AP Psychology Exam - People Flashcards

Terms Definitions
William James
Functionalism
Harry Harlow
Monkey experiments.
Richard Walk
visual cliff
Stephen LaBerge
lucid dreaming
Wilhelm Wundt
Founder of psychology
Asch, Solomon
Investigated social conformity
Anna Freud
1895-1982; Field: psychoanalysis; Contributions: focused on child psychoanalysis, fully developed defense mechanisms, emphasized importance of the ego and its constant struggle
Mary Ainsworth
1913-1999; Field: development; Contributions: compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; Studies: The Strange Situation-observation of parent/child attachment
Ivan Pavlov
1891-1951; Field: Gastroenterology; Contributions: developed foundation for classical conditioning, discovered that a UCS naturally elicits a reflexive behavior; Studies: dog salivation
Carl Rogers
1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
Aaron Beck
1921-present; Field: cognitive; Contributions: father of Cognitive Therapy, created Beck Scales-depression inventory, hopelessness scale, suicidal ideation, anxiety inventory, and youth inventories
Noam Chomsky
1928-present; Field: language; Contributions: disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite # of sentences in a language, humans have an inborn native ability to develop language
Robert Sternberg
1949-present; Field: intelligence; Contributions: devised the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (academic problem-solving, practical, and creative)
Benjamin Whorf
Cognition, linguistic relativity hypothesis
Carol Gilligan
Developmental Psychology, Challenged the universality of Kohlberg's moral development theory
Harlow, Harry
Developmental Psychology- experimented with infant monkeys and attachment
Julian Rotter
external/internal locus of control
B.F. Skinner
operant conditioning ("skinner's box")
Harry Stack Sullivan
1892-1949; Field: psychoanalysis; Contributions: groundwork for enmeshed relationships, developed the Self-System-a configuration of personality traits
Stanley Schachter
Motivation and Emotion, two-factor theory of emotion
Lawrence Kohlberg
Developmental psychology, stage theory of moral development (preconventional, conventional and postconventional)
sigmund freud
psychoanalytical theory that focuses on the unconscious
Id-Ego-Superego
Kohlberg, Lawrence
Developmental Psychology- Stage theory of moral development (preconventional, conventional, postconventional)
Kagan, Jerome
Conducted longitudinal studies on temperament (infancy to adolescence)
Phillip Zimbardo
stanford prison experiment; importance of social roles
Carl Jung
-Believed that the collective unconscious was the driving force in personality development
Elizabeth Loftus
-Performed many memory studies-Traffic accident reconstruction: Recall a more serious accident than had witnessed-Experimented with implanting false memories of childhood traumas
Robert Rescorla
Learning, the contingency model of classical conditioning
simon asch
study on conformity.
his experiment had a subject unaware of his situation, test to see if he would conform if all of the members of a group gave an incorrect answer
Konrad Lorenz
researcher who focused on critical attachment periods in baby birds, a concept he called imprinting
Paul Ekman
emotion; found that facial expressions are universal
Alfred Binet
created the basis for IQ testing
Nathaniel Kleitman
sleep psychology, created the sleep cycle
David Weschler
-Created the WAIS (Adult Intelligence Scale) and the WISC (Intelligence Scale for Children)-the primary clinical instruments used to measure adult and adolescent intelligence
charles darwin
theory of evolution, survival of the fittest-origin of the species
Alfred Binet (and Simon)
-Created an intelligenced scale designed to distinguish among "mentally deficient" children in the Paris school system-Mental age: method of estimating a child's intellectual progress by comparing child's IQ score to the scores of average children of the same age
water b. cannon
he believed that gastric activity in an empty stomach was the sole basis for hunger (false)
Freud, Sigmund
referred to as the father of clinical psychology/ extensive theory of personality development (psycho analysis) is the cornerstone for modern psychological thought and consists of (1) the psychosexual stages of development, (2) the structural model of personality (id, ego, superego), and (3) levels of consciousness (conscious, subconscious, and unconscious).
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