S12 Citywide Sprinkler System_1_1_2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Concealed Sprinkler
A recessed sprinkler with a cover plate
Combination Standpipe and Sprinkler System
A system where the water piping services both 21⁄2 in. (65 mm) outlets for fire department use and outlets for automatic sprinklers.
Antifreeze Sprinkler System
A wet pipe sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system that contains an antifreeze solution and is connected to a water supply.
Control Valve
A valve controlling flow to water-based fire protection systems. OS & Y valve (Outside Stem and Yoke valve) is an indicating type of control valve used for fire sprinkler system.
Deluge Valve
A water supply control valve intended to be operated by actuation of an automatic detection system that is installed in the same area as the discharge devices. Each deluge valve is intended to be capable of automatic and manual operation.
Records
minimum of 3 years (all system inspections, tests, servicing and other maintenance required by this code)
Impairment coordinator
In the absence of a specific designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment coordinator.
Planned removal from service
scheduled inspection, testing, regular maintenance, minor repairs or for construction affecting not more than 1 floor.
Unplanned out of service condition
serious defect in the sprinkler system (an empty tank, a break or major leak in the system's water piping, inoperative or shut water supply valves, defective fire department connections, construction related shut downs affecting more than one floor, or complete or partial shut downs of the sprinkler system, other than a shut down for a planned removal from service)
Fire Department Notifications For Out of Service Conditions
For a planned removal from service. no notification to the Fire Department is required provided the system will be returned to service within an 8 hour period and when all other fire protection systems in the building (standpipes and alarm systems) are fully operational.
The initial Fire Department notification shall include the following:
1. A brief description and extent of the out of service condition. 2. The area of the building affected.
3. The type of occupancy
4. The estimated time the system will be out of service.
5. The name and phone number of the person making the notification.
observes a minor defect or other condition
report the defect or condition to the owner, and if the defect or condition is not corrected within 30 days it shall be deemed to be an impairment and reported in writing to the Fire Department.
Identifying OOS Systems Using Discs/Tags
placing a tag at each of the following locations: fire department connections, system control valves, fire command center or other clearly visible location in the lobby of the building, indicating which system or part thereof is out of service.
Tag Requirement
indicate the area affected, a brief description of the condition, the occupancy classification, C of F number and the estimated time until the system becomes operational. Drain test results shall be posted on the tag indicating both the static and flow pressures before and after the system was placed in an out of service condition.
If no impairment is found
green tags will be placed on the main control valve.
Systems Fully Out of Service
White disc 8 to 9 inches in diameter on all affected fire department connections. A RED tag shall be placed at the main control valve indicating the sprinkler company name, date of removal from service and anticipated return to service date.
Systems Partially Out of Service
Blue Disc 8 to 9 inches in diameter on all affected fire department connections. An Red tag shall be placed at the main control valve and any closed sectional valve indicating the company name, date of removal from service and anticipated return to service date.
Approved nonfreezing solutions
including glycerin not greater than 50%, and propylene glycol not greater than 40% non-freezing solution. Sprinkler heads subject to damage shall be protected.
Master Plumber (MP)
with S-12 is limited to residential (R) occupancies 30 sprinkler heads or less without a booster pump.
Combination Standpipe and Sprinkler System
A system where the water piping services both 21⁄2 in. (65 mm) outlets for fire department use and outlets for automatic sprinklers.
Deluge Sprinkler System
A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers that are attached to a piping system that is connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached.
Dry Pipe Sprinkler System
A sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system containing air or nitrogen under pressure. The release of the air or nitrogen,(as from the opening of a sprinkler) results in the water pressure opening a valve known as a dry pipe valve, resulting in the flow of water into the piping system and out of the fused sprinklers heads.
Dry Sprinkler
A sprinkler secured in an extension nipple that has a seal at the inlet to prevent water from entering the nipple until the sprinkler operates. May be configured with an upright, pendent or sidewall sprinkler.
Extra Large Orifice Sprinklers (ELO)
A sprinkler head with and orifice size equal to or greater than 1". Pparticularly for protection of high piled storage in warehouses and less pressure is required to achieve a given discharge density.
Extended Coverage Sprinklers
A type of spray sprinkler with a maximum area of coverage of 400 square feet (20 foot by 20 foot spacing between sprinklers) for light hazard occupancies to a maximum of 144 square feet (12 foot by 12 foot spacing between sprinklers) for extra hazard occupancies.
Fire Pump
fire pump is a part of a fire sprinkler system's water supply and can be powered by electric, diesel or steam. The pump intake is either connected to the public underground water supply piping or a static water source (e.g., tank, reservoir, lake). The pump provides water flow at higher pressure to the sprinkler system risers and hose standpipes.
Glass Bulb Sprinkler
A sprinkler operated by heat breaking a glass bulb filled with a non freezing liquid with diameters that vary from 3mm for quick response sprinklers to 5mm for standard response sprinklers.
Hydraulic Placard
A sign attached to a hydraulically calculated sprinkler system indicating the design density, required gallons per minute and pressure for the system to operate properly.
Hydraulically Calculated Systems
A method of sizing automatic sprinkler piping using a prescribed amount of water to be distributed over a specific area.
Impairment Coordinator
The person responsible for ensuring that proper safety precautions are taken when a fire protection system is placed out of service
Intermediate Level Sprinkler/Rack Storage Sprinkler
A sprinkler equipped with integral shields to protect the operating element from discharge from sprinklers installed at higher elevations.
Large orifice sprinkler
A sprinkler head with and orifice size equal to or greater than 3⁄4" and less than 1".
Listed Device
A fire protection component that has been tested to perform under parameters specified for its use by a nationally recognized testing agency. Underwriter's Laboratory (UL) and Factory Mutual (FM) are the two most common.
Main Drain
The primary drain connection located on the system riser and also utilized as a flow test connection
Old-Style/Conventional Sprinkler
A sprinkler that directs 40% to 60% of the water initially in a downward direction and is designed to be installed with the deflector in either the upright or pendent position.
Pendent Sprinkler
A sprinkler designed to be installed in such a way that the water stream is directed downward against the deflector
Pintle Screws
A visual indicating device required for sprinklers manufactured prior to 1999 identifying small orifice sprinklers and large orifice sprinklers where orifice size is different than the nominal thread size of the sprinkler head
Pipe Schedule Systems
A method of sizing piping based upon the number of sprinkler heads and the occupancy of the protected area
Preaction Sprinkler System
A sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system that contains air that may or may not be under pressure, with a supplemental detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers.
Pressure Control Valve
A pilot operated pressure reducing valve that may be used with a fire or booster pump designed for the purpose of preventing the incoming water supply pressure from dropping below a set pressure.
Pressure-Reducing Valve
A valve designed for the purpose of reducing the downstream water pressure under both flowing (residual) and nonflowing (static) conditions.
Pressure Relief Valve
A valve designed for the purpose of releasing excess air or water pressure from the Fire Protection Piping System.
Pressure Tank
A tank using air pressure to supplying water for water-based fire protection systems. Tank contents to be maintained at one third air to two thirds water.
Quick Response Sprinkler Head
A sprinkler having a fusible link with a response time index (RTI) of 50 or less.
Recessed Sprinkler
A sprinkler in which all or part of the body, other than the shank thread, is mounted above the ceiling.
Residential Sprinkler
A type of fast response sprinkler that has been specifically tested to enhance survivability in the room of fire origin and listed for use in dwelling units.
Response Time Index (RTI)
A measurement of the thermal sensitivity of a sprinkler head expressed in (meters-seconds) 1/2.
Sprinkler Identification Number (SIN)
Sprinklers manufactured after Jan. 1, 2000 are required to be marked to identify performance characteristics.
Supervisory signal
A signal indicating the need for action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, fire extinguishing systems or equipment, fire alarm systems or the maintenance features of related systems.
Sidewall Sprinkler
A sprinkler having special deflectors that are designed to discharge most of the water away from the nearby wall.
Small orifice sprinklers
A sprinkler head with and orifice size smaller than 1⁄2".
Solder Link Sprinkler
A sprinkler operated by the melting of a metal link, they vary in size and configuration for quick response and standard response sprinklers. The smaller the size of the link, the faster the sprinkler operates.
Spray Sprinkler
A type of sprinkler listed for its capability to provide fire control for a wide range of fire hazards. The most commonly used sprinkler since 1953.
Standard Response Sprinkler Head
A sprinkler having a fusible link with a response time index (RTI) of 80 or more.
Supervisory signal-initiating device
An initiating device, such as a valve supervisory switch, water level indicator, or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe or pre-action sprinkler system, that triggers a supervisory signal.
automatic sprinklers in places exposed to freezing
dry pipe systems, deluge systems, or preaction systems. The other method adds an antifreeze solution to the water in the wet pipe system.
Existing Cold Weather Valves
parts of the sprinkler system may be shut down. Permission must be obtained from the local fire house. Permission may be given to shut off a maximum of 10 sprinkler heads on a wet pipe system. These shutoff valves are commonly referred to as cold weather valves. These valves are no longer permitted to be installed
AUTOMATIC DRY SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
piping in the system is filled with air or nitrogen under pressure. The air pressure in the piping is controlled automatically by an air maintenance device. When a sprinkler head is opened by the heat from a fire, the air pressure is reduced in the piping. The drop in air pressure causes a special dry pipe valve to open. A supervisory device signals when the valve is opened.
Dry Pipe Valve Designs
The air pressure in the system keeps the clapper closed. Most dry pipe valves are designed so that a moderate air pressure in a dry pipe system will hold back a much greater water pressure. When the clapper has opened the valve is said to have tripped. Most dry pipe valves are designed so that a moderate air pressure in a dry pipe system will hold back a much greater water pressure. When the clapper has opened the valve is said to have tripped.
Fire Hydrant
A valve connection on a water supply system having one or more outlets
and that is used to supply hose and fire department connections with water.
Hose Valve
The valve to an individual hose connection
Preaction System with a Recycling Feature
A special kind of preaction system is a
recycling system for controlling sprinklers. This system shuts off the water when the fire
has been put out or the heat drops. If the fire rekindles or the heat rises sharply, water is
discharged again. The system continues cycling on and off as long as the fire persists.
DELUGE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
A deluge sprinkler system is equipped with open sprinkler heads designed to wet down an
entire area involved in a fire. This system is needed when there is danger of a fire rapidly
spreading throughout the building. The deluge system will slow down the spread of the
fire. Deluge systems are suitable for hazardous occupancies. This includes buildings in
which flammable liquids or other hazardous materials are handled or stored.
Pumper Connections for Fire Department Use:
Normally a sprinkler system is
connected to an automatic water supply source. Auxiliary sources of water are supplied
through Fire Department connections at the building. Fire Department connections are a
standard part of most sprinkler systems. When responding to an alarm most Fire
Departments supply water to the standpipe system first. The standpipe system supplies
water to the fire hoses to be used within the building. Water is then supplied to the
sprinkler system through its own Fire Department connection.
Functions of Alarms and Supervisory Signals
A sprinkler system with a water alarm
serves two functions: 1) It is an effective fire extinguishing system, and 2) It is an
automatic fire alarm. An alarm is signaled as soon as a sprinkler head has opened. This
is important since it allows the occupants' time to leave the building. It also signals that
the Fire Department should be summoned.
Waterflow Alarm Valves
The basic design of most water-flow alarm valves is that of a
check valve which lifts from its seat when water flows into a sprinkler system. This alarm
then starts an audible signal to alert the occupants in the building that the sprinkler
system has been activated.
Alarm Retarding Devices
An alarm check valve that is exposed to changing water
supply pressure needs an alarm retarding device. This is required to prevent false alarms
when the check valve clapper is lifted from its seat by a temporary pressure surge. Vane
type water flow switches sensitivity can also be adjusted to changing water pressures.
Vane type waterflow
Switches have a paddle inserted inside the main supply piping
perpendicular to the direction of flow. Upon waterflow, the paddle switch transmits an
alarm. Vane type waterflow switches cannot be installed to monitor waterflow in dry pipe
sprinkler systems.
GRAVITY TANKS
Gravity tanks are used for water storage. They are made of wood, steel or concrete.
Gravity tanks are used as a primary or secondary water supply source for sprinkler
systems. A gravity tank system delivers water from the tank through the sprinkler system
without the use of pumping equipment.
A gravity tank should be at least 25 feet above the highest line of sprinkler heads that it
supplies. Tanks may be located on the tops of buildings or raised on tall supporting
towers.
The Centrifugal Pump
The centrifugal fire pump is the standard pump currently used in
fire protection systems. This is the preferred pump because it is reliable, compact,
requires low maintenance, and it can be powered by a variety of drivers including: electric
motors, internal combustion engines, and steam turbines.
Pressure Maintenance Pumps (Jockey Pumps)
Pressure maintenance pumps,
Some times referred to as jockey, or makeup pumps, are often found on sprinkler systems.
These pumps are designed to automatically operate when there is a slight drop in pressure
due to the leakage in the system or a pressure surge. The jockey pump restores the
pressure in the fire protection system to the desired level. When the drop of pressure in
the system greater than the capacity of the jockey pump the fire pump is activated.
Booster pumps/special service pumps
Booster pumps are sometimes used in sprinkler
systems. They small pumps with limited power are usually located in the basement or
taking suction from gravity tanks. The booster pump is used when the water pressure
available at the highest sprinkler head does not quite meet the needs of the sprinkler
system. This small pump increases the water pressure in the sprinkler system until it
reaches acceptable levels. The booster pump should not be confused with the fire pump or
the jockey pump.
Fire Pump Location
The fire pump should be housed in a room that is fire resistant or
constructed noncombustible material. The pump room should be located as close as
possible to the fire protection system. The pump room should be kept clean and accessible
at all times. The fire pump, driver, and controller should be protected against possible
interruption of service. The temperature inside the pump room should be maintained
above 40 degrees Fahrenheit at all times to prevent freezing of the water. The pump roomshould only be used for fire protection functions and not for general plant operations. No
storage is permitted in this room.
Branch lines
directly connected to sprinkler heads.
Cross mains or loop mains
directly connected to branch lines.
Feed mains
directly connected to cross mains or loop mains.
Risers
able to supply feed mains or cross mains directly.
Standard wall steel pipe with diameters 1 inch and 1 ¼ inch
required to have hangers
placed at a maximum of 12 feet apart. For all other pipe diameters the maximum distance
between hangers is 15 ft.
The maximum hanger spacing for threaded light wall steel pipe shall not exceed
12 ft
apart.
For systems operating at less than 100 psi, the unsupported length between the end
sprinkler head and the last hanger on the line
shall not exceed 36 inches for 1 inch piping,
48 inches for 1 ¼ inch piping, and 60 inches for piping 1 ½ inch or larger.
The maximum hanger spacing for CPVC (plastic) pipe varies from a maximum
5 ft 6 inches
for ¾ inch piping to a maximum10 ft on center for 3 inch.
For systems operating at pressures of 100 psi or greater, the hanger closest to the last
sprinkler on the line
shall be of the type that prevents the upward movement of the piping
within the hanger assembly. This can be accomplished by the use of a surge restrainer.
The cumulative length of an unsupported arm over to a sprinkler head, sprinkler drop, or
sprinkler sprig-up
shall not exceed 24 inches for steel pipe and 12 inches for copper pipe.
System risers (vertical piping passing from floor to floor)
shall be supported with riser
clamps and hangers located within 24 inches of the centerline of the riser.
The distance between supports for risers shall not exceed 25 feet.
Seismic Restraints Longitudinal braces shall be spaced
at a maximum of 80 feet on centers and are to be
provided on feed and cross mains.
Pipe Diameter in inches Up to and including 4
Rod Diameter in inches 3/8
Pipe Diameter in inches Five, Six and Eight
Rod Diameter in inches ½
Pipe Diameter in inches Ten and Twelve
Rod Diameter in inches 5/8
Seismic Restraints Lateral braces shall be spaced at a maximum of
at a maximum of 40 feet on centers and are required on all
piping 2 ½ inch and larger. The distance from the last brace to the end of the pipe being
braced shall not exceed 20 feet.
Seismic Restraints Piping shall be protected against damage where subject to earthquakes
by the use of
flexible couplings for piping 2 ½ inch and larger. Flexible connection shall also be provided
at building expansion joints, and within 24 inches of top and bottom of the piping dropping
down to in rack sprinklers and mezzanines regardless of pipe size.
To avoid damage to piping passing through holes in platforms, walls, floors and
foundations, a clearance
least 2 inches shall be provided around the piping and the
penetration. If this is not provided a flexible couplings shall be provided within 1 foot on
both sides of the wall, floor, beam openings or platforms.
Risers exceeding 3 feet in length shall be equipped with a four way brace with distances
between braces not to exceed 25 feet.
Pump Inspection and Maintenance
The pump should be activated each week and run for
10 minutes in accordance to the manufacturer specifications to ensure that it is
functioning properly. When the pump is in operation a small water leak on the pump
bearings is desirable and should not be considered a malfunction
Factors that may require further investigation:
Installations that don't appear to be
correct including sprinkler heads located more than 22 inches below the ceiling or
structure, sprinklers not installed in accordance with their listing, using sprinklers with
different RTI in the same protected area or the wrong RTI for the occupancy classification,
undersized piping, incompatible piping materials, flexible sprinkler hoses not attached to
the building structure, along with areas of the building not protected by the sprinkler
system all require further investigation by a qualified MFSPC
Gauges on dry, preaction and deluge systems shall be inspected?
Shall be inspcted weekly
Gauges Where air pressure supervision is connected to a constantly attended
location shall be inspected?
Shall be inspcted monthly
Gauges on wet pipe sprinkler system shall be inspected?
Shall be inspcted monthly to ensure good
condition & that normal water supply pressure are being maintained
Alarm Devices Alarm devices shall be inspected?
Shall be inspcted quarterly to verify that they are free of
physical damage.
Hydraulic Name Plate for hydraulically designed systems shall be inspected?
Shall be inspcted quarterly to ensure
that it is attached securely to the sprinkler riser or sprinkler control valve
and is legible.
Hanger/Seismic Braces Hangers installed in concealed space such as above suspended ceilings.
Shall not
need inspection
Pipe and Fittings Shall be inspected?
annually from the floor level to ensure there is no mechanical
damage, leakage, corrosion, misalignment and that required supports and bracing are in place and are in good condition.
Hangers installed in areas that are inaccessible for safety considerations due to
process operations shall be inspected
during each scheduled shutdown.
- Hangers and braces shall be inspected annually from floor level to ensure they are
in place, properly aligned and otherwise not damaged. All defects and deficiencies
shall be corrected.
Interior Inspection- The interior of steel tanks without corrosion protection.
shall be
inspected every 3 years
Spare Sprinkler Heads/Wrenches The supply shall be inspected
Shall be inspcted annually for the proper number and type of
sprinklers and a sprinkler wrench for each type of sprinkler.
Dedicated automatic sprinker valve handle must be paint what color?
Valve must be painted Green
Dedicated Standpipe sprinker valve handle must be paint what color?
Valve must be painted Red
combination standpipe valve must be paint what color?
Valve must be painted Yellow
Standpipe Branch Piping
Thevalve stations. portion of the piping system connecting one or more hose
Sprinkler Cross Mains
The portion of the piping system connecting supplying the branch
lines either directly or through risers
Sprinkler Feed Mains
The portion of the piping system downstream of a sectional or floor
control valve supplying cross mains
Sprinkler Branch Piping
The portion of the piping system to which the sprinkler heads
or nozzles are directly connected to.
Standpipe and Sprinkler Feed Mains
The portion of the standpipe or sprinkler system
piping that supplies water to one or more standpipe or sprinkler risers
Standpipe and Sprinkler Cross Connections
The portion of the standpipe or sprinkler
system that interconnects the feed mains and risers to the fire department connections.
Standpipe and Sprinkler Risers
The vertical portion of the system piping that delivers
the water supply for hose connections, and sprinklers on stand alone as well as combined
systems, vertically from floor to floor.
Fire Department Connections
The portion of the standpipe or sprinkler system that is
connected to the fire department pumper connection and supplies the standpipe and
sprinkler feed mains, cross connections, and risers.
All handles of Indicating Valves
These handles control controlling the water supplies to
the standpipe and sprinkler systems.
Street water supply
The portion of system piping connected to the discharge of the water
meter to the main sprinkler control valves.
Sprinkler Systems
At 5 year intervals, a full flow test shall be conducted on pressure reducing
valves and shall be compared to previous test result and the results from the
original installation or acceptance test. Annually, a partial flow test shall be
conducted with a flow rate great enough to lift the valve seat. (For reference
Section 12.5.1.3 NFPA 25)
Circulation Relief
During the annual fire pump test, the closure of circulation relief valve shall be
verified to be in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.
Pressure Relief Valves
During the annual fire pump flow test, the pressure of relief valve shall be
verified to be correctly adjusted and set to relieve at the correct pressure and
to close below that pressure setting.
Sprinkler systems equipped with hose racks
A full flow test shall be conducted on each valve at 5 years intervals and shall
be compared to previous test results.
Backflow prevention assemblies
installed in fire protection system piping shall be tested
annually in accordance with the following:
1- A forward flow test shall be conducted at the system demand, including hose
stream demand, where hydrants or inside hose stations are located
downstream of the backflow preventer.
2- A backflow performance test, as required by the authority having
jurisdiction shall be conducted at the completion of the forward flow test.
Low point drain (dry pipe system):
Shall be drained after each operation and before the onset of freezing weather
conditions.
Fire Booster and Special Service pumps
A preventive maintenance program shall be maintained on all components of the
pump assembly in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. If there is
no manufacturer's recommendations for preventive maintenance use Table 8.5.3
of NFPA 25, 2002
Water Storage Tank,
Water Level
Tank shall be maintained full or at the designed water level
Drain Silt
Silt shall be removed during interior inspection (semiannually) or more
frequently as needed to avoid accumulation to the level of the tank outlet.
Sprinklers replaced without SIN identification
must be replaced with devices that perform
Residential/hotels group R (J in pre 2008 code) residential sprinklers are required in all
sleeping compartments. Quick response sprinklers are required in all other portions of the facility.
Sprinkler system
A fire extinguishing system, other than a mist fire extinguishing
system that utilizes water as the extinguishing agent.
Water Spray Fixed System
A special fixed pipe system connected to a reliable fire
protection water supply and equipped with water spray nozzles for specific water discharge
and distribution over the surface or area to be protected. The piping system is connected to
the water supply through an automatically or manually actuated valve that initiates the
flow of water. An automatic valve is actuated by operation of automatic detection or
manual release equipment installed in the same areas as the water spray nozzles. (In
special cases, the automatic detection system may also be located in another area.)
Water Tank - A tank supplying water for water-based fire protection systems
Dry Pipe Valve Designs
These valves prevent water from flowing into the piping until a
sprinkler head has opened. The air pressure in the system keeps the clapper closed. This
clapper prevents the water from flowing into the system. When the sprinkler head opens it
causes a drop of pressure in the piping. This causes the valve to open and allows water
into system. Most dry pipe valves are designed so that a moderate air pressure in a dry
pipe system will hold back a much greater water pressure. When the clapper has opened
the valve is said to have tripped.
Quick Opening Devices
In a dry pipe system there is a delay between the opening of a
sprinkler and the discharge of water. This delay may allow the fire to spread and more
sprinkler heads to open. The delay is due to the time required for the air leave the
sprinkler piping. This difficulty may be partly overcome by the installation of quick
opening devices.
PREACTION SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
Preaction systems are designed for situations where there is danger of serious water
damage. Water damage is usually caused by damaged sprinklers or broken piping. Under
normal conditions there is no water in the piping. The air in the piping may or may not be
is under pressure. A preaction valve prevents the water from entering the system. The
valve is automatically opened when a fire detection system discovers that there is a fire or
smoke condition. The preaction valve is tripped by the fire detection system before any of
the sprinkler heads open. A supervisory device signals when the valve is opened. The
preaction valve can also be operated manually.
Combined Dry Pipe and Preaction Systems
These systems have the basic features of
both types of systems. The piping system contains air under pressure. A heat detecting
device opens the water control valve and a quick opening device. The system then fills with
water and operates as a wet pipe system. If the heat detecting system fails, the system will
operate as a standard dry pipe system.
DELUGE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
A deluge sprinkler system is equipped with open sprinkler heads designed to wet down an
entire area involved in a fire. This system is needed when there is danger of a fire rapidly
spreading throughout the building. The deluge system will slow down the spread of the
fire. Deluge systems are suitable for hazardous occupancies. This includes buildings in
which flammable liquids or other hazardous materials are handled or stored.
NON-AUTOMATIC DRY SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
There are several non-automatic systems: 1) Perforated pipe systems - a single line of
piping drilled at intervals for water discharge. These systems are usually found in
basements or other areas difficult to reach in fire fighting operations. 2) Open fixed spray
nozzles for transformer vaults or other hazardous areas; 3) exterior exposure sprinklers (or
window sprinklers) use open sprinkler heads to form an external water curtain on the walls
of a building, and 4) Foam supply systems are used for the protection of special hazardous
occupancies
NON-AUTOMATIC DRY SPRINKLER SYSTEM
In this type of system all pipes are normally dry. Water is supplied when needed by
pumping water into the system through the Fire Department connection. Some of these
systems are supplied by manual operation of a water control valve and may be equipped
with sprinklers with or without fusible links
Waterflow Alarm Valves
The basic design of most water-flow alarm valves is that of a
check valve which lifts from its seat when water flows into a sprinkler system. This alarm
then starts an audible signal to alert the occupants in the building that the sprinkler
system has been activated.
PRESSURE TANKS
Pressure tanks are enclosed water tanks of limited size. Air pressure in the tank permits
forceful discharge of water in the tank into the sprinkler system. A pressure tank may be
30
30
used as a primary or secondary water supply for a sprinkler system. A pressure tank is
usually housed in an enclosed structure. The temperature in the enclosure is kept at 40°
Fahrenheit or above. The heated structure may be located anywhere in the side or even
outside of the building.
Pressure Tank Alarms
All pressure tanks used to provide the required primary water
supply for a sprinkler system shall be equipped with two high and low alarm systems. One
system monitors the high and low air pressure. The other system monitors the high and
low water levels. The alarm system automatically monitors the air-to-water volume ratio
which should always be 1 (air) to 2 (water). An alarm signals the Certificate of Fitness
holder or Central Station operator when the water level or the air pressure falls too high or
too low. When this occur the pressure tanks should be adjusted or repaired immediately
Supervision of the Pressure Tank
The pressure tank may also be supervised by an
approved central station company which monitors the entire sprinkler system. Supervisory
devices are installed in the pressure tank. These devices alert the central station company
when there is a problem with the tank's water level, air pressure, and water temperature.
The devices also alert the central station company when water has been discharged from
the tank. When sprinkler heads have fused and water has been discharged from the tank
the local fire house is notified.
Operation and Supervision
When fire pumps are activated by electric automatic
controllers it is essential that they are constantly monitored to ensure the availability of the
electrical power supply in case of an emergency. For this reason supervisory devices are
installed on the pumps the alert the Certificate of Fitness holder and/or a central
monitoring station when there is an electrical power failure. In cases where steam turbines
or internal combustion engines are used similar supervisory devices are installed to signal
when there is a problem with the controlling equipment
HANGING, BRACING AND RESTRAINT OF SPRINKLER SYSTEM
PIPING
The annual visual inspection of system hanging components and bracing is the most
complicated and difficult of all the tasks to be performed by the C of F holder. This
reference is a starting point and by no means does it fully explain the various means,
methods and requirements to adequately perform this annual inspection task.
Chapter 9 of the NFPA#13 2002 edition describes in great detail the fundamentals of
hanger design and installation and should be used as a reference guide for accurate
inspection results that will be reported to the owner and FDNY.
Inspection and Maintenance of Pressure Tanks
The inside of pressure tanks shall be inspected carefully every three years. Rusting in the
tank may require repainting or other repairs. The inside of the tank should be thoroughly
scraped, wire brushed and repainted. No foreign materials should be allowed to fall into
the sprinkler system.
Inspection and Maintenance of the Gravity Tank
The gravity tank should be regularly
inspected and maintained in accordance with NFPA #25, 2002 edition.
Pump Inspection and Maintenance
In order to ensure the reliable operation of the
pump in the case of an emergency regular inspections and maintenance shall be conducted
by the Certificate of Fitness holder. The pump should be activated each week and run for
10 minutes in accordance to the manufacturer specifications to ensure that it is
functioning properly. When the pump is in operation a small water leak on the pump
bearings is desirable and should not be considered a malfunction.
Common Deficiencies
The most common sprinkler system deficiencies include painted
or loaded sprinkler heads, building contents located less than 18 inches below sprinkler
deflectors, changes from the original wall locations, ceiling heights, and positioning of
mechanical equipment. For concealed sprinkler systems, cover plates with non-factory
coatings and the lack of required gap between cover plate and ceiling and blocking of the
spray patterns from light fixtures close to the sprinklers are the most common deficiencies
seen in the field. Missing trim or cover plates not attached properly to sprinklers may
indicate hanger deficiencies and may not allow the sprinkler deflectors to drop below the
ceiling blocking the spray pattern.
inspection Gauges Where air pressure supervision is connected to a constantly attended
location
shall be inspected monthly
Alarm Devices shall be inspected
quarterly to verify that they are free of
physical damage.
inspection Hydraulic Name Plate
For hydraulically designed systems shall be inspected quarterly to ensure
that it is attached securely to the sprinkler riser or sprinkler control valve
and is legible
inspection Old Sprinklers
Where sprinklers have been in service for 50 yrs shall be replaced or
representative samples from one of more sample areas shall be tested. Sprinklers
from sample areas that do not pass performance tests shall be replaced. Test
procedures shall be repeated at 10 yr intervals. All sprinkler heads
manufactured prior to 1920 shall be replaced.
Water Storage Tank:
Temperature Alarms Low water temperature alarms
shall be tested monthly cold weather only.
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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