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Terms Definitions
The eighteenth-century philosophical and cultural movement marked by the application of reason to human problems and affairs, a questioning of traditional beliefs and ideas, and an optimistic faith in unlimited progress for humanity, particularly through education.
A group of European thinkers and writers who popularized the ideas of the enlightenment through essays, novels, pays and other works, hoping to change the climate of opinion and bring about social and political reform.
A religion based on the idea that the universe was created by God and then left to run according to natural laws. Without divine interference; formulated and practiced in the eighteenth century.
A religious reform movement among German Lutherans, which stressed personal piety, along with support for social programs for the poor; part of the general religious ferment of western Europe in the late 1600s and early 1700s and a catalyst for the First Great Awakening in British Colonial America in the 1700s.
First Great Awakening
The period of religious revivalism among Protestants that placed emphasis on a direct and personal relationship with God and undermined the traditional role an power of the established churches; centered mainly in the British American colonies during the 1730s and 1740s.
A group of writers, primarily French, who dealt with economic issues during the Enlightenment , in particular calling for improved agricultural productivity and questioning the state's role in economic affairs.
Rococo style
An artistic and cultural style that grew our of the Baroque style but that was more intmate and personal and emphasized the frivolous and superficial side of aristocratic life.
Fete galante
the theme or scene of aristocrats being entertained or simply enjoying their leisure or other worldly pleasures
the stucco ornaments shaped like leaves, flowers, and ribbons that decorate walls or ceilings.
Neoclassical style
Artistic and literacy movement that was a reaction to Rococo style - it sought inspiration from ancient Classicism - rejected emotionalism and practiced the ideas of balance, clarity of texture, non-programmatic works, and absolute music.
Style gallant -
a style of music developed by French composers and characterized by graceful and simple melodies.
Soft/Loud. (From the Italian word, piano=soft, forte=loud Description of the two types of sounds emitted by a string instrument whose wires are struck with felt-covered hammers operated from a keyboard.
Classical style (music)
18th century style characterized by simplicity, proportion, and emphasized structure.
Sonata form
A musical from or structure consisting of four sections that vary in key, tempo. and mood.
A long and complex sonata, usually written in 3 or 4 movements for large orchestras. First movement is traditionaly fast, second slow, third and fourth fast.
a tonal system consisting of seven tones in fixed relationships to a tonic or keynote
the relative speed at which a composition is to be played
The emotional impact of a composition on the feelings of a listener
From Italian for 'joke'. A quick, lively instrumental composition or movement found in sonatas and symphonies.
Theme and Variations
In music, a technique in which a musical idea is stated and ten repeated in variant versions, with modifications or embellishments; used in independent works or as a single movement in a symphony, sonata, or chamber work.
Tone Color
In music, the quality of a sound, determined by the overtones; used for providing contrasts.
In music, a lighthearted piece, intended to be performed outdoors in the evening; popular in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Minuet and Trio
In music, a Classical music form, based on two French court dances of the same name, often paired in the 3rd section of symphonies. Typically, the minuet was in 3/4 time and with a moderate tempo, while the trio provided contrast but had no standard form.
Name four trends that characterize the age of reason and how do these trends influence the culture of this period?
1. Political power centered in great states ruled by a dynasty of kings: most powerful was France, next was Great Britain ( newly unified England and Scotland) Prussia, Austria, Russia, and the Netherlands. 2. Return of aristocracy to prominence (it is their swan song, though) 3. Rise of the middle class - who supported social equality, social justice, and a thorough revamping of society. 4. Intellectual and cultural movement spawned by progressive thinkers is known as The Enlightenment. Note: Both aristocratic and middle class styles are popular in this era.
The 18th-century thinkers derived their ideals from what sources?
It was due to Greek texts from ancient times that rejected superstition and sought truth through reason and logic; that were translated and printed during the Renaissance, and were found to have a secular and humanistic perpective.
It was also due to the Scientific Revolution - which was based on rationalism, empiricism, skepticism, and experimental method, along with a belief in human perfectibility through education.
Did the Enlightenment and philosophy of Philisophes have a large impact on the society of their day?
No- only a small percentage of Europe's population were affected. Most affected were the populations of large cities (Paris, London, Edinburgh).
What were the Philosophes?
They were not philosophers, but "popularizers" who wanted to influence public opinion. Leading philosophes were: Voltaire, Diderot, Montesquieu, and Rosseau.
What were the Philosphes's assumptions?
1. Full confidence in reason. 2. Nature is orderly and could be understood by empirical methods. 3. Progress would improve society since human beings were perfectible. 4. Reject religious doctrine, denounce bigotry and intolerance. 5. Advocate freedom of religious choice. 6. The belief that education liberates humanity from ignorance and superstition, so they called for expanded educaitonal system that was free from church control and open to all.
How did the Philosophes spread their ideas?
Books, essays, histories, novels, pamphlets, plays, poems....also public discussion sand debate, the press, the salon, and through the principal work of the Philosophes, the Encyclopedie.
Who wrote about women's rights because she felt that the philosophes had neglected that subject? She opposed hierarchy in all forms and urged that women be educated like men. Name here and her work.
Mary Wollstonecraft in her A Vindication of the Rights of Women.
The rights of "one-half of the human race", as Wollstonecraft wrote, should include what?
The right of female education equal to men's, and the right to vote.
Who was another group that was neglected by the Philosophes?
The over 6 million African slaves.
What is Deism:
God exists only as a creator- a clockmaker - who created and set natural laws in motion and left this creation to run on its own. They refuted Jesus as a savior as well as the efficacy of prayer.
What was Pietism and the First Great Awakening?
Popular religious movements: Pietism in England, First Great Awakening in America.
What were Pietism and the First Great Awakening's main beliefs:
They urged a faith based on Scripture rather than ritual and liturgy. They believed hat one should be "born again"' renounce sinful ways, and accept Christ as a personal savior.
What was the Encyclopedie?
A collection of existing knowledge published to spread the views of the Enlightenment.
Who was the editor of Encyclopedie and how many authors and volumes did it have?
Editor: Denis Diderot. Authors: 161 Volumes: 28 volumes - 17 text volumes, and 11 illustration
The Physiocrats held what economic theories
1. Economy is ruled by natural laws i.e. supply and demand. 2. Replace mecantilism (gov't controlled ) with laissez-faire (let-alone).3. Enjoyment of private property is necessary for freedom. 4. More benefited if one serves their own self-interests, not the government's.
Who was the leading Physiocrat? (from Scotland)
Adam Smith
How would you translate the term laissez-faire?
To leave alone=free trade
What does laissez-faire mean when applied to economics?
Abolishment of government control of the economy and leave it alone to operate on law of supply and demand.
In what country was the limited monarchy the ideal model for the Philosophes?
Great Britain - England and Scotland
What group of people appreciated Rococo?
The French elite
Describe the style and subject matter of Rococo paintings.
Style: A more inimate style that was a depiction of private moments of aristocratic lives. Idiealized settings of lightness and grace in pastel colors, refined and sensual ... all of which were a contrast ot the ponderous Baroque. Subject matter: Themes of sentimentality, erotic romance (love life of aristocrats).
Why was there no English Rococo?
The themes of Rococo were too sensual and they offended the Protestant sensibilities.
What style did Watteau originate?
Rococo style.
What was Watteau's specialty?
Fetes galantes - aristocratic entertainments, depicting intimate world of aristocracy and Classical themes.
What was the message of Watteau's Departure?
It is a melancholy scene with a setting sun and departing lovers, representing the brevity of human passion.
Who was the last great French Rococo painter who revived Watteau's style, and name his work.
Fragonard - The Lover Crowned.
Name a French Rococo society portrait painter.
Why was Vigee-LeBrun's fame considered unique?
She was one of the only women to gain independent fame and she was Louis XIV's court painter.
Name a prominent example of Rococo interior.
Salon de la Princesse in the Hotel de Soubise in Paris.
What statement was Hogarth making in his Marriage a la Mode?
From a moralist viewpoint it shows the bitter consequences of arranged marriages and is a satirical view of Rococo type scenes of aristocratic entertainment.
What innovation is associated with Hogarth's art?
He made engravings of his paintings and sold multiple copies for the first time.
What influences brought about the Neoclassical style and what are its characteristics?
Recent archeological finds (Mt. Vesuvius) led to renewed interest in things Greek and Roman. Also, it was a reaction to and refection of Rococo style. Characteristics: classical themes, linear perspective, strong colors, balance, proportion, simplicity and restraint. Figures are like frozen sculptures.
The new Neoclassicism replaced the Rococo style. Give opposing characteristics and name the principle artist of each.
Rococo: frivolous, sensuous, used pastel colors, weightless, floating images. Principal artist: Watteau. Neoclassicism: heroic and classical, noble, used strong primary colors, figures like frozen statues. Principle artist: David.
Name two Neoclassical paintings: one about the conflict between family loyalty and duty to one's country and one about an event in Greek history.
1. Oath of the Horatii. 2. The Death of Socrates
What were the characteristics of Neoclassical architecture as seen in the Kenwood House
Ionic columns, Ideals of proportion and simplicity, running frieze, triangular pediment that forms the portico. Very much like a Roman temple.
Discuss types of government preferred by Montesquieu and Rousseau.
Montesquieu - rule by enlightened aristocracy - monarchy. Rousseau - pure democracy - more revolutionary. Both built on the ideas of Hobbes and Locke.
What was the enduring idea on The Spirit of the Laws by Montesquieu and who influenced his work?
Separation of government powers is an effective defense against despotic rule. He admired England's parliamentary monarchy/democracy. Influenced by: John Locke.
How does Rousseau's theory of General Will achieve the best for the state and society? Who influenced Rousseau's political ideas?
If each citizen has a vote and if they vote on the laws in accordance to the General Will, then the laws will embody what is best for the whole society. Influenced by John Locke.
Name leading Neoclassical authors in France and one work by each. (use their more well-known name where applicable.)
Montesquieu- Persian Letters - Criticized the King, the Church, and French Society.
Rousseau- The Confessions - he told horrible details of his personal life.
Voltaire- Candide - chief aim is a satire on optimism. The most popular novel of the Enlightenment. "This is the best of all possible worlds. (his work that is still widely read today):
Name leading Neoclassical authors in England, one work by each, and how Neoclassicism in England was different from France's Neoclassicism.
-Alexander Pope - Essay on Man - most representative of Neoclassical style. - Edwards Gibbons - Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
English writers shared what values with their readers:
English writers shared certain values with their readers: good taste, moral values, religious values. Literature in France revealed a more negative world view.
What tow new literary forms were developed in the Age of Reason? Name a leading author of each and a famous work of each.
The Novel - by Richardson - Pamela (Also Fielding in his hilarious Adventures of Tim Jones)
Autobiography - by Rousseau - The Confession
Social Criticism - by Montesquie - Persian Letters - a criticism made by a foreign traveler.
What conditions encouraged the development of the novel?
The growth of the newly literate middle class created a demand for literature that was entertaining.
What types of subject matter did 18th century novelists generally write about?
1. Use of narrative voice. 2. Focused on lives of ordinary men and women. 3. Followed their character over the course of minutely observed time.
What techniques were used by English novelists to make their works realistic?
1. Use of narrative voice. 2. Focused on lives of ordinary men and women. 2. Followed their character over the course of minutely observed time.
What was the perfect instrument for Rococo music? Who were composers of this style?
The harpsichord - Couperin & Rameau
Describe characteristics of classical music
1. An emphasis on form and structure. 2. Use of sonata form: exposition - development-recapitulation allowed composers to add depth and length to their works. 3. Elegant melodious lines. 4. Clear, simple harmonies.
Important genres of classical music
concerto, opera, sonata, symphony
What instruments were improved and / or perfected during the 18th century?
1. The violin was perfected by Stradivarius.
2. Pianoforte was invented by Cristofori's who worked for the Medici's
3. Brass and woodwind instruments were improved
Discuss contributions of Haydn to Classical music. Defined and developed:
1. 4-movement symphony
2. Sonata form: exposition, development, recapitulation, and coda.
3. String quartet - (wrote 70) each line independent like a 4-way conversation.
Haydn's four-movement symphony: Describe each movement as to their tempo (speed) and the character of each
1. Sonata form - fast and serious
2. ABA-slow and reflective. A= theme or melody; B= a new melody; A= return to first melody.
3. Minuet - graceful triple meter.
4. Rondo -ABACADA- very fast and lively. The first melody keeps returning in between new melodies.
How many symphonies did Haydn compose?
How many symphonies did Mozart compose?
He composed 50 symphonies, considerably fewer than Haydn for two reasons: a. his movements were longer than Haydn's. b. Mozart only lived to be 34 years old.
What is considered to be Mozart's greatest gift musically?
Not for creating new musical forms like Haydn, but in his seemingly effortless line of melody which grows naturally from beginning to end. His disciplined and harmonious works embody the spirit of the Enlightenment.
What social comment did Mozart's opera The Marriage of Figaro make?
He has the servant, Figaro, outwit his arrogant master - criticizing the privileged classes and attacking the injustices of his time. It was somewhat autobiographical.
List three other operas by Mozart (2 in Italian and 1 in German)
1. Don Giovanni
2. Cosi fan Tutte
3. Die Zauberfloete (The Magic Flute)
In what other genres did Mozart compose(8)?
Masses, Oratorios, A Requiem Mass, Operas and a ballet, symphonies, concertos, chamber music, sonatas for violin and for keyboard.
How does Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik's 3rd movement begin?
It begins with a stately melody whose loud staccato tones summon images of bowings and curtsies of the dance's origin.
Mozart embodies the spirit of what era of history?
The Enlightenment
What do you call a musical composition that is composed for an orchestra? for a solo instrument and orchestra, performed together? for a small group of instruments?
A symphony; A concerto; A sonata
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