PSYCH*012 -Chapter 09 - Human Growth and Development Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What does your text suggest is the most significant physical development of middle childhood?
Improvement in fine motor coordination that makes it possible to write, play a musical instrument, paint, and draw
Which of the following statements is correct regarding girls' and boys' physical development during middle childhood?
girls are more advanced than boys in skeletal and muscular maturation, which makes girls more coordinated
Which two areas of the brain undergo major growth spurts during middle childhood?
Sensory and motor areas and the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex
The attention span of the average fourth-grader is much longer than that of the average first grader. Which of the following biological changes is primarily responsible for this?
Continued myelination of the frontal lobes and reticular formation and the nerves that link the two
Which of the following is NOT an improvement in cognitive function as a result of brain growth and development in middle childhood?
Person perception
In which part(s) of the brain are the sensory, motor, and intellectual functions linked together?
Association areas
You are a nurse who is asked to place an IV in a patient's non-dominant arm. What ability allows you to tell where the IV should be placed?
Relative right-left coordination
Which of the following abilities would be particularly important to a basketball player?
Spatial cognition
Bicycle accidents account for about ____ of all cases of traumatic brain injury?
Which of the following pose the most significant health risks among school-aged children?
Accidents and obesity
Laws requiring bicyclists to wear helmets are estimated to reduce death rates due to bicycle accidents by as much as ____?
According to your textbook, 1 in ___ children between the ages of 6 and 11 are obese.
Children whose BMIs are between the 85th and 95th percentiles are classified as ___________.
Elevated cholesterol or high blood pressure among children is most closely associated with which of the following?
Public health officials believe that the current levels of obesity among children and adults in the United States can be attributed to which of the following?convenience food
Decreased physical activity and increased consumption of high-calorie
Between the ages of 6 and 12, children add roughly how many words per year to their vocabulary?
5,000 to 10,000
Which of the following is an example of a derived word?
Concrete operations permit children to understand
relations among objects.
Gabbie is trying to decide what to wear today. It is going to be raining this morning but should be clearing off later. In addition, Gabbie knows that she has riding lessons after school, so she needs to take that into account when she chooses her clothes. On top of that, today is the pep rally, meaning Gabbie is expected to wear her school colors. In order to select an appropriate outfit without assistance, Gabbie must be capable of which of the following?
Why would a group of preoperational children find magic tricks uninteresting?
Because they don't understand natural laws.
Which of the following is an example of what Piaget termed concrete operations?
A child who understands conservation of mass or volume would, of necessity, also understand which of the following?
Which of the following best defines inductive logic?
The ability to use experience to create a general principle
Which of the following is the best example of a child's use of inductive logic?
Imani's teacher was kind on the first day of class. From that he assumed that she is probably a nice person.
Which of the following best defines deductive logic?
Reasoning based on hypothetical premises that requires the ability to use a general principle to predict a specific outcome
Anthony knows that not everyone goes to college and those who do are not guaranteed to graduate. From this he decided that college is probably difficult as well as time consuming. What type of logic did Anthony use to draw these conclusions?
Deductive logic
Which of the following is the best example of a child's use of deductive logic?
For her assignment in language arts class, Lateefah wrote a paper about what her life would be like if she were a boy.
If Doreen understands class inclusion, then she understands
that dogs are mammals and that mammals are animals.
Siegler suggests that children's cognitive development occurs with which of the following?
The acquisition of basic rules that are then applied to new problems on the basis of experience
In Robert Siegler's research on problem solving, children who use Rule I
take into account only one dimension of a problem.
Which of the following represents the key contrast between Piaget's and Siegler's views on children's cognitive development?
Age versus experience
Which one of the following questions would be the focus of psychologists who use the information-processing perspective to understand children's cognitive development?
How does the efficient use of short-term memory capacity change with age?
Which of the following is considered to be the basis of children's cognitive development, according to most theorists?
Increases in processing efficiency with age
Which of the following terms do developmentalists use to refer to the ability to make efficient use of short-term memory capacity?
Processing efficiency
In support of the hypothesis that improved processing efficiency accounts for cognitive development, researchers have found that children's thinking and response time
get faster with age
Which of the following terms applies to thinking about how to think?
A child who can tell you what study methods work best for different subjects or what subjects are hardest for her to learn would be displaying which of the following skills?
To help herself remember the items she was to get from the market, Anna repeated the five-item list over and over under her breath. This is an example of which information-processing strategy?
Which of the following is one of the information processing strategies described in your text?
Systematic searching
According to your textbook, 3 and 4-year olds are able to use scanning and systematic searching to do which of the following activities?
They would be able to think of the color they want to paint their bedroom while in the paint store.
On which of the following does a child's capacity for creativity depend?
The amount of knowledge they have about a topic
Memory skills, metacognitive abilities, and problem solving strategies are all part of which of the following?
Executive processes
A skill that is especially related to learning to read well in middle childhood is
phonological awareness.
During the middle childhood years, the main focus of education is on which of the following?
The ability to read and write
Mr. Henry likes to challenge his third-graders in their reading skills. He uses books that are just slightly above their current level. When a student is struggling with a word, Mr. Henry takes the opportunity to teach the child a new strategy for learning and speaking the word. Which approach to reading is Mr. Henry using?
The balanced approach
Reading researchers have found that poor readers tend to have the most difficulty with which of the following?
Sound-letter combinations
In 2008, there were approximately _____________ English language learner school children in the U.S.
At the beginning of the 21st century, approximately what percentage of U.S. classrooms had at least 1 ELL student?
Phoebe came to the United States from Puerto Rico. She speaks very little English but is in a special class that teaches her in both English and Spanish. Phoebe is in what type of program?
Bilingual education
Which of the following terms applies to those school children who are non-English-speaking, whether immigrant or native-born?
Limited English proficient
Which of the following best summarizes the research regarding bilingual education?
The research is inconclusive about the best approach to second-language learning.
Which of the following is an important component in helping ELL students perform well on achievement tests?
Teachers need to provide a transition to English-only curriculum.
When I.Q. tests are developed, the scores are determined by comparing individual students' scores to an overall average attained by giving the same test to large numbers of similar individuals. This process describes which of the following strategies?
Which type of tests are designed to access specific information that is taught, and hopefully learned, at school?
Achievement tests
In middle childhood, IQ tests may be used to
group children for instruction.
Which of the following is a distinguishing characteristic of culture-fair tests?
They minimize the impact of verbal knowledge.
Who is the theorist who proposed the idea of multiple intelligences?
Howard Gardner
According to Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, which of the following represents the ability to understand oneself?
Micah knows the difference between cedar and juniper trees. According to Gardner, what type of intelligence is Micah displaying?
Which of the following is the ability to use language effectively?
Linguistic intelligence
Which of the following types of intelligence allows one to develop good social skills?
Jennifer is very good at drawing and copying pictures. Which type of intelligence is Jennifer using?
Robert Sternberg would say that a child who knows he is expected to shake hands with adults but not necessarily his peers has what type of intelligence?
Sternberg's theory proposes three components of intelligence. What are they?
Contextual, experiential and componential
Emotional intelligence has three components: awareness of personal emotions, appropriate emotional expression, and
the ability to channel emotions into the pursuit of worthwhile goals.
Which of the following theorists is associated with intelligence measurement?
Howard Gardner.
Which of the following describes the tendency to focus on the details of a task?
Analytical style
In the United States, we value achievement and success. This is evident in things like the attention we pay to job promotions, fame, and grades in school. These things are all examples of what type of culture?
Which of the following summarizes a basic educational difference when comparing students from the United States and Asia?
Many U.S. students are dependent on calculators rather than their own math skills.
A child who has difficulty mastering specific academic skills such as reading, but who has normal intelligence and no physical or sensory handicaps, might be categorized as having which of the following?
A learning disability
According to your textbook, which of the following is a common reason why parents choose to homeschool their children?
They have strong religious beliefs.
A child who has academic and behavioral problems in school because he or she is more physically active and/or less attentive than peers may be classified as having which of the following?
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
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