Anatomy Chapter 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Organ
Two or more tissues grouped together that function together are referred to as a(n) ___________.
Skin
Nails
Hair follicles
Glands (sweat and sebaceous)
Name the four parts or structures that compose the integumentary system
Intradermal, Subcutaneous or hypodermic, Intramuscular
An injection administered within the tissues of the skin is referred to as a(n) ____________?

A below the dermis injection would be what then?

And into the muscle is called what?
Amount of melanin produced by melanocytes
The color of our skin is determined by the...
They die and are sloughed off, Stratum Corneum
What happens to the outermost layer of skin cells as they are pushed from the deeper portion of the epidermis towards the surface?

What layer are we referring to here?
The dermis
What layer of skin is comprised mostly of dense irregular connective tissue?
Nerve fibers
___________ _________ scattered throughout the dermis are associated with muscles, glands, and sensory receptors.
Is not, deep
The subcutaneous layer is or is not a layer of skin and is located superficial or deep to the dermis (above or below)?
Epidermis, Stratum Basale
Melanin production occurs in the epidermis or the dermis…more specifically, which layer of the above?
Yellow, Liver, Jaunice
The eating of too much carotene causes the skin to appear this color.

Malfunction of this organ may produce this color as well…what is the faulty organ?

The medical term for this is called what?
Melanocytes & Melanin, Stratum Basale
Two factors affect the shade of our skin…our genetic makeup and the environment. UV stimulates _____ to produce more _________ which darkens the tissue.

This occurs in what level of the epidermis?
Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis
Areolar and adipose connective tissue primarily comprise this layer below the dermis…what is it?
Dermis, Avascular, without vessels
Blood vessels are located in which level of the skin?

The Epidermis is said to be ________

Meaning ____.
Vitamin D
Skin cells play a vital role in the production of _______________.
Single, Large
Melanocytes in very dark skin contain _____________, _________, pigmented granules
True
True or false...the skin acts as a protective covering, houses sensory receptors, and aids in regulating body temperature.
Multiple, Stratified squamous epithelium
The epidermis is composed of single or multiple layers of epithelium?

More specifically, what is this tissue called?
Dermis
The _________ is composed of connective tissue, smooth muscles, and nerve cell processes.
False... It's not part of the skin
True or false...the subcutaneous layer is part of the skin.
Keratinocytes
Melanocytes transfer melanin granules to nearby _______________.
Muscles, glands
The nerve fibers in the dermis stimulate nearby _________ and _________ in the dermis.
Dermal Papillae
The fingerprint is created by what structure or area in the dermis?
Dermis
The major blood vessels that supply the skin are in the ____________.
Keratinized epidermal cells
You step out of the shower and vigorously rub your skin with a towel. If you were able to analyze the towel, you would find skin cells. They are most likely ___________ _________ ___.
Stratum Lucidum
This layer of the epidermis is only found in the palms of our hands and soles of our feet making these structures slightly thicker in their appearance…which one is it?
True
True or false...the epidermis retains water in deeper skin layers, keeps out harmful chemicals and pathogens, and protects the skin against mechanical injury.
Corns
__________ are keratinized conical masses on toes.
Dilation
A dilation or constriction of blood vessels results in a red appearance to the skin.
Epidermis
Accessory structures of the skin originate from which level?
Specialized epithelial cells
The nail plate is produced by _________ ________ ________
Nail bed, Nail plate
A nail consists of a ________ _______ and a __________ ___________.
Keratin
The hardness of a nail comes from?
Dead
The shafts of hair are composed of living or dead epidermal cells?
False
True or false...maintaining one body position is a method used for helping prevent pressure ulcer formation.
The color of our hair, Brownish-Black, Reddish or yellow/blond
Eumelanin and pheomelanin affect what?

Eumelanin turns our hair ______

Pheomelanin turns our hair_____
Stem Cells
After a severe burn, new skin may grow outwards from the hair follicles. New growth begins here because a hair follicle contains ________ _______ in the bulb region.
Grey, White, Albinism
A mixture of pigmented and un-pigmented hair will result in what color hair?

Hair with no melanin would be what color?

What is a condition that lacks melanin production?
Arrector Pili
The ________ _________ muscle is attached to a hair follicle.
Sebaceous glands
What glands secrete sebum into the hair follicle?
Eccrine sweat glands
What glands secrete a watery substance, are located throughout the body, and respond primarily to an elevation in body temperature?
Apocrine sweat glands, foul
What glands secrete a watery substance, are located primarily in the axilla and inguinal regions and turn on around puberty?

Foul smelling or sweet smelling?
False, Pores, Sebaceous & Apocrine
True or false…eccrine glands secrete their watery substance to the surface of the skin via hair follicles.

They secrete through?

What two glands secrete through hair follicles?
Ceruminous glands
A special modified sweat gland that secretes ear wax is known as.
Conduction
Convection
Radiation
Evaporation
Our primary means for loss of body heat is by what 4 mechanisms?
Constrict to move blood deeper and conserve heat
In response to excess body heat loss, our dermal blood vessels will constrict or dilate?
Sweat, Most likely eccrine but could be apocrine as well
Evaporation is a mechanism that cools the body by secretion of this watery substance _______ from this gland ________________?
Convection
When on my run on a warm day…the loss of heat by having a nice breeze is accomplished by what mechanism?
true
True or false...a person exercising vigorously on a hot, humid day may develop fatigue and dizziness, heat exhaustion, head, muscle cramps, and nausea.
Hyperthermia, Hypothermia
An elevated body temperature is known as _______ whereas a lowered body temperature is known as _______.
The thin
The homeless
The aged

Reduction in adipose connective tissue
Name three individuals that are at an increased risk for suffering from hypothermia. Why?
true
True or false...the skin dissipates excess body heat by dilating dermal blood vessels, activating eccrine sweat glands, and via radiation.
Inflamed, Normal
Skin that is red, swollen and painful to the touch is said to be ______ and could be dealing with an infection.

Inflammation is a normal or abnormal response to injury or stress?
True
True or false...after a scab forms, fibroblasts from the wound edge form new collagenous fibers
true
True or false...the granulations that appear during the healing of a large, open wound are composed mainly of fibroblasts surrounding blood vessels.
False, The epidermis is avascular
True or false…a scab forms on the surface of the epidermis when there is trauma that is very superficial and affects only the epidermis.

Why do we not get bleeding, clotting and scab formation with trauma to the epidermis only?
Second degree burn
A burn affecting the epidermis and parts of the dermis but has preserved accessory structures is a first, second or third degree burn?
first
A burn affecting only the epidermis is a first, second or third degree burn?
third
A burn affecting the epidermis, dermis, and accessory structures and requiring grafting of some sort is a first, second or third degree burn?
an autograft, An uninjured region of the patient’s own body
A graft technique known as a “self graft” is called what?

This tissue is harvested from where then?
an allograft
A graft technique where tissue is removed from another individual of the same species and donated to an individual in need is known as what kind of graft?
The "rule of nines"
When working with a burn patient, often a degree is provided based on the severity of the burn…what is used to estimate the approximate surface area of the burn?
spotted
As a person ages, the skin typically becomes _________ with patches of pigment.
A reduction in the number of sweat glands, heat
The elderly have a difficult time regulating body temperature due to a reduction in adipose in the subcutaneous layer and also due to what other factor?

This problem would cause the elderly to struggle more with heat or cold?
Wrinkles
The reduction in adipose in the subcutaneous layer has another effect more on the cosmetic side of things…it causes the onset of what?
Intercellular junctions
The advantage of cryo-electron tomography is that it preserves ____________ ______________.
Cadherins
The flexible proteins that link the cell membranes of squamous epithelial cells in skin are __________.
Melanoma
Short exposure to high-intensity sunlight is known to cause this not as common form of skin cancer but can be deadly if not detected early?
Nonpigmented epithelial cells
Skin cancer is most likely to develop from _________ ___________ ________.
Ultraviolet Light (UV)
Cutaneous carcinomas are caused by regular exposure to what?
Vitamin D
Sunbathing causes keratinocytes to release beta endorphins which are a ‘happy hormone’…what other substance is produced with regular exposure to the sunlight?
True
True or false...a light-complexioned man who goes to the beach on summer weekends and does not use sunblock is at a high risk of developing cutaneous carcinoma.
Stem Cells
The future treatment for baldness may arise from manipulation of these cells.
Sebaceous glands, puberty, hormones
The secretion of an excess of this oily substance by which gland causes a disorder known as Acne Vulgaris?

When does this typically occur in our life?

Why?
A fever, Phagocytes
A rise in the set point of our body temperature occurs in the hypothalamus with the presence of this?

What cells through the releasing of interleukin-1 stimulate this?
True
True or false…the skin is one of the larger organs in the body by weight.
False (the stratum corneum does), The soles of feet and palms of hands only
True or false…the stratum lucidum makes up the outermost layer of the epidermis.

Where is the stratum lucidum present at?
False, New cells are produced in the stratum basale
True or false…in healthy skin, the production of new cells in the dermis is balanced with the loss of cells in the epidermis…more specifically the stratum corneum.

What’s wrong with the above statement?
True
True or false…melanocytes can transfer granules of melanin into nearby epithelial cells.
False
True or false… blood with excess oxygen causes cyanosis.
True
True or false…nutrients from blood flow are shunted to the epidermis through the dermal papilla located in the upper layer of the dermis.
Keratinized
Epidermal cells that move up through the strata away from blood supply, die and become ______ along the way.
Increased, True
The production of melanin is increased or decreased in the skin of people who spend most of their time outdoors.

True or false...this protects the cells from the effects of UV light
False
Sunlight, ultraviolet light, and x-rays all darken skin because they increase blood flow to the dermis.
True
True or false... Three physiological factors that affect the color of skin are: volume of blood in dermal vessels, carotene in the subcutaneous layer, and various diseases.
True
True or false... As epidermal cells move up through the strata away from their blood supply, they die and become keratinized.
False
True or false... The amount of keratin protein produced during keratinization determines hair color.
False
True or false... Hypothermia is elevated body temperature due to exposure to heat, and the body being unable to cool down.
False
True or false... A second degree burn is the same as a full-thickness burn.
False
True or false... A burn that involves the epidermis only is called a deep partial-thickness burn.
Male Pattern
Androgenetic alopecia is known as _______ _________ baldness.
smooth
Arrector pili muscle is composed of which type of muscle tissue?
evaporation
Sweating cools the body by __________.
Dilate, More, Lower
When body temperature is elevated, superficial blood vessels _______ and sweat glands become more or less active in an effort to _______ body temperature.
Hypothalamus, negative
The mechanism described on the previous slide is controlled by the ________ which is the body’s control center for temperature and is called a ________ feedback mechanism.
Aging
Decreased hair growth, decreased sensory receptors in the skin, wrinkling of the skin and the inability to regulate body temperature are all signs of _________.
Adipose tissue
The __________ _________ of the subcutaneous layer acts as a heat insulator.
Apocrine
___________ sweat glands become active at puberty and possess ducts that open into hair follicles.
Inflammatiom
Localized redness, swelling, warmth, and pain are indicators of _________________, the normal response to injury.
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