AP Psychology ~ Memory Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mnemonics
Memory aids
prefrontal cortex
storage of STM
Chunking
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occures automatically.
Priming
The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
Encoding
Getting information into the brain.
Schema
Mental framework for organizing knowledge
Implicit memory
Retention independent of conscious recollection. (procedural memory)
Visual Encoding
The encoding of picture images.
hippocampus
formation of LTM (semantic and episodic)
Rehearsal
The repetition of information that helps boost our memory.
Phonemic Processing
Not very deep/strong
Information is stored based on what it souonds like
rote rehearsal
maintenance rehearsal; method is to expand the length of time information can be held in STM; repeating information over and over (silently or allowed); can be effective for short time and is often effective through automaticity, which is long, hard practice [alpha that it, multiplication tables, music scales]
Sensory memory
The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
proactive interference
During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates:
relearning
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
Mood-Congruent Memory
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with on'es current good or bad mood.
Types of Long Term Memories
Implicit and Explicit
Storage
Maintain in memory; it refers to keeping information in memory over a long period of time.
Repression
is an example of motivated forgetting in that painful and unacceptable memories are prevented from entering consciousness.
Long Term Memory
The relatively permament and limitless storehouse of the memory stystem.
Anterograde Amnesia
Loss of memory for events immediately after a trauma.
Recall
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier.
depressed
Lars was feeling depressed at the time he read a chapter of his history textbook. Lars is likely to recall best the contents of that chapter when he is:
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
Explicit Memory
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
(declarative memory)
Short-term Memory
Activated memory that holds a few times briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
semantic memory
portion of LTM that stores general facts and information
Amnesia
Loss of memory; you forget who you are, where you're going, or why you're going there.
Iconic Memory
A momentary sensory memory of visual stiumul; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Serial Position Effect
Patterns in success of remembering long lists
Automatic processing
refers to our unconscious encoding of incidental information such as space,time, and frequency, and of well-learned information.
Misinformation effect
The distortion of a memory by exposure to misleading information.
a mnemonic device
Developed by the ancient Greeks, the method of Loci is an illustration of:
Three steps to information processing are?
Encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Level of Processing Model
Suggest that the most important determinant of memory is how extensively information is encoded or processed when it's first received.
Consolidation Failure
Memories new to long term memore takes time to become firmly implanted
Any disruption in the consolidation process can prevent permanent memories from forming
i.e. Seizures, a blow to the head (concussion), unconsiousness
Procedural Memory
Memory of how to do things, such as riding a bike or tying a shoelace.
it is surprisingly easy to lead people to construct false memories
Researchers asked university students to recall childhood events, including a false event such as breaking a window with their hand. People discovered that:
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