AP Psychology 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
emotion (anger, fear)
Biological Rhythms
periodic physiological fluctuations
Sleep abnormalities, including difficulty in falling asleep and wakefulness through the night.
opens way for neurotransmitters
Misinformation Effect
incorporating misleading information into ones memory of an event
"morphine within", natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasaure
the manipulation of mental representations
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
Reticular formation
filters irrelevant background information
Method of structuralism, systematic self observation of one's own experiences
Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Anxiety disorder characterized by persistent and uncontrollable thoughts and irrational beliefs that cause the performance of compulsive rituals that interfere with daily life.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
a psychologist who studied the function (rather than the structure) of consciousness
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and for future aspirations
Unhappy when it's dark
Seasonal affective disorder
generally, learning in which certain experiences make certain behaviors more or less likely; there are two forms of this
sensory adaptation
reduced responsiveness caused by prolonged stimulation
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
Practice of placing children with special needs in regular classroom settings, with the support of professionals who provide special education services
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meaning
the process of putting information into memory
Random Sample
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Fight or Flight or alarm reaction
a tone's experienced highness or lowness
mnemonic devices
memory tricks when encoding info
reduce anxiety by lowering the physiological inhibition of arousal.
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
this lobe contains the primary vision processing function
A neurotransmitter used in the parts of the brain involved in regulating movement and experiencing pleasure.
alzheimer's disease
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, phisical funtioning.
Sensory Memory
the immediate, very brief, recording of sensory information in the memory system
medulla oblongata
base of brainstem, controls heartbeats and breathing
Mood-congruent Memory
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
Passionate Love
Aroused and intense feeling for another person, wears off fairly quickly
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock; any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response
informed consent
agreement to participate in psychology research, after being appraised of the dangers and benefits of the research
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
theory of hearing which states that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the tone's frequency
Phallic Stage
Freud's third stage of personality development, from about age 4 through age 7, during which children obtain gratification primarily from the genitals.
color constancy
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
personality inventory
a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people response to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
pituitary gland
This produces hormones which regulate growth from infancy to adulthood and the amount of water in the blood
Awareness of yourself and the world around you.
Stage 2 of sleep
sleep spindles (10-25 minutes)
forensic psychologist
assist in jury selection, evaluate defendats' mental competence to stand trial, and deal with other issues involving pyschology and the law
social clock
the culturally preferred "right time" for major life events, such as moving out of the childhood house, getting married, and having children
operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, intelligence may be operationally defined as what intelligence test measures
A condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
The process of getting information out of memory storage
K Complex
Single but large high-voltage spike of brain activity that characterizes stage 2 NREM sleep
The process by which a person infers other people's motives or intensions by observing their behavior.
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
the degree to which a test score remains stable over repeated measurements
Episodic Memory
memories of specific events stored in a sequential series of events
taste buds
pores or openings on the tongue containing taste cells
Programmed Instruction
A learning method in which complex material is broken down into a series of small steps that learners master at their own pace.
The process by which the lens changes its shape so images will be in focus on the retina
Primary Sex Characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
incentive theory
A theory of motivation stating that behavior is directed toward attaining desirable stimuli and avoiding unwanted stimuli.
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 071)
latent learning
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
A discipline based on the premise that even day-to-day behaviors are determined by the process of natural selection - that social behaviors that contribute to the survival of a species are passed on via the genes from one generation to the next.
Figure Ground
the organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A collection of congenital problems associated with a mother's excessive use of alcohol during pregnancy
procedural memory
knowledge of how to preform physical tasks
random presentation
a process by which chance alone determines the order in which the stimulus is presented
type of study that measures a variable across several age groups at the same time
Flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
Place Theory
-states the cilia in the cochlea respond to different frequencies of sound based on where they are located in the cochlea
-accurately describes how cilia sense the upper range but not the lower tones
-lower tones:deformation patter is too broad, not specific enough
Visual Cortex
What receives written words as visual stimulation?
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, coginitive, and social change throughout the lifespan.
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
set point
the pt. at which an individuals “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restores lost weight
peripheral nervous system
sensory and motor neurons -connect the central nervous system (CNS) to rest of body
Maintenance Rehearsal
simple repitition to keep an item in the short term memory until it can be used
spinal reflex
a reflex controlled at the level of the spinal cord that may involve as few as two neurons
Abraham Maslow
proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs; seek self-actualization
Intrinsic Motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for ones own sake
Biological Psychology
The field of psychology that seeks to understand the interactions between anatomy and physiology and behavior. CAT scans, MRIs, EEGs, etc
Type B personality
is Friedman and Rosenman's term for the coronary-resistant behavior pattern of easygoing, relaxed people, (p. 400)
parallel processing
the ability to search a number of locations rapidly and autonomically for targets
the idea that the mind and body are separate entities
adaption level phenomenon
our tendency to form judgements (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by out prior experience.
electroencephalogram (EEG)
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
Vestibular Sense
Tells us how our body is oriented in space
cognitive dissonance theory
we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of out thought are inconsistent
functional fixedness
-mental set in which we only think of traditional uses for objects
Weber's Law
the size of a JND is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus
conditioned reinforcer (or secondary reinforcer)
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
tissue destruction
the sensory switchboard
farsightedness caused by aging
Systematic desensitization
A three-stage counterconditioning procedure in which people are taught to relax when confronting stimuli that forming elicited anxiety.
Nervous System
The body's speedy,electrocommunication system
Autobiographical Memory
recollections of personally experienced events that ake up the stories of our lives
anxiety disorder characterized by marked fear and avoidance of being alone in a place from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
subjective well-being
Self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life (used along with measures of objective well-being to evaluate people's quality of life)
represents our basic animal, instinctive self
Specific phobia
Anxiety disorder characterized by irrational and persistent fear of a particular object or situation, along with a compelling desire to avoid it.
outside chemicals that excite the body; may mimic neurotransmitter, or disallow reuptake
The cell body containing the nucleus
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
an undisclosed rule for accepted behavior
moving people with psychological or developmental disabilities from highly structured institutions to home- or community-based settings
The density of vibrating air molecules, which determines the loudness of sound.
hosting of many subcultures within their borders
Natural selection
_______________ is the evolutionary principle that traits that contribute to reproduction and survival are the most likely to be passed on to succeeding generations, (p. 74)
partly an assumption, based on observations; will not always be correct
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
characterizes people who are sociable, expansive, lively, and oriented toward having fun.
a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide).
hormone secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose
* The brain's capacity for modification
* As evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development
*Molding of the brain
an emotional tie with another person; to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Cognitive Psychologists
experimenting with how we perceive, think, and solve problems
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
Phil Zimbrano
conducted prison experiment , fake prison and guards- role playing becomes life
Crystallized Intelligence
A person's accumulated knowledge and skills: tends to remain about the same or increase as you get older
token economy
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
Trait View
A psychological perspective that views behavior and personality as the products of enduring psychological characteristics
characterized as a pattern of behavior of competitiveness, a sense of time urgency, and elevated feelings of anger and hostility
individual cells that are the smallest unit of the nervous system; it has three functions: receive information, process it, send to rest of body
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Piaget's term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in shape or appearance
psychoactive drug
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
out-group homogeneity
a cognitive bias describing the tendency to perceive members of out-groups as more alike than members of ingroups
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question "who am I?"
Mental Age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet
Collective Unconscious
Contains the memories we have inherited from our human and non-human ancestors.
Links the Nervous System and the Endocrine System via the Pituitary Gland
when some stimuli, grab our attention and make them more likely to be remembered
muscle controlling the amount of light entering the eye
Dissociative amnesia
The inability to recall important personal events or information, usually associated with stressful events.
the behavior (such as future college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to assess; thus, the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
Karen Horney
was a brilliant woman psychoanalyst who split with Freud as she disagreed with a number of Freud's basic ideas. first, she emphasized "social", not sexual, tensions as being critical for personality formation. She also countered Freud's assumptions that women have weak superegos and suffer "penis envy," and she attempted to balance the bias she detected in theis masculine view of psychology. She stated "The view that women are infantile and emotional creatures, and as such, incapaable of responsibility and independence is the work of the masculine tendency to lower women's self-respect."
identical twins
twins from a single fertilized egg (zygote) with the same genetic makeup; also called monozygotic (MZ) twins
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
neural pathway
Bundle of nerve cells that follow generally the same route and employ the same neurotransmitters
structured interviews
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
Distraction-Conflict Theory
Holds that the presence of others affects us through distraction.
cell body
contains the nucleus and other parts of the cell needed to sustain its life
occurs when we face two attractive alternatives and selecting one means losing the other
Approach-Approach Conflict
Cells that perform a wide array of functions such as regulating the biochemical environment of the brain
associative learning
learning in which an organism learns that certain events occur together, such as my cat knowing that she will be fed when I get home from work
Operant Conditioning
a process through which an organism learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces positive consequences and avoids negative ones
afferent neuron
nerve cell that sends messages to brain or spinal cord from other parts of the body; also called sensory neurons
acoustic encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
Assertiveness Training
method of modeling in which the therapist helps clients learn to be more direct and expressive in social situations
Unconditioned Stimulus
an event that elicits a certain predictable response without previous training
ex: lemonade
manic episode
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
The tendency of the body (and the mind) to natural gravitate toward a state of equilibrium or balance.
Psychoanalytic theory
humans do not conscious control over how we think or make decisions
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
Opponent Process Theory
Ewald Hering, explains functioning of cells that process info from receptors, certain neurons can either be excited or inhibited, depending on the wavelength of light, explains AFTERIMAGES very well
Frequency Theory
perception of pitch is determined by the rate at which the whole basilar membrane vibrates, hair cells respond in unison, all hair cells vibrate but the brain detects the frequency of a tone by the rate at which auditory nerve fibers fire
Natural concepts
Xoncepts with poorly defined or fuzzy rules for membershbip.
great person theory
an outdated leadership theory that assumes that all great leaders share certain traits.
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Parasympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving energy
relative deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
a cyclic tendency to become psychologically depressed during certain seasons of the year
Central nervous system (CNS)
The brain and the spinal cord.
depth perception
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance
complementary and alternative medicine
unproven health care treatments not taught widely in medical schools, not used in hospitals, and not usually reimbursed by insurance companies
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortext that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions - rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning - remembering - thinking - speaking
Limbic System
a set of structures in the brain especially involved in the experience of emotion
learning model of addiction
-addiction is a maladaptive coping mechanism
-a person can go beyond the need for their substance of choice
-Bruce Alexander
Adrenal glands
A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. The adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
Binocular disparity
refers the fact that because we have two eyes, each set about 4 inches apart, our brain really gets two different visual images of things out there, very important for depth perception
Binocular Convergence
The use of two eyes in coordination to perceive depth.
activation synthesis
the idea that dreams are the result of the cerebral cortex interpreting and organizing random flashes of brain activity, originating in the lower brain structures, especially the pons
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Albert Bandura: major view on learning and Bobo Doll experiment
Bandura argued that individuals, especially children, learn aggressive responses from observing others, either personally or through the media or environment. He stated that many individuals believed that aggression will produce reinforcements. In the Bobo Doll experiment, he had children witness a video of a model aggressively attacking a plastic clown. After the video, the children were placed in a room with attractive toys, but they could not touch them. The process of retention had occurred. Therefore, the children became angry and frustrated. Then the children were led to another room where there were identical toys used in the Bobo video. The motivation phase was in occurrence. Bandura and many other researchers found that 88% of the children imitated the aggressive behavior. Eight months later, 40% of the same children reproduced the violent behavior observed in the Bobo doll experiment
Acetylcholine excess
Daniel Goleman
emotional intelligence
Too much thyroxin
high energy
Process of evaluating individual differences among human beings by means of tests interviews, observations, and recordings of physiological.
Female reproductive gonads that secrete estrogen and produce egg cells
A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.
parietal lobes
processes sensory information including touch, temperature, and pain from other body parts
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent). (Myers Psychology 8e p. 687)
moving objects with your mind
haptic memory
Sensory memory for touch
creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior.
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier-- but also more error-prone—use of heuristics.
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
a neurotransmitter that inhibits the firing of neurons
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
experimental bias
prevent use double blind study
Photorecptors that process color and provide sharpness of image.
Destroying a piece of the brain.
The simplest measure of variability, represented by the difference between the highest and the lowest levels in a frequency distribution.
testable hypothesis
specific statement or proposition, stated in a testable (researchable) form, predicting a particular relationship among multiple variables; A testable scientific idea that can be proved right or wrong with experiments. A hypothesis is a formulation of a question that lends itself to a prediction. This prediction can be verified or falsified. A question can only be use as scientific hypothesis, if their is an experimental approach or observational study that can be d esigned to check the outcome of a prediction
Sets of strategies, rather than strict rules, that act as guidelines for discovery-oriented problem solving.
projective test
Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Noam Chomsky
postulated a system for the organization of language based on the concept of transofmational grammar
extension of neuron , ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or muscles or glands
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
Changing behavior or thoughts to agree with a group
Reasoning from general to specific; in logic, if the premises are true than the conclusion must be true; ; Socrates is a man. All men are mortal. Therefore Socrates is mortal.
Our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
affects memory function, as well as muscle contraction, particularly in the heart
endocrine system
the body slow chemical communication system which is made up of a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
levels-of-processing approach
brain encodes information in different ways or on different levels; deeper processing leads to deeper memory
Motor Neurons
neurons that convey nerve impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.
Fetal Stage
The Third stage of prenatal development lasting from two months after conception through birth
Dependent personality disorder
mental disorder characterized by excessive needs to be taken care of, leading to submissive, clinging behavior, fears of separation, and the inability to assume responsibility.
near-death experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
numerical average of a set of numbers
personal fable
common belief among adolescents that their feelings and experiences cannot possibly be understood by others and that they are personally invulnerable to harm
John Locke
Believed that experiencs provided by the environment during childhood have a profound and permanent effect.
A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans.
A chemical that relays signals across the synapses between neurons
Cerebral Hemispheres
two specialized halves connected by the corpus collosum, each hemisphere controls the opposite half of the body
retinal disparity
the differences between the images stimulating each eye
drive-reduction theory
the idea that physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
The smallest units of speech that convey meaning. All words are composed of at least one morpheme. For example, the word "work" is a single morpheme, but the word "working", which implies some action, is made up of two morphemes
somatic nervous system
division of peripheral nervous system; controls voluntary actions
Actor-Observer Effect
We attribute others' actions to stable characteristics, but we attribute our own actions to the momentary characteristics of the situation.
the view that psychology should be an objective science based on observable and measurable behavior
projective tests
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli to trigger projection of one's inner thoughts and feelings
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
big 5 personality factors
openness to new experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
Parietal Lobe
section of the brain that controls hearing
frequency polygon
graph of a frequency distribution that shows the number of instances of obtained scores, usually with the data points connect by straight lines
All-or-none Principle
the priciple by which neurons will fire only when a changed in the level of excitation occurs that is sufficeint to produce an action potential.
somatoform disorder
any of a group of psychological disturbances characterized by physical symptoms for which there is not a medical cause
Partial Reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the time.
Selection Bias
Errors in the selection and placement of subjects into groups that results in differences between groups which could effect the results of an experiment.
an organ in the body that regulates blood sugar concentration
quabtitative psychologist
develop and use statistical tools to analyze research data
token reinforcer
operant training system that is used in institutions like jail
Split Brain Research
Corpus Callosum cut to reduce seizures, vision and hearing is in both hemispheres
webster's law
greater the magnitude of stimulus, the larger a difference needs to be in order to be detected.
a response of the whole organism, (1) physiological, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the owrld is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsible caregivers
Serial position effect
tendency to remember things that happened first and last but forget things in the middle
Cross-Sectional Study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
Imaginal Thought
one mode of thought that consists of images that we can see, hear, or feel in our mind
preoperational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
sensory cortex
the parts of the brain that receive information from the sensory receptors
all the cases in the group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. (Note: except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.) (p. 28)
Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect
Behaviors learned under a partial reinforcement schedule are more difficult to extinguish than behaviors learned on a continuous reinforcement schedule.
Top down processing
you already know something about a particular stimulation, you remember the context in which it appears, and you label / classify it gives meaning to your perceptions
Autonomic Nervous System
The portion of the peripheral nervous system that sends communications between the central nervous system and the internal organs and glands.
rooting reflex
a baby’s tendency , when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple
Balance Theory
We attempt to maintain a sense of give and take (reciprocity) in a relationship.
conduction hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
Lucid Dream
A dream in which you are aware of dreaming and are sometimes able to manipulate the dream.
autonomy v. shame and doubt
exert will over own bodies. independence or dependence
Foot in the Door Phenomenon
tendency to comply, the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
The equity theory of relationships
basically we like other people because of what they can do for us and vice-versa. We put a lot into a relationship because we expect to get the same in return. The relationship has to do with mutual gain and equitable returns on our personal investment. I like you because you like me. It's 50/50.
Stratified sampling
Sense of taste.
Achievement Test
Measures previous learning
-CE: includes alertness and reaction time
-Reduces levels of adenosine
-A/A: insomnia, tension, high b.p.
Ernst Weber
1795-1878; Field: perception; Contributions: just-noticeable-difference (JND) that eventually becomes Weber's law; Studies: 1st study on JND
neurotransmitter enables learning and memory, and also triggers muscle contraction
In Piaget's theory, ______________ refers to changing an existing schema to incorporate new information that cannot be assimilated, (p. 105)
adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster
the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response
reaction formation
defense mechanism in which unacceptable impulses are transformed into their opposite
shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
ideas, often irrational or unwanted, usually associated with anxiety, that persists or frequently recurs and cannot be dismissed by the individual
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
blocking a threatening idea, memory, or emotion from consciousness.
Deception Clues
convoluted answers or sophisticated evasions; long pauses - 'uhh...uhh'; people with a conscience want to confess, those without brag of their skill in lying and show "duping delight"
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
condition in which the sympathetic nervous system is in control
The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
small protuberances on the upper surface of the tongue that contain taste buds.
Wernicke's area
controls language reception and comprehension
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gap between neurons
Drugs that combat depression by affecting the levels or activity of neurotransmitters in the brain.
in gestalt psychology; the suddent reorganization of perceptions, allowing the sudden solution of a problem
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
thyroid gland
located in neck; regulates metabolism by secreting thyroxine
Fraternal Twins
twins who develp from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
Phobic disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations
variable within a study that might influence the pattern of results and thereby introduce ambiguity rearding why the results are as they are
Accessory Structures
Modifies energy from environment and passes it on (ears, eardrums, pupils, lenses, iris)
Positive Reinforcement
The strengthening of a response through the introduction of a stimulus following the response.
Biological Psychology (Neuroscience)
Deals with the physiological determinants of behavior, including the brain, nervous system, and gland.
Theory X
assumes that workers are basically lazy, error prone, and extrinsically motivated by money; thus, need to be directed from above
Cannon-Bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
The clients are gradually asked to handle more complicated and delicate social situations (in real life).
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
Aversion Conditioning
a method that uses classical conditioning to create a negative response to a particular stimulus
fixed-interval schedules
reward the first response displayed after a fixed time interval
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur
the second rung of Maslow's hierarchy; refers to need for freedom from danger
Study of how the brain creates thoughts, feelings, motives, consciousness, memories, and other mental processes
glial cells
cells that support, nourish, and protect neurons
a step procedure that will eventually result in a correct answer
Perceptual Set
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
The male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete the male sex hormone testosterone.
the organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground).
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Effortful processing
recalling information after a long break
Cross-sectional Studies
A type of research design that compares individuals of different ages to determine how they differ
Action Potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
Central Nervous System
the brain and the spinal cord
Encoding Specificity Principal
retrieval depend's upon the match between the way information is encoded and the way it is retrieved
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
Drugs that arouse the CNS, speeding up mental and physical responses.
temporal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears, includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
general intelligence (g)
a general intelligence factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
Semantic memory
your memory for meanings and general (impersonal) facts
Stimulus Generalization
A phenomenon in which a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus.
the height of a sound wave, determines how much energy it contains, is perceived as loudness
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Dialectical Thinking
progress through a thesis and a subsequent antithesis and then achieve synthesis, which serves as the new thesis for the continuing evolution of thought.
fool-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have agreed to a small request to comply later with a large request.
Emotional Intelligence
How well you understand either your emotions or those of others.Mayer and Salovey
CAT scan
a method of creating static images of the brain through computerized axial tomography
One Word Stage
the stage in speech development from about age 1 to 2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
Long Term Potentiation
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation -- possibly the neural basis for learning and memory -- increase in the efficiency with which signals are sent across the synapse
a schema that unfolds in a regular or standardized order
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
Sleep Paralysis
A condition in which the sleeper is unable to move any of the voluntary muscles, except those controlling the eyes.
blind spot
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there
Partial Reinforcer
Reinforcing only part of the time or every so often
G. Stanley Hall
brought introspection to his lab at Johns Hopkins University in the U.S.; first president of the American Psychological Association (structuralist)
Basilar Membrane
A structure that runs the length of the cochlea in the inner ear and holds the auditory receptors, called hair cells.
A type of brain trauma in which a foreign object, such as a bullet or a piece of shrapnel, pierces the skull and injures the brain.
brain lesion
cutting out a damaged part of the brain
personal space
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
Hostile Aggression
an attempt to strike out at other in anger or pain
percentile score
the percentage of scores at or below a certain score
introvert / extrovert
introvert - people who tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences
extrovert - people who tend to be interested in the external world of people and things
The core of a cell body of a neuron or any cell, containg the genes
Zone of Proximal Development
the range between the level at which a child can solve a problem on his own with difficulty and the level at which a child can solve a problem with an adult
Occipital Lobe
Robert Yerkes
intelligence, comparative; Yerkes-Dodson law: level of arousal as related to performance
decreasing repsonsiveness with repeated stimulation; as infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
involves hypothalamus, aroused by almost anything at any time, not necessary for survival, secretion of hormones
perspective on psychology that stresses the importance of mental activities associated with thinking, remembering, etc
Intracellular Fluids
water inside cell walls.
Independent variable: exposure to cause variable; any variable that the researcher manipulates in an experiment (proposed effect)
-transition from childhood to adulthood.
The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory (silk milk)
selection studies
studies that estimate the hereditability of a trait by breeding animals with another animal that has the same trait
the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis
Feeling that promote closeness and connection.
enhances action potential, deals with learning and memory
The major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.
In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
Behaviors that benefit other people and for which there is no discernable extrinsic reward, recognition, or appreciation.
a model of psychological disorders that emphasizes the biological, psychological and social factors that impact mental illness.
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors, based on classical conditioning. Includes systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning
The cognitive structure utilized to make sense of the world.
Task Leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
defense mechanisms
repressioni - bury distressing thoughts
projection - put on others one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives
displacement-take out on another what upsets you
reaction formation - exaggerated opposite of the truth
regression - revert to immature behavior
rationalization - create false excuse
identification - bolster self-esteem by taking on another's identity
intellectualization - maintain a cold attitude towards distressing things
in language, the smallest unit that carries meaning
Latency Stage
Freud's fourth stage of personality development, from about age 7 until puberty, during which sexual urges are inactive.
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
Sensory neurons
Neurons that receive messages from sensory receptors and transmit that information to the spinal cord
split brain
condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemipsheres by cutting the fibers connecting them
the skin sensation -- touch, pressure, warmth, cold, and pain
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
dissociative identity disorder
also called multiple personality disorder
circadian rhythm
the bilogical clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur ona 24 hr cycle
The system of principles of reasoning used to reach valid conclusions or make inferences.
___________ is the process of watching and the imitating a specific behavior and is thus an important means through which observation learning occurs, (p. 244)
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
Sleep Apnea
A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessation of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
Absolute threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time.
linear perspective
(monocular cues)
-when two lines that are known to be parallel converge, they imply the existence of depth
The ability to perceive objects and events without iusing the known senses.
Brightness is to light as __________ is to sound
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content). Freud believed that a dream's latent content functions as a safety valve.
REM Sleep
rapid eye movement. dreaming stage, approx 90min till first. beta waves, paralyzed, becomes longer throughout more sleep cycles
Equal intervals
Characteristic of a scale of measurement where the individual units possess the qualities of equal intervals. The difference between the unit of measurement is exactly the same
sense of balance and of one's physical position
terror-management theory
proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. mat result in bad decisions
frontal lobes
portion of cerebral cortex lying just behind forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and making plans and judgement
removal or destruction of parts of the brain
Dependent Variable
The result or outcome of the experiment; the "effect" being studied (e.g. measure of health)
Self-Perception Theory
we make inferences about our own attitudes by observing how we behave.
inductive reasoning
is the process of drawing general inferences from specific observation
Sleep Cycle
passage through the four stages of NREM sleep (I, II, III, IV), then reversal (IV, III, II), and finally, instead of reentering stage I and awakening, entering REM sleep and returning to stage II
inner ear
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
Problem Solving
Refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable.
based on notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into it's basic elements and investigate ho they are related
use of techniques and ideas from a variety of approaches
Emotional IQ
Consists of the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion. 4 essential components: People need to: accurately perceive emotion in themselves and others; be aware of how emotions shape thinking, decisions, and coping with stress; be able to understand and analyze their emotions; and regulate emotions so that they can dampen negative ones and make effective use of positive ones.
mere exposure effect
repated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
refractory period
after firing when a neuron will not fire again no matter how strong the incoming message may be
resting potential
when a neuron is in polarization; more negative ions are inside the neuron cell membrane with a positive ions on the outside, causing a small electrical charge; release of this charge generates a neuron's impulse (signal/message)
Gender schema theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly.
basil ganglia
It links the thalamus with the motor cortex and other motor areas, Regulates initiation of movements, balance, eye movements, and posture, Involved in some reward/punishment learning
motion parallax
a depth cue in which the relative movement of elements in a scene gives depth information when the observer moves relative to the scene
Descriptive Studies
A type of research method that allows researchers to measure variables so that they can develop a description of a situation or phenomenon
Role of Hypothalamus
Sensors measure sugar as the brain uses glucose. Hunger satiety sensors in mouth, stomach (secretion of CCK), duodenum & liver (complex carbs, fats & proteins in blood) send signals to brain to let it know that food is on the way.
a form of working at home in which people communicate with their home office and clients via computer or telecommunications
social learning
form of learning in which the organism observes and imitates the behavior of others
two genes in a specific pair are hte same
extrinsic motivation
the desire to perform a behavior in order to obtain a reward or avoid a punishment
Gestalt Theory
a theory of mind and brain that proposes that the brain has self-organizing tendencies; an explanation for why we see patterns and shapes; or, that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
blood brain barrier
made up of specialized glial cells (astrocytes) that form a continuous envelope of fatty material around blood vessels in the brain. Protects the brain from poisons and harmful substances that are not fat-soluble.
Sensorineural Nearing Loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness
Matching Effect
we are most likely to have a partner whose level of physical attractiveness is similar to our own.
Stress Inoculation Training
a procedure to reduce stress in which clients imagine being in a stressful situation, then practive newly learned cognitive skills to remain calm
consciousness is a product of the brain
According to cognitive neuroscience...
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomics nervous system arousal.
Self Perception Theory
when we are not sure of what we believe, we infer our beliefs from our behavior.
nature vs. nurture controversy
This is one of if not the longest running debate since the science of psychology began…what makes us who we are and drives how we behave, our genes (nature) or our experiences (nurture)? For example, if a person commits a violent crime, did they do so because of their genetic makeup (they are genetically pre-wired to be violent) or because of their experiences (e.g., growing up in an impovershed area, not getting a good education, no parental guidance or some other experience)? This is the nature-nurture debate.
sense of hearing
anti-anxiety drugs (tranquilizers) such as benzodiazepines including Librium, Valium, Xanax; and Buspirone
operant conditioning
expands on Thorndike's research
extremely influential behaviorist
followed Law of Effect
Operant Chamber a.k.a Skinner Box-rate presses a bar for food or water reward. outside a measuring device recorded the animal's repsonses
rats that sniff out landmines
stingrays in Cayman Islands
also called the tympanic membrane
Primary reinforcer example
food, sex, water
think about abstract concepts
formal operational
theory of emotion in which physiological arousal precedes the emotion
the percentage of a population displaying a disorder during any specified period.
Body Language
Communication of information through body positions and gestures.
binocular cues
retinal disparity and convergence which enable people to determine depth using both eyes
Innate potentialities ( as contrasted w/abilities acquired by learning)
Client-Centered Therapy
A humanistic nondirective therapy developed by Carl Rogers, in which growth and self-awareness are facilitated in an environment that offers genuineness, acceptance, and empathy.
nickname for the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
binocular cue for percieving depth, the extent to which the eye move inward when looking at an object
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism
classical conditioning
directly experiencing a thunderstorm, we learn that a flash of lightning signals an impending crash of thunder. this illustrates what?
an intentiol behavior (ritual) that occurs in response to a thought
term describes a personality test in which ambiguous stimuli trigger revelation of inner feelings, thoughts
Opponent-Process Theory
Three pairs of opposing receptors: red/green, blue/yellow, black/white.
An excessive attachment to some person or object that was appropriate only at an earlier stage of development
the central focus area of the retina
data collection techniques
Procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
continuous reinforcement
a reinforcer follows every correct response
Flynn Effect
- Performance on intelligence tests has been increasing steadily throughout the century.
- Since the gene pool has remained relatively stable, this finding suggests that environmental factors such as nutrition, education, and, perhaps, television and video games play a role in intelligences.
that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers
folding-in and out of the cerebral cortex that increases surface area of the brain
the property of language that accounts for the capacity to use a limited number of words to produce an infinite variety of expressions
the process of getting information out of memory storage
Overgeneralization (Overregulaization)
children typically do this, overlook some grammatical rules
Retrieval Theory
The theory that forgetting occurs because there is difficulty in accessing stored memories
term describes a type of intelligence which applies cultural knowledge to solving problems
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
a legal term with different meanings in different states
"Not guilty by reason of insanity", "not competent by reason of insanity", "committed to a mental institution by reason of insanity", term is too vague for psychology so is meaningless
color blind
genetic disorder in which people are blind to green or red
Social Psychology
The scientific study of how people think about, interact with, influence, and are influenced by the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of other people.
Normative Scores
Norms - Scaled equivalents of raw scores.
Method of loci
a mnemonic technique that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar physical locations
Diathesis Stress Theory
Theory of what causes schizophrenia; states that schizophrenia develops when there is a genetic predisposition (diathesis) present and there are environment factors (stress) that trigger the disorder.
sympathetic system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
monocular depth cues
distance cues, such as linear perspective, that enable us to perceive depth with one eye
schizoid personality disorder
personality disorder in which they have no interest in relationships with other people, lack emotional responsiveness
Eidetic Memory
a form of recollection marked by extraordinary accurated and vivid recall, especially of images
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement.
inattentional blindness
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 238)
memory retrieval
the process of accessing and bringing into consciousness information stored in memory
Human Factor Psychologists
help design appliances, machines, and work settings that fit our natural perceptions
simple design
"natural map"
"stress response"
The response to a demand or stressor. Has three phases: alarm, resistance, and recovery.
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Avoidant Attachment Pattern
A child generally ignores the mother and shows minimal distress when she leaves.
facial feedback hypothesis
the hypothesis that changes in facial expression can produce corresponding changes in emotion
#37, Pg. 734, chpt 18.
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
Stereotype threat
the awareness by members of a group who are accustomed to experiencing prejudice that there are negative attitudes held by others towards them
general adaptation syndrome
Seyle's concept that the body responds to stress with alarm, resistance and exhaustion
Eriksons psychosocial crises
1. Trust versus Mistrust 2. Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt 3. Innitiative versus guilt 4. Industry versus Inferiority 5. Identity versus role
Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon
The tendency of people to be helpful when they are in a good mood.
Dream theory: Activation-Synthesis Model (Hobson/McCarley)
Dreams are side effects of neural activation that produces brain waves (downplays role of emotional factors).
self consistancy bias
the commonly held idea that we are more consistent in out attitudes, opions, and beliefs than we actually are
additive color mixing
a kind of color mixture that works by superimposing lights, putting more light in the mixture than exists in any one light by itself
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