurons
sensory neurons, transmit impulse from sensory receptors to spinal cord/ brain
continuous reinforcement
the operant procedure of reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Behaviorial Genetics
an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of individual differences in behavior and personality
social-cultural perspective
the approach to psychology that focuses on how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
Premack Principle
more probable behaviors will reinforce less probable behaviors.
 
if a student wants to perform a given activity, the student will perform a less desirable activity to get at the more desirable activity.
cerebral cotrex
wrinkled, outer layer of the brain
functional MRI (fMRI)
shows brain activity at higher reolution than PET scan when changes in oxygen concentration in neurons alters its magnetic qualities
Gender Identity
one's sense of being male or female
Efferent nerves
Nerves that transmit impulses from the central nervous system to the end origins
Catatonic Schizophrenia
A type of schizophrenia marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity.
Ganzfeld procedure
a method of studying telepathy in which a sender attempts to mentally transmit information to a receiver who is in a sensory-restricted environment in another room
facial-feedback theory
theory that emotion comes from facial expressions
Barnum Effect
You believe a phony horoscope with vague personality descriptions was written specifically for you
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect.
Behavior Therapy
techniques are based primarily on the principles of classical or operant conditioning as well as on observational learning from models.
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
barbiturates
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
observer bias
expectations of an observer which may distort an authentic observation
Basilar Membrane
The cellular membrane in which the hair cells are embedded. It moves in respose to pressure waves in the cochlea, initiating a chain of events that results in a nerve impulse traveling to the brain
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 026)
Mental Retardation
Refers to low levels of measured intelligence, including low adaptive competence, or ability to get along in the everyday world.
Cognitive Consistency
the match between a person's thoughts and behaviors.
place theory
higher and lower tones excite specific areas or "places" of the cochlea
Iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
Opponent-Process Theory
-assume that the visusal system treats pairs of colors as opposing/antagonistic
-pairs: red/green, yellow/blue, black/white
-if one sensor is activated, its pair is inhibited
Mnemonic Devices
adding meaning or imagery to an otherwise random list of items that may be difficult to remember.
frontal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; invloved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
posthypnotic suggestion
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
self-efficacy
(from Bandura) how much are you in control of your life; an individual’s estimate of his ability to cope with a situation, and outcome expectancy; an individual’s estimate of the likelihood of certain consequences occurring. This combination of assessments of potential threat and coping resources determines how anxious an individual may become in a given situation.
Recall
is a measure of retention in which the person must remember, with few retieval cues, information learned earlier.
terminal buttons
swellings at the tips of the axons from which neurotransmitters are dispatched into the synapse
Framing
the way an issue or a questions is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments; 90% chance of living vs. 10% chance of dying
depth perception
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional; allows us to judge distance
Aversion Therapy
An aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undesirable response. Example: Alcoholic's favorite drinks paired with a drug that make them puke. Highly controversial.
Extrinsic motivation
___________ is the desire to perform a behavior in order to obtain a reward or avoid a punishment, (p. 239)
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue encasing a neuron's axon that speeds transmission
reticular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
the stroop effect
is a demonstration of the reaction time to a task. When the name of a color is printed in a color not denoted by the color, naming the word takes longer as opposed to if they were congruent
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram—"go car"—using mostly nouns and verbs.
Daniel Goleman
Wrote the book Emotional IQ and argued that emotional IQ can enhance the prediction of success in school, at work, and in interpersonal relationships.
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
Physical dependence
A condition in which a person had physically adapted to a drug so that he or she must take the drug regularly in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
Postsynaptic potential (PSP)
A voltage change at the receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane.
external validity
The degree to which the results of an experiment may be applied to the real world (generalizability)
Normal vision
rays of light form a clear image of the retina of the eye
parietal lobe
lobe lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; touch and body position
validity
(different kinds)
If a test tests what it is meant to test, it is valid.
Content - a test represents what has been taught
Criterion-Related - a test result is compared to another similar test
Construct - if an abstract quality (ie: creativity) is being tested, a variety of related variables are tested to prove a theory
one word stage
...
Cochlea
Snail-shaped, fluid-filled, organ where transduction takes place
Biological: Psychological perspective that searches for causes of behavior in functioning of gene, the brain and nervous system and the endocrine (hormone system)
Edward Thorndike
behaviorism; Law of Effect-relationship between behavior and consequence
conflict
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
shaping
positively reinforcing closer and closer approximation of a desired behavior to teach a new behavior
Sociocultural approach
psychological perspective concerned with how cultural differences affect behavior
sociocultural view
a psychological perspective emphasizing the importance of social interaction, social learning, and a cultural perspective
Neural Networks
*Interconnected neural cells.
*With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results.
*The more complicated the task, the more neuronetworks needed.
Charles Spearman
intelligence; found that specific mental talents were highly correlated, concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a common core which he labeled 'g' (general ability)
normal curve
(normal distribution) a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean, or average (68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it), and fewer and fewer near the extremes.
Conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
dendrite
bushy, branching extentions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
extinction
in classical conditioning, the process of eliminating the previously acquired association of the conditioned stimulus and conditioned response
subliminal
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
Depressants
psychoactive drug that inhibits the functioning of the central nervous system; includes alcohol, barbiturates, and GHB
Priming
_______ is the activation, often unconscious, of a web of associations in memory in order to retrieve a specific memory, (p. 269)
Withdrawal
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.
Cognitive Psychology
emphasizes mental processes in perception, language, memory, problem solving, and other areas of behavior
-Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky
gender-typing
the acquisition of a traditional feminine or masculine gender role.
nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Storage
the retention of encoded information over time.
concrete operational
(Piaget's stages of Cognitive Development)
-6-11 years
-chold begins to understand concepts of conservation
-ability to understand several dimensions at the same time
-greater understanding of the feelings and perspectives of other people
-understanding is limited to concrete objects or problems
self-disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers; they bind onto specific receptor sites on the receiving neuron
Conservation
Ability to recognize that objects can e transformed in some way, visually or phycially, yet still be the same in number, weight, substance, or volume
EEG
amplified recording of the waves of electrical acticity that sweep across the brain's surface
Motor Efferents
Transmit such information as movements of the large and small muscles either from the brain through the spinal cord to the muscles (for voluntary movements) or directly from the spinal cord to the muscles (in the case of reflexes).
testosterone
the most important of male sex hormones; both males and females have it, but the additional amount in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
emotion
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal (2) expressive behaviors (3) conscious experience
MRI
Uses magnetic fields to show brain structure; gives more detailed picture than the CAT scan
Type B
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables.
ego
the Latin for "I"; in Freud's theories, the mediator between the demands of the id and the superego
Embryo
The developing organism at an early stage of prenatal development.
Schizophrenic disorders
a group of psychological disorders characterized by a lack of reality testing and by deterioration of social and intellectual functioning and personality beginning before age 45 and lasting at least 6 months
deinstitutionalization movement
movement where people with serious mental disorders were discharged from psychiatric hospitals and managed in the community on an outpatient basis
free association
patient states everything that comes to their mind
down syndrome
a conditions of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup
group polarization
the tendency for members of decision-making groups to shift toward more extreme veiws in whatever direction they were initially leaning
Clinical psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
Insight
A sudden understanding about what is required to solve the problem.
resting potential
neuron's stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive
Decibel
the unit of relative loudness, zero decibels represent the absolute threshold for human hearing
Research Hypothesis
there is a relationship between variables
Memory encoding
The process of converting information into a form that can be stored in memory.
language
our spoken, written, or signed words and the way we combine them to communicate meaning
Achievement Tests
Tests knowledge/what you know. Think SOL
Abnormal psychology
The field of psychology concerned with the assessment, treatment, and prevention of maladaptive behavior.
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth: By comparing images from the two eyeball, the brain computes distance--the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.
inferential statistics
determine whether or not findings can be applied to larger populations from which sample was selected
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon
Consumer Psychologists
Study the behavior of shoppers to predict and explain their behavior
Quantitative Psychology
a branch of psychology that develops and uses statistical tools to analyze research data
Operant Conditioning
Conditioning in which an increase or decrease in the probability that a behavior will recur is affected by the delivery of reinforcement or punishment as a consequence of the behavior;
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
Separation Anxiety Disorder
childhood disorder characterized by a fear of being lost, left behind, or abandoned
Cell Body
largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
contiguity model
postulates that the more times two things are paired, the greater the learning that will take place
Binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes.
Synaptic cleft/ gap
space between neurons (neurons never touch each other)
fixed-interval schedule
a response is reinforced after a specific time has elapsed
Sensory register
A temporary storage device for holding sensory memories.
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information.
sensory memory
perceptual constancy
The ability to perceive objects as unchanged despite the change noticed by t he senses (e.g., the ability to understand and see buildings as remaining the same height even though they appear larger as we get closer to them).
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
construct validity
the extent to which a test measures the psychological construct (e.g. intelligence, anxiety) that it is purported to measure
S (special intelligence)
a group of special abilitys that Charles Spearman saw as accompanying general intelligence (g)
feature detectors
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
cognitive dissonance theory
this says that we will suffer discomfort and act to change the situation when our thoughts and actions seem to be inconsistent
free nerve endings
Sensory receptor cells in the skin that detect pressure, temperature, and pain.
Laceration
Injury to the brain or other part of the body due to being cut and pierced
Babbling Stage
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
Somatic nervous system
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people get what they deserve.
Primary Reinforcer
This is a term used in conditioning, and it refers to anything that provides reinforcement without the need for learning to an organism. This means that the reinforcer is naturally reinforcing to the organism. For example, water is naturally reinforcing because organisms don't need to learn to be reinforced by it, they naturally get reinforced especially in times of being thirsty.
stroop effect
ability to read what you see, not the colour of what you see.
cognitive dissonance
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
Thematic Apperception test TAT
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Conduction Hearing Loss
Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision
Three specialized cones. One for red, green, blue. These primary colors blend to make all other colors.
fixation (problem solving)
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
Neurons
nerve cells.
proximity
nearness or propinquity
Psychopharmacology
Drug therapy and research
Cornea
The curved, transparent, protective layer through which light rays enter the eye.
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Conditioning
Systematic procedure through which associations and responses to specific stimuli are learned
Norepinephrine
helps control alertness and arousal
adaptation
an inherited characteristic that increased in a population (thru natural selection) because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged
social-cultural
the perspective of psychological science that deals with how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
threshold
the sill of a doorway.
Instrumental conditioning
Another word for Operant Conditioning
mode
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.
Yerkes-Dodson Law
an empirical relationship between arousal and performance; dictates that a performance increases with a physiological or mental arousal, but only up to a point
Biological influences
Natural selection of adaptive physiology and behaviors
Genetic predispositions responding to environment
Brain mechanisms
Hormonal influences
projection
defense mechanism in which one disguises one's won unacceptable impulses by attributing them to others
gender differences
Behavioral differences between feamles and males
Oral stage
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 0-18 months; focus: oral cavity; task: transition from bottle/breast to solid food; conflict: id derives pleasure from sucking/excepting into mouth; if child fails to complete tasks, (s)he becomes fixated; fixations-underindulged oral-suspicious, sarcastic, pessimistic, trust issues; overindulged oral-clingy, optimistic, gullible, needy
id
in Freud's conception, the repository of the basic urges toward sex and agression
passive theory
specialized neurons detect specific features
perceptual asymmetries
left-right imbalances between the cerebral hemispheres in the speed of visual or auditory processing
Connectedness
The principle that objects positioned together or moving together will be perceived as belonging to the same group.
concrete operation
symbols, language, egocentric. Things that are "right there'
placebo effect
experimental results cause by expectations alone - no actual treatment given
learning
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
Psychoactive Drugs
drugs that alter preception and mood
effortful processing
is encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Pitch
How high or low a tone sounds.
Punishment
Weakens a response when presented; the opposite of negative reinforcement
Instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
morphemes
smallest unit of "meaning" in a language
attributions
inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others' behavior, and their own behavior.
Amygdala
implicated in the expression of anger and frustration
Inducing Structure
Require people to discover the relations among numbers, words, symbols, or ideas. Examples: Series completion and analogy problems.
Reasoning
The purposeful process by which a person generates logical and coherent ideas, evaluates situations, and reaches conclusions.
Taste buds
contain the receptors for taste; located around the small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, upper esophagus, and epiglottis. The five elements of taste are salty, sweet, sour, bitter, and savory (umami).
immune system
bodily organs and responses that protect the body from foreign substances and threats
Wilhelm Wundt
Set up first psychological laboratory. Trained subjects in introspection to come up with structuralism.
occipital
this lobe contains the primary vision processing function
sensory cortex
where tough, pressure, pain, are registered
Theory Y
assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity
Prototype
the best example of a particular category
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo; commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
Sensation
the process by which you detect physical energy from your environment and encode it as neural signals
Antagonist
Drugs that block the actions of neurotransmitters by occupying the receptor sites in which the neurotransmitters dock.
afferent neuron
nerve cell that sends messages to brain or spinal cord from other parts of the body; also called sensory neurons
Object Permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not percieved
Habits
`a response to a stimulus that becomes automatic with repetitions.
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
one-word stage
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one's own group
Educational Psychology
a branch of psychology that studies methods by which instructors teach and students learn and apply their results to improve research methods
Gender Schema Theory
The theory that children and adolescents use gender as an organizing theme to classify and interpret their perceptions about the world and themselves
electrocunvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
Interaction
the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).
Statistical Significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Attribution
An idea or belief about the etiology of a certain behavior.
stimulus discrimination
the phenomenon that occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
Eardrum
A taut membrane in the external ear that vibrates in response to sound waves sent by the pinna.
Biological psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior
Single Blind
All subjects are unaware of group assignment
All-or-none principle
The principle by which neurons will fire only when a change in the level of excitation occurs that is sufficient to produce an action potential.
texture gradient
a gradual change from a coarse distinct texture to a fine, indistinct textrure singals increasing distance; objects far away appear smaller and more densely packed.
Deindividuation
is what happens when people lose a sense of personal identity and accountability (responsibility). We usually think of this happening when people get caught up in a mob and do things that they would never do if acting alone. Factors that contribute to deindividuation are anonymity (darkness, wearing a mask, being one person in a large group) or intense physical activity (dancing, running) which floods a persons senses with feedback and they sort of "lose themselves." Unfortunately, this might lead to all kinds of antisocial behavior: riots, stealing, murder, etc. for which people feel might feel sorry for later.
interneuron
any neuron having its cell body, axon, and dendrites entirely within the central nervous system, especially one that conveys impulses between a motor neuron and a sensory neuron.
a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.
human factors psychology
Overjustification Effect
the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task
Radar for Threats
researched by Arne Ohman; people spot an angry face in the crowd before a happy face
false consensus
a belief that others share the same opinion about something, when actually most don't
Motion Parallax
a depth cue whereby a difference in the apparent rate of movement of different objects provides information about the relative distance of those objects
Temporal Lobes
The parts of the cerebral cortex lying beneath ans somewhat behind the frontal lobes that areinvolved in processing auditory stimuli.
design for memory
the scientific study of memory has influenced the design of electronic and mechanical devices that play important roles in our lives
integrity vs despair
Erikson's final stage in which those near the end of life look back and evaluate their lives
evolutionary psych
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
The Endocrine System
the collection of glands which secrete hormones into the bloodstream that targets/ affects organs, works in conjunction with the autonomic nervous system to allow communication between brain/ specific organs
Working memory
The memory system that enables you to hold and manipulate information in your mind for brief periods of time.
obesity (role of hypothalamus)
The state of being overweight. Interestingly, this definition seems to change so often that providing a definition is silly. It used to be that obesity was defined as being a certain percentage above the "normal" weight for a specific age and height. According to that definition, a person who was 20% above the average weight for a specific height and age was considered obese. However, in more recent years, obesity has been defined by specific weight ranges for people within a specific age and height. (Since the specific ranges seem to change regularly, I do not include them here.)
Hypothalamus—lateral (left)—hunger; tells you that you are hungry / Ventromedial (right)— satiety (feeling of fullness)
nodes of Ranvier
gaps in the myelin sheath that create noninsulated areas along the axon
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
accommodation (perception definition)
the distance cue that results from the lens of the eye changing shape to bring an image into focus
Albert Bandura's view of learning
Behavior is learned by observation through modeling
depressants (AKA sedative-hypnotics)
Any of a class of drugs that relax and calm a user and, in higher doses, induce sleep; also known as a depressant
Sample
Group of participants.
Anxiety Disorder
Phobic disorder (phobia)
Endorphins
"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
Ivan Pavlov
1891-1951; Field: behavior; Contributions: classical conditioning, a UCS naturally elicits a reflexive behavior; Studies: dog salivation
acetylcholine (ACh)
neurotransmitter that causes contraction of skeletal muscles; lack of Ach linked with Alzheimer's disease;
Humanism
A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
Phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism
psychodynamic
the perspective of psychological science that deals with how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
range
an instrument for determining directions, as by means of a freely rotating magnetized needle that indicates magnetic north.
Adrenaline
Also called epinephrine; a substance produced by the adrenal gland which is related to increase in general arousal.
Two Routes to Emotion
figure 13.7... http://i35.tinypic.com/2dmhz4l.jpg
Broca's aphasia
inability to produce fluent speech
encoding
conversion of sensory information into a form that can be retained as a memory
hormones
serves a function similar to neurotransmitters in that they carry messages; chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream; manufactured by glands (mostly); help regulate bodily functions
acquisition
In a learning experiment, ___________ refers to the initial stage of conditioning in which the new re­sponse is established and gradually strengthened. In operant conditioning, it is the strengthening of a reinforced response, (p. 225)
sex
The biologically based categories of male and female
Motivation
the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal
gustation
sense of taste
four taste sensations: sweet, salt, sour, bitter
most sensitive to bitter, least to sweet
reuptake
process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane
Retina
The light-sensitivelayer of the inner surface of the eye that contains photoreceptor cells.
Sympathetic
prepares body for dealing with emergencies and strenuous activity
B.F Skinner
shaping with pidgeons, successive approximations
formal operations
(Piaget) occurs during early adolescence (12-15) when youngsters are now capable of performing at the highest levels of cognitive activity and engage in kinds of thinking such as forming hypotheses, abstract reasoning and symbolic thinking. These more complicated mental "operations" can only be achieved with a developed cerebral cortex which is found during adolescence.
menopause
the cessation of the ability to reproduce
Freud's theory
theory that dreaming reflects our erotic drives
Stimulants
drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
Self (Self-Concept)
How you'd answer "Who am I?"
extremes in intelligence
mental retardedness and giftedness
-MR: can IQ below 15
-MR caused by genetic disorder, birth trauma, moms drugs and alcohol, neglect
-IQ above 130 is considered in "gifted" zone
-no correlation between brain size and intelligence
Social Facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
Type-B
characterized by a low level of competitiveness, low preoccupation with time issues, and a generally easy-going attitude
Symbolic
People use spoken sounds and written words to represent objects, actions, events, and ideas. Symbols are arbitrary and have no built-in relationship between the look or sound of words and the objects they stand for.
Accommodation
According to Piaget, the process by which existing mental structures and behaviors are modified to adapt to new experiences
Pheromones
a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
fixed action patterns
genetically based behaviors, seen across a species, that can be set off by a specific stimulus
sensorimotor
describes Piaget's stage in which the child explores the world through interaction of his mouth and hands with the environment
Limbic System
linked to memory, emotions and drives
Pupil
small adjustable opening in the iris that is smaller in bright light and larger in darkness
educational psychologist
focuses on how effective teaching and learning take place
Social Psychologist
concerned with the nature and causes of individuals thoughts, feelings and behavior in social situations.
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
confirmation bias
all-or-none law
the principle that once a neuron reaches its firing threshold, a neural impulse travels at fulls strength along the entire length of its axon
Skinner Box
BF Skinner -- boxes where animals would press a lever to receive a positive or negative stimulus, idea that animals will continue to press lever for positive consequence ad stop pressing for negative consequence
Synaptic cleft
A microscopic gap between the terminal button of a neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron.
Prosopagnosia
a condition that makes a person unable to consciously recognize faces-not even their own reflection-yet they can still see and recognize many other objects and can still recognize people by their voices
Actor-observer Effect
The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to dispositional causes but to attribute one's own behavior to situational causes.
physical dependence
a psychological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
molecular genetics
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
Synax
a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences
Blind Spot
Another term for the optic disk because it is a hole in the retina and thus you cannot see the part of the image that falls on it.
strict nature position
individuals are predisposed to behave and develop in certain ways
relative motion
as we move, objects at differetn distances appear to move a different rates.
Albert Ellis
Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) - The RET is a comprehensive system of personality change based on changing irrational beliefs that cause undesirable, highly charged emotional reactions such as severe anxiety.
observation
an act or instance of noticing or perceiving.
Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
the tendency for ppl who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
Reliability
the extent to which a test or other measurement is consistent
Frequency Theory
In hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
Outer Membrane
acts like a fine screen, letting some substances pass in and out while blocking others
Somatosensory Cortex
The part of the parietal lobe that processes information about touch ans pressure on the skin as well as the position of the parts of our bodies as we move about.
levels-of-processing model
suggests that what and how well we remember are a function of how deeply information is processed/rehearsed and encoded when first experienced
convergent thinking
a type of critical thinking in which one evaluates existing possible solutions to a problem to choose the best one
Peripheral nervous system
hte sensory and motor neurons that connect central nervous system to the rest of the body
Availability heuristic
idea that things that come to mind easily are seen as more common
aptitude tests
a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
Ground
The part of a pattern that does not command attention; the background.
Conductive deafness
caused by the failure of the three tiny bones inside the middle ear to pass along sound waves to the inner ear. Another common cause of conductive deafness is the failure of the eardrum to vibrate in response to sound waves. A build-up of fluid in the ear canal, for example, could dampen the movement of the eardrum. In many cases, treatment is available for conductive deafness and normal hearing will return
primary auditory cortex
the region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
auditory nerve
a bundle of axons that run from the inner ear to the brain
Ainsworth Strange Situation (Paradigm)
Take a child to unfamiliar playroom with mother & a stranger; mother leaves briefly.  "Secure" attachment = child is glad to seem other, but is also open to new situations.
Empirically Derived Test
a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
concrete operational stage
Piaget, (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) logical, concrete thought
dopamine
influences moevement, learning, attention and emotion; excess receptor activity is linked to schizophrenia; lack causes the brain to produce tremors and decreased mobility of Parkinson's disease
audition
the sense of hearing
DSM-IV
the American Psychiatric Association's Disagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
phobias
Intense fears of specific objects
Daydreams
visionary fantasies experienced while awake, especially one of happy, pleasent thoughts, hopes, or ambitions.
fixation
-remaining preoccupied with the behaviors associated with an earlier stage
Mood disorders
Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
Robert Sternberg
intelligence; devised the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (academic problem-solving, practical, and creative)
Survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
Implicit Memory
retention independent of conscious recollection [procedural memory]
flow
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills.
Clark Hull
motivation theory, drive reduction; maintained that the goal of all motivated behavior is the reduction or alleviation of a drive state, mechanism through which reinforcement operates
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
Efferent neurons
impulse from sensory (afferent) neurons to muscles or glands
Hallucination
False perception of reality (e.g., hearing voices that aren't there or seeing people who do not exist) [auditory (hearing); visual (sight); olfactory (smell); tactile (touch); and taste]
Schema
An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event (a stereotype).
parapsychology
the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis
attitude
a relatively enduring evaluation of a person or thing; Asch demonstrated that this doesn't always match one's behavior
experimenter bias
expectation of the person conducting an experiment which may be affect the outcome
Psychophysics
the study of relationships brwn the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experiance of them
cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
Stanford-Binet
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.
soma
the cell body, the neuron's control center
marijuana
a drug, often smoked, whose effects include euphoria, impairment of judgment and concentration and occasionally hallucinations; rarely reported as addictive
Type A
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
correlations
the measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data
health psychologist
focuses on psychological factors in illness
correlation
the degree of relationship between two variables
Fixed Ration Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of times
absolute thresholds
minimum amount of physical energy necessary for a sensation to occur. when do we detect the stimuli?
Ecstasy (MDMA)
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
Achievement
base of knowledge in a certain area.
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
Consists of contextual, experiential, and componential subtheories.
generalization
tendency for similar stimuli to elicit similar responses
Dream
A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping persons mind. Dreams are notable form their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it
parasympathetic
the branch of the nervous system that automatically calms us down when the reason for arousal has passed
Difficult infants
10% intense reaction negative mood not adaptable to solutions
monocular cues
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone.
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
Nativist Theory
Proposes that humans are equipped with an LAD and that humans learn language because they are biologically equipped for it. [Chomsky]
Sensory interaction
____________ is the principle that one sense may influence another, (p. 159)
James-Lange Theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
self-fulfilling prophecy
an expecation that helps bring about the outcome that is expected
egocentrism
in a toddler, the belief that others perceive the world in the same way that he or she does
attribution theory
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Action Potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. the action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
Percentile Score
Indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained.
brain plasticity
brain will attempt to repair parts when damaged, easier when younger
moral development
growth in the ability to tell right from wrong, control impulses, and act ethically
magnetic resonance imaging
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain. (MRI)
correlation coefficient
A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
Extraneous (confounding) Variables
Anything other than the treatment that could influence the results; why control group is necessary
latent learning
a change in behavior due to experience acquired without conscious effort, s, for example, a student using a quote in an exam essay that the student had never tried to memorize, though eh had encountered it in studying
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Primary Sex Characteristics
The body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
Just Noticeable Difference (JND)
The smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detect. The JND is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus.
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males or females
bell curve (normal curve)
The normal distribution is a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve in which most scores cluster around the middle (mean) score
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
social exchange theory
theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize cost
steven's power law
A law of magnitude estimation that is more accurate than fachners law and covers a wider variety of stimuli.
*additional variety includes mainly pain & temperature
Cocktail party effect
talking to someone at party, but hear you name, FIRE attn goes to that
Internal locus of control
The belief that an individual has more control over life circumstances than the environment does.
four stage sexual repsonse cycle
in the act of sexual intercourse, the stages of the cycle are (1) excitement, (2) plateau, (3) organsm, and (4) resolution.
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