AP Psychology Review: Important People Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Wilhelm Wundt
structuralism
Alfred Adler
inferiority complex
Elizabeth Loftus
Cognition, eyewitness testimony
Sigmund Freud
psychoanalytic, id/ego/superego, defense mechanisms, transference
Daniel Goleman
1946-present; Field: intelligence; Contributions: emotional intelligence
Karl Wernicke
1848-1905; Field: perception; Contributions: area of left temporal lobe involved language understanding; Studies: person damaged in this area uses correct words but they do not make sense
David McClelland
1917-1998; Field: intelligence, testing; Contributions: devised a way to measure Murray's theory (TAT), developed scoring system for TAT's use in assessing achievement motivation, not the TAT
Elizabeth Kübler-Ross
1926-2004; Field: development; Contributions: 5 stages the terminally ill go through when facing death (1. death, 2. anger/resentment, 3. bargaining with God, 4. depression, 5. acceptance)
Carol Gilligan
developmental psychology, challenged the universality of Kohlberg's moral development theory
Solomon Asch
Social Psychology, conformity experiment--people incorrectly reported lengths of lines, impression formation study--professor was warm or cold
B.F. Skinner
operant conditioning-techniques to manipulate the ocnsequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior.
Amos Tversky
availability and representative heuristics
G. Stanley Hall
1st APA president
Yerkes/Dodson Law
-Says if physiological arousal(emotions) are too high, it is difficult to complete a task
Lawrence Köhlberg
1927-1987; Field: cognition, moral development; Contributions: created a theory of moral development that has 3 levels; focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behavior
Erik Erikson
developmental psychology, the stage theory of development, neo freudian
david Weschler
established an intelligence test especially for adults (WAIS)
jean piaget
four-stage theory of cognitive development
1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, 4. formal operational
he said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accommodation
Binet, Alfred
Testing and Individual Differences/ Developmental Psychology- creator of the first intelligence test - Stanford-Binet
Herbert Simon
advanced study of problem solving
John Watson
-Behaviorist, defined psychology as "the scientific study of observable behavior" -did experiments with "Little Albert"
Robert Sternberg
-Three Intelligence Theory 1. Analytical (academic problem-solving) intelligence2. Creative intelligence3. Practical intelligence
carl rogers
humanistic psychology- the theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth
benjamin whorf
his hypothesis is that language determines the way we think
Lewin, Kurt
social psychology; German refugee who escaped Nazis, proved the democratic style of leadership is the most productive; studied effects of 3 leadership styles on children completing activities
Edward Chace Tolman
behaviorist, demonstrated that rats that had explored a maze that contained food while they were not hungry were able to run it correctly on the first trial when they entered it having now been made hungry
Edward Lee Sapir
With Whorf, developed "linguistic determinism" hypothesis
B F Skinner
behaviorism; pioneer in operant conditioning; behavior is based on an organism's reinforcement history; worked with pigeons
Robert Zajonc
motivation; believes that we invent explanations to label feelings
George Sperling
-studied iconic memory-flashed a group of letters for 1/20 of a second, people could only recall about half of the letters. When signaled to recall a particular row immediately after the letters had disappeared, they could do so with near-perfect accuracy
albert maslow
hierarchy of needs
needs at the lower level dominate an individual's motivatio nas long as they are unsatisfied. once these needs are adequately met, the higher needs occupy the individual's attention
noam chomsky
disagreed with Skinner and said there is an infinite number of sentences in a language, and that humans have an inborn native ability to develop language
David Buss
believes men and women seek mates based on physical and personality traits.
David Hubel and Tosten Wiesel
sensation and perception, discovered feature detectors (groups of neurons in the visual cortex that responf to different types of visual stimuli)
s. schacter
to experience emotions you must be A: physically aroused and B: mst cognitively label arousal (or know the emotion before you experience it)
Mary Whiton Calkins
1st female president of APA (American Psychology Association)
Jung, Carl
A student of Freud who split from the Psychoanalytic Society because of his disagreements with Freud, especially his view of the collective unconscious.
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