AP Psychology Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
sharpness of vision
testable prediction, educated guess
Response or participant bias
ionic memory
remembering visual stimuli
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
scatter plot
graphs pairs of values
recognizes the existence of consciousness; view by John B. Watson and used by B.F. Skinner
semantic encoding
the meaning of information
responsible for automatic survival functions
According to Freud, thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior
The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
State of emotional and physical exhaustion, lowered productivity, and feelings of isolation, often caused by work-related pressures
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Case Study
in these studies, inveswtigators observe and then describe the individuals-one case- in great deal
linguistic relativity
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
Any accepted method for treating psychological disorders
defense mechanism in which unwanted feelings are directed towards a different object
two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
a tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency
In Jung's theory, the emotionally charged ideas and images that are rich in meaning and symbolism and exist within the collective unconscious.
a rule-of-thumb strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier also more error-prone than algorithms
type b
behavior pattern characterized by relaxed, unstressed approach to life
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
the process whereby a woman's reproductive capacity ceases
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
a knowledge representation or schema that contains knowledge about us, including our beliefs about our personality traits, physical characteristics, abilities, values, goals, and roles, as well as the knowledge that we exist as individuals
when a person ingests a life-threatening or lethal does of drugs.
form of chunking that involves dividing broad concepts into lesser concepts, categories, and facts.
All of the following personality factors are considered part of the “Big Five” EXCEPT
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain events or emotions will occur
Negative Reinforcers
The removal of unpleasant stimuli, such as pain.
tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
The process of information into the memory system--for example, by extracting meaning.
Psychoactive Drug
A chemical substance that changes one's perceptions and emotions
a chemical that provides an effective drug therapy for mood swings for bipolar disorders.
a collection of basic knowledge about a category of information; serves as a means of organization and interpretation of that information
A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans.
normal distribution
describes a symmetrical, bell shaped curve that shows the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes
Right Hemisphere
controls recognition of faces and tasks dealing with spatial relations(drawing); controls the left side of the body
organ lying between the stomach and small intestine; regulates blood sugar by secreting to regulating hormones insulin and glucagon
independent variable
variable that is manipulated by experimenter to determine whether it has an effect on the dependent variable
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
any destruction or damage to brain tissue
Cognitive dissonance
inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.
Spinal Cord
Nerves that form the connections between the brain and the peripheral nervous system and are encased in the spine
social psychologist
study how people interact and influence one another's behavior and mental processes, individually and in a group
the small gap between neurons across which nerve impulses are transmitted
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
Deja vu
That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
A category of psychoactive drugs that increase brain activity, arouse behavior, and increase mental alertness
informed consent
the agreement of participants to take part in an experiment and their acknowledgement that they understand the nature of their participation in the research, and have been fully informed about the general nature of the research, its goals, and methods
Opponent-Process Theory
the theory that the opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, black-white) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
James-Lange theory of emotion
A theory proposing that emotion-producing stimuli generate physical reactions, which in turn are perceived as felt emotions.
Personality Psychologists
study the qualities that make people unique and explore relationships among personality characteristics, behavior, and mental processes
a binocular cue for distance based on the degree of tension required to focus two eyes on the same object
physical dependence
a psychsiological need of a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is disontinued.
Contact Comfort
Harlow's study: baby monkeys prefer a cuddly soft "mother" to a wire "mother" that gives milk
Somatic Relaxation Training
provides a means of voluntarily reducing or preventing high levels of arousal by activating the somatic system.
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
the tendency to be more confident than correct-- to overestimate the accuracy of one's belief and judgements
visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
seeing mind and body as two different things that interact
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret
Peak Experiences
Maslow believed that the best most people could achieve was a "peak experience" which gives us a glimpse of being self actualized, i.e. a period where all seems to go right in out lives, then we slip back down somewhere less than self actualization.
secondary reinforcers
a previously neutral stimulus that, if paired with a stimulus that is already reinforcing, will itself take on reinforcing properties. such as praise
concrete operations
Piaget's stage in which children learn such concepts as conservation and mathematical transformations; about 7 - 11 years of age
auditory ossicles
three small bones that vibrate; link eardrum to the oval window which is attached to the cochlea
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.
temporal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next
cognitive perspective
the approach to psychology focuses on how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information.
aversive conditioning
a type of counter conditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
Convergent Thinking
A cognitive process (a mode of critical thinking) in which a person attempts to find a single, correct answer to a problem. This is opposite from divergent thinking in which a person generates many unique, creative responses to a single question or problem.
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
achievement test
a test designed to assess what a person has leanred.
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
CAT scan
allows for a detailed image to be taken of the internal tissues of the body.use x-rays aimed from multiple, different points around the patient to obtain their images
Retrograde amnesia
the loss of memories from before a traumatic event
psychological dependence
The psychological need to use a drug is referred to as ____________, (p. 204)
cross-sectional study
a study in which people of different ages are compared to one another
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
optic nerve
the point where the axons of the ganglion cells come together; at the back of the retina
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
William Masters & Virgina Johnson
The two researchers who idenitified the four-stage sexual response cycle.
Social-cultural psychology
look at how our thoughts and behaviors vary from people living in other cultures. Emphasize the influence culture has on the way we think and act.
Longitudinal Method
studies the same group of people for a long period of time
Extrinsic Motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
Autonomic nervous system
the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands
Nature vs. Nurture
Nature is what you were born with, your genes and nurture is the environment you are in
nature vs nurture
name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior
gate control theory of pain
pain can be lessened by shifting attention away from pain impulses
Somatoform Disorder
Conversion disorder
: a closed figured.
latent content
symbols in dreams
to feed and protect:
an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
falsifying symptoms to avoid responsibility.
electrically charged particles found both inside and outside a neuron; negative ions are found inside the cell membrane in a polarized neuron
Recovering information from memory stores.
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
(reticular activating system) controls arousal (wakefullness and alertness)
Spontaneous Recovery
Recurrence of an extinguished conditioned response, usually following a rest period
token economy
operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavor
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
natural chemicals released in the brain that have pain-killing and pleasure-inducing effects
Slow down nervous system functioning: alcohol, barbiturates, opium, morphine, and heroin
an understood rule for social behavior
the information transmitted by the source
a synthetic stimulant and mind hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intamacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and congnition
A nonspecific, emotional response to real or imagined challenges or threats; a result of a cognitive appraisal by the individual
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximation of a desired goal
another name for the Trichromatic (Three color) theory; the retina has three types of color receptors (Red,Green,Blue)
A gelatin-like structure containing a tuft of hairlike sensory receptor cells in the semicircular canals.
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.
Motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
amplified tracing of brain activity produced when electrodes positioned over the scalp transmit signals about the brain's electrical activity to an electroencephalograph machine
mental disorder in which people panic in situations in which escape or help might not be possible.
According to Piaget, the process by which new ideas and experiences are absorbed and incorporated into existing mental structures and behaviors
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
Availability Heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practices by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
statistical significance
a statistical criterion for rejecting the assumption of no differences in a particular study
electrical recording
as a method investigating brain functioning, a process of recording the electrical changes that occur in a specific neuron or groups of neurons in the brain in relation to particular activities or behaviors
Adjustible opening in the center of the eye through which light enters; opens wider when it's darker
Hans Eysenck's 2 Personality Factors
Extraversion/Intraversion and Stability/Instability
dependent variable
the experimental factor in psychology, the behavior or mental process-- that is being measure the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Inhibitory PSP
An electric potential that decreases the likelihood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.
a drug, often smoked, whose effects include euphoria, impairment of judgment and concentration and occasionally hallucinations; rarely reported as addictive
Ecological Approach
an approach to perception maintaining that humans and other species are so well adapted to their natural environment that many aspects of the world are perceived without requiring higher-level analysis and inferences
The process of growth and the realization of individual potential; in the humanistic view, a final level of psychological development in which a person attempts to minimize ill health, be fully functioning, have a superior perception of reality, and feel a strong sense of self-acceptance.
the best defense against bias, in which each individual is given a fair, random chance of selection
-theory that a memory isn't completely lost, but only misplaced among a number of memories that interfere with retrieval
The physical act resulting from an obsession. Typically a compulsive act is done in an attempt to alleviate the discomfort created by an obsession.
failure to recognize that our ideas originated with someone else
Somatosensory Cortex
Never fibers that carry information regarding tactile stimulation are routed through the spinal cord, to the brainstem, to the thalamus, and onto the somatosensory cortex in the brain's parietal lobe.
visual neurons that are specialized in detecting fine detail and color
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together, the events may be two stimuli (cc) or a response and its consequences (oc)
Adoption Studies
research carried out on children, adopted at birth by parents not related to them, to determine the relative influence of heredity and environment on human behavior
one's sense of self; according to Erickson, the adolescents's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
induced motion
Induced motion is the altered perceived velocity/direction of target motion by background motion
consists of the tectum and the tegmentum;
Variable-interval Schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer (reward) is delivered after predetermined but varying amounts of time, provided that the required response occurs at least once after each interval
Short-term Memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digets of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
Internal consistency
Degree of relationship among the items of a test, that is, the extent to which the same examinees tend to get each item right. Measures of reliability based upon a single testing are really measures of internal consistency.
Noam Chomsky
theorist who believed that humans have an inborn or "native" propensity to develop language. (Native = Nature).
the principle that a series of stimuli will be perceived as representing a unified form
Drive-deduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
Predictive Validity
Whether a test predicts the behavior (criterion) that it is supposed to predict, such as Binet's test and grades
comparison of at least two views or explanations of the same thing
health psychologists
A subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contributions to behavioral medicine
posthypnotic suggestion
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no loner hypnotized
Variable-ratio Schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer (reward) is delivered after a predetermined but variable number of responses has occurred
Vestibular Sense
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance
single blind experiments
an experiment in which the participants are unaware of which participants received the treatment
receptor cells
center of cells has rods(low lights 120-125 million)(bright color 7- 8 Million)
top-down processing
-active mind
-stress the role of interpretation and prior experience in the formations of perceptions
Delta waves
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
People with whom one shares a common identity- "Us"
representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose around a particular level
mental age
was developed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed this term which refers to the chronological age typical of a given performance
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage.
parasympathetic nervous system
the branch of the autonomic nervous system that regulates bodily processes, suhc as digestion, that replenish stores of energy
Self-Instructional Training
people learn to talk to themselves to guide their behavior in ways to help them cope more effectively.
short term memory
actively holds few items briefly ( about 7) before the information is either stored or forgotten
parallel processing
the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
cognitive map
A ___________ is a mental picture of one's envi­ronment, (p. 239)
aptitude test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance
Central Route to Persuasion
Occurs when people think carefully about a message & are influenced because they find the arguements compelling
1st task is to determine a figure from the ground
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
Children that fall in the top 2-3% IQs (usually about 130).
gate-control theory
theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological gate that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass onto the brain; the "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information from the brain.
wernickes area
area in left temporal lobe that deals with comprehending speech
CT (computed tomography) scan
Measures the reflection of an X-ray beam
Skinner's Approach to Psych
Psychology is the study of observable behavior
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
Conditioned Response (CR)
the learned pattern that is the same as the automatic unconditioned response
Empirically Derived Test
a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate btwn groups
measures of variability: range and standard deviation
variability - varies from the mean
range - the difference numerically from the largest and smallest numbers in a series
standard deviation - an index of the amount of variability in a set of data
REM/ paradoxical sleep
now-rare psychosurgical procedureonce used to calm patients (disconnect nerves between frontal lobes and the limbic system)
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction.
Positive or negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior.
Parietal Lobe
General senses and taste
Anxiety Disorders
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistant anziety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
largely Hippocratic views; described the role of consciousness- people strive to eliminate pain and attain pleasure
Defense mechanism by which people refuse to accept reality.
the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development.
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information
the stress and mental-health problems often found in immigrants trying to adjust to a new culture
Thought disorder
one characteristic of schizophrenia where the organization and connection of expressed ideas is not apparent
mental ability to learn from experiences, solve problems, use knowledge, and to adapt to new situations
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
unique qualities of humans: freedom and potential for personal growth. (Rogers, Maslow)
-humans are free rational beings with potential to grow; different from animals
a knowledge cluster or general conceptual framework that provides expectations about topics, events, objects, people, and situations in one's life
abnormal behavior often attributed to possession
treatment: trephining (drilling holes in head) allowed the evil spirit to escape the head and exorcisms used to cast demons out of the body
Physiological Theory
concerned with how brain structures, biochemicals, and genetics affect behavior. Depression: chemical imbalance. Aggression: brain damage to areas of self-control.
Langer & Rodin
Social Psychology; Helping behavior, personal responsibility; studied the effects of enhanced personal responsibility and helping behavior
counseling psychologist
psychologist who treats people with adjustment problems
mnemonic device
method of improving memory by associating new information with previously learned information
applying a grammatical rule too widely and thereby creating incorrect forms
Bipolar DIsorder
A mental abnormality involving swings of mood from mania to depression
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info
Clinical Approach
case studies, dream analysis, free association, highly subjective
belief of a preoperational child that all things are living just like him/her according to Piaget
an inner state that energizes people toward fulfillment of a goal
Situational Causes
interpreting the behavior of an individual as a function of external (environmental) factors
the transparent outer covering of the eye
Couples therapy
therapy that focuses on helping distressed couples resolve their conflicts and develop more effective communication skills
absolute threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 199)
the process of enhancing retention of a large amount of information by breaking it down into smaller more easily recalled chunks.
the neurons of the central nervous system that link the sensory and motor neurons in the transmission of sensory inputs and motor outputs
Flashbulb Memories
clear memory of an emotionally significant memory or event
can sometime be wrong as well
term describes a vivid memory of a personally significant and emotionalevent
Naturalistic observation
A descriptive research method in which researchers study behavior in its natural context.
Long-Term Store
Can store information for very long periods of time, perhaps even indefinitely.
Escape Learning
When an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation. Example: A rat moves into a different compartment of a shuttle box - the compartment that doesn't have an electrical current running though it.
Corpus Callosum
The bundle of nerve fibers connecting the brain's left and right hemispheres. In a procedure known as split-brain surgery, neurosurgeons cut the corpus callosum to prevent the spread of epileptic seizures by disrupting communication between the right and left hemispheres.
linear perspective
the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
multiple intelligences
Gardner's theory that there are seven types of intelligence (linguistic, mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinestic, interpersonal, intrapersonal)
mental set
the tendency to return to a problem-solving strategy that worked in the past
Monocular Cues
Depth perception cues that depend on information from either eye alone.
Three Color Theory
the retina contains three different Color receptors-one sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue-which when stimulated can produce perception of any color
cognitive psychology
the branch of psychology that focuses on such mental processes as thinking, problem solving, decision making, and use of language.
The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)
Confounding Variable
When two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out the specific effects. When an extraneous variable is confounded with an independent variable, a researcher cannot tell which is having an affect on the dependent variable.
Gender Roles
set of expected behaviors for males and females
receptor site
a location on a receptor neurons which is like a key to a lock (with a specific nerve transmitter); allows for orderly pathways
sensory cortex
the parts of the brain that receive information from the sensory receptors
George Sperling
all 9 numbers are there for short time, only can report 3
Sexual Response Cycle
It was described by Masters and Johnson and consists of four stages of bodily reaction: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
critical period hypothesis
an optimal time after birth during which an organism must be exposed to certain influences if it is to develop properly
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system.
Somnambulism (Sleep Walking)
Occurs when a person arises and wonders about while remaining asleep. Occurs within the 1st 2 hours of sleep, episodes may last 15 seconds to 30 minutes, and the cause is unknown.
one of the Big 5, a personality trait orients one's interests toward the outside world and other people, rather than inward
rooting reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 142)
content validity
a test in which each item is representative of the larger body of knowledge about the subject that the test covers
terminal buttons
Small knobs at the end of axons that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
Major Depressive Disorder
The mood disorder that occurs when a person exhibits the lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, or loss of interest in family, friends, and activities characteristic of depression for more that a two-week period and for no discernible reason.
A word made up of the first letters of words one needs to remember
Figure and Ground Relationship
perceive an object as distinct from the background
all or none law
law that states that the process by which neuron fires all or none
frontal lobe
Developmental Psychologist
changing abilities
Aaron Beck
developed cognitive therapy
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain & anxiety
chemical messengers
when the action potential reaches the terminal's end it triggers their release
elaborative rehearsal
rehearsal involving repletion and analysis, in which a stimulus may be associated with (linked to) other information and further processed
functions associated with this include encoding, storage and retrieval
The Gestalt princple that identifies the tendency to fill in gaps in figurs and to see incomplete figures as complete
Positive Reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food.
in classical conditioning, the ability to tell the difference between the CS and stimuli similar to it that do not signal a UCS; in operant conditioning refers to responding differently to stimuli that signal that behavior will be reinforced or not reinforced; in social psychology it refers to unjustified behavior against an individual or group
5 axes
I- Diagnosed Mental Disorder
II- Personality Disorders/Mental Retardation
III- Relevent Medical Conditions
IV- Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
V- Current Level of Psychological Functioning
Prefrontal lobotomy
a psychological surgical procedure (now no longer used) to control violent behavior; neural connections between the frontal lobes and other brain centers are severed
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 318)
Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences—and the therapist's interpretations of them—released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
John Garcia
proved the others wrong
classical conditioning
challenged the idea that all animals could be conditioned equally well
rats were given one taste, sight, sound as a neutral stimulus
later the rats would be exposed to radiation or drugs (the unconditioned stimulus), which would make the rats sick
through these experiments, Garcia discovered that if a rat became nauseated after presented with a new taste, even if the illness occurred several hours later, the rat would avoid that taste
this contradicted the belief that, for conditioning to occur, the unconditioned stimulus (in this case, sickness) must immediately folloe the conditioned stimulus-to-be (the taste)
Garcia also discovered that the rats developed aversions to tastes, but not to sights or sounds
Garcia's discovery, conditioned taste aversion, is considered a survival mechanism because it allows an organism to recognize foods that have previously been determined to be poisonous, hopefully allowing said organisms to avoid sickness
"Garcia Effect"
a substance capable of producing a sensory effect in the absence of real external sensory stimuli
Social Cognition
The process of analyzing and interpreting events, other people, oneself, and the world in general.
Negative evaluation of an entire group of people, typically based on unfavorable (and often wrong) stereotypes about groups.
the process of changing a short-term memory to a long-term one
fixed ratio
describes a schedule of reinforcement wherein a worker is paid for a certain sum for each product produced
neurotic disorder
a psychological disorder that is usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially.
Drive-Reduction Theory
Attempts to explain behavior as arising from a physiological need that creates an aroused tension state (drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
Refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating information.
any behavior intended to hurt someone, either physically or psychologically
a pattern of speech in which incomprehensible, disconnected, and unrelated ideas replace logical and orderly thought
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
term describes a phenomenon in which people who agree to a small request are more likely to later agree to a larger request
The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
the loss of memory. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 367)
gestalt principles
set of principles of visual organization that indicate aspects of visual stimuli that give rise to certain types of perceptions
Operant Behavior
behavior that operates on the environment to produce rewards or punishments
long term
refers to memory that is stored effectively in the brain and may be accessed over an extended period of time
the extent to which scores differ from one another
style of parenting in which the parent creates strict rules for the child and the child has little or no input into determining the rules
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Wernicke's area
controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression, usually in the left temporal lobe.
a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a 2nd time.
a positive or negative reaction to any person, object, or idea
drive theory
belief that behavior is motivated by drives that arise from biological needs that demand satisfaction
divergent thinking
The ability to think along many alternative paths to generate many different solutions to a problem
angular gyrus
recives visual information and puts it into auditory code
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 379)
Extraneous Variable
A variable other than the independent variable that seems likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study. If they are not accounted for, they can greatly skew the results of the study.
night terrors
sleep disorder occurring in Stage 4 sleep
Grasping reflex
Reflex that causes a newborn to grasp vigorously any object touching the palm or fingers or placed in the hand
bystander effect
the tendency to not offer help when needed if others are present who do not offer help
Procedural memory
a division of LTm that stores memories for how things are done
dark adaptation
the process of adjusting the eyes to low levels of illumination
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for and use information that supports our preconceptions, and ignore information that refutes our ideas; often a hindrance to problem solving
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored part of the eye that controls the diameter of the pupil.
Working Memory
The memory system that enables you to hold and manipulate information in your mind or brief periods of time
afferent nerve fibers
Axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body
light adaptation
the process by which eyes become less sensitive to light in high illumination
Correlation coefficient
A numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables. The closer the correlation is to +1.00, the more reliable it is.
evolutionary psychology
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
a specific pattern of birth defects (stunted growth, facial identity, and mental retardation) often found in the offspring of alcoholic mothers
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
basic needs must be met before higher level needs are activated
How does one change ones behaviors?
1) choose a target behavior
2) record a baseline
3) establish goals
4) choose reinforcers
5) record your progress'
6) reward successes
7) adjust your pan as you learn more about your behavior
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