Primates Flashcards

old world monkeys
Terms Definitions
Primatology
...
Mandible
Jaw
Lorises
-all aboreal
langur
infanticide problems
pleistocene
1.8 mya-12kya
Prosimians
-laterally placed eyes
savannah baboon
dominance rank
miocene
23-5.5 mya
cereopithicoid/hominoid split
Australopithecines
Australopithecus Afarensis
Genus Species
catarrhine example
old world monkeys
Lemuriformes, Chiromyiformes, and Lorisiformes
Strepsirrhini
quadrupedal
arboreal, terrestrial, knuckle walking
small can balance better on top of branches-tend to be arboreal quadrupeds
large bodied find balancing on top of branches difficult-tend to use suspension
Lemuriforms/Dwarf lemur
Distribution: Madagascar
Morphology: Pygmy mouse Lemur smallest primate in the world.
Locomotion: Quadapedal running, leaping and climbing
Diet: High energy foods, insect, gum, nectar and exudates.
Behavior: Nocturnal and highly arboreal, some species hibernate for 6 mths, male-male competition, family units are solitary
tarsiers
carnivorous and insectivorous nocturnalevolved independently
catarrhine characteristics
-narrow, downward pointing nostrils
-diurnal
-tails of monkeys not prehensile)
-sexual dimorphism
heterodontic
having different types of teeth
Bonobos
(Hominoidea)
Pan panscus
Africa, 2123/2123, Fruit, Muli-M/MultiF, Fission/Fusion, female dominant (female alliances), knuckle walking, moderately dimorphic, sex as interaction
Cercopithecoidea
includes baboons, mandrills, macaques, and rhesus monkeys
Spider and howler
New World monkey
Tarisodea
Superfamily of prosimii, Haplorhines, Southeast Asia, nocturnal niche, huge eyes (no room for muscles, turn head 180 degrees), postorbital bar, snouts are less projecting, lack a rhinarium, have a bony ear
Extermination
Moderns killed neandertals or out-competed them for food
Insectavory- ???Gumnivory- ???Frugivory- ???Folivory- ???Omnivory- ???
Insectavory- insectsGumnivory- treesFrugivory- fruitFolivory- leavesOmnivory- everything
The apes demonstrated ___________ by sharpening sticks to hunting spears
innovation
Lemurs
-only live in Madagascar, only nonhuman primates living there
Superfamilys of Catarrhini
Cercopithecoidea: Old World Monkeys
Hominoidea: Apes and Humans
metatheria
mammals that reproduce without a placenta, including the marsupials
prehensile
adapted for grasping especially by wrapping around an object
Silverback
acts as a benevolent dictator, determines movements of family, monopolizes mating with females, breaks up fights within group, plays with young, and guards family against large cats and raiding gorilla males
Anthropoidea
Suborder of Primates, contains 2 infraorders (Platyrrhine-NWM and Catarrhine-OWM), larger body size, eyes completely in front of skull, closure of postorbital bar, lack rhinarium, more complex social organization and parental care
strepsirrhini
wet noses, smaller brain sizes, Madagascar's only nonhuman primate
__________ is roughly contemporary with homohabilis (2.4-1.6 MYA, E. Africa)
H. rudolfensis
Australopithecus africanus (gracile)
3.3&2.3 myaearly homininS. Africanot as massive as the robust formsmaybe be an ancestor of the genus Homo
even when __________, the Bonovo's demonstrated _______ to dead bodies and eachother
unrelated, respect
alternative classification
hominidae same classification as pan and gorilla; pongidae only includes pongo
homeotherms
animals that maintin a constant body temp
Primate Ritualized Behviour
-Behaviour removed from original context and exaggerated to convey information
-Mounting & presenting
-Staring
-Displacement
prenatal
the period of life from conception until birth
olive baboon
friendship (males with most friends have most mates)
Ancestral mammalian traits
no post orbital bar
five digits
claws
divergent orbits(eyes to side)
small brain
strepsirhini(wet nose)
large snout
tapetum lucidium(night vision)
multiple nipples
bicornuate uterus
unfused mandible
symphysis (unfused)
Palocene
65-54mya
no clear signs of primate fossils
Gorilla
endangered by poaching and the ebola virus
Alloparent
Individual other than a parent that exhibits parental behavior. It teaches the childless how to parent. If parents die, the alloparent will "adopt" the offspring.
Arboreal (anatomy?)
Lived in trees. Relatively small. Clavicle allows side orientation of arms. Scapula is muscle development of arms. Prehensile hands and feet with opposable digits. Prehensile tails. Fingers (no claws).
What is the Human's closest living relative
Chimpanzee
Homo habilis
species of early Homofrom Africa2(or earlier)&1.6 myabrain size roughly half that of modern humansPrimitive: postcranial skeleton
In cooperative ________, apes demonstrated a _______ of teaching between the ape, the teacher, and the __________ ___
teaching, triangle, learning ape
premolar
a tooth having two cusps or points used for crushing and grinding food
one-female/multimale group
A social structure in which the primary social group consists of a single adult female, several adult males, and their immature offspring
dental arcade
the parabolic arch that forms the upper or lower row of teeth
Intro to Primates
approximately: 300 species of living primates
primarily equatorial-live by equator
live in variety of HABITATS
BODY SIZE-very large range 3.5oz-400lbs
LOCOMOTION-wide range, none dig, fly, or primarily aquatic-very few suspension-some quadrapeds, some more bipedal
DIET-wide range of foods (leave, insects,fruit, bamboo, tree sap etc)
SOCIAL ORGANIZATIOn-wide range(monogumous, large communities, patriarchal, matriarchal etc)
Bonobos
feed on similar diet as chimps, eating mostly fruit but also other parts of abundant plants
Ceboidea - Atelidae/Spider Monkey
Distribution: Forested ragions of Central and SOuth America
Morphology: Long almost hairless prehensile tails w/sensitive tactile pads, used to suspend themselves while feeding
Diet: Fruit, leaves, supplemented w/insects
Locomotion: Arboreal, rarely on ground, quadrapedal running, walking and leaping
Behavior: Polygamous, live in social groups of up to 25 adults, small groups the male monopolizes a harem, large groups contain several males - clear dominance hierarchies.
Mother-infant relationship
Harlow's studies
- Wire monkey with milk bottles
- Monkey covered in soft fabric with no food
sense of touch is important
A. Africanus live between ____ and _____ MYA
3-2 MYA
Heterodontic Dentition
teeth are of various shapes. incisors, canines, premolars, molars. 2-1-2-3 in humans, apes, and old world monkeys
prehensile tail
long muscular tail used as a fifth limb for grasping wrapping around objects
canine
the teeth located in the front of the jar behind the incisors, which are normally used by mammals for puncturing and defense
sexual selection
a special case of natural selection in which traits are favored because they enhance an individuals abilities to mate
intra-outcompeting males (most common-polygyny)
inter-success because of preference of certain phenotypes by the opposite sex (least common polyandry)
Generalized dentition
reduced size and number of teeth. due to varied diet- no required specialization.
What is Adaptive Radiation?
in absence of competitors or predators, rapid evolution of animals to fit different niches in different environments.Ex- Darwin's Finches
Mounting
Nothing to do with sex, has to do with dominance
Anatomically modern Homo sapiens (AMHS)
high skulls and vertical foreheadshave smaller face&teethrarely have chinslarge brainspostcranial skeletonsabout 100,000 yo
What are some characteristics of Orangutans?
found on only 2 islandssexual dimorphismfrugivorquadromauel- 4 handed locomotionSolitary
What is a Tapetum Lucidum
Membrane at back of eye that reflects and collects all available lightNatural night vision goggles
hominidae
humans
Lemur
Madagascar
cebid
prehensile tail
New world
Ceboids
callitrichidae
claws not nails
AFFILIATIVE
ASSOCIATION B/T INDIVIDUALS...GROOMING...TO REINFORCE SOCIAL BONDS
morphology
physical structure of organisms
Cebidae, Nycitipithecidae, Pithecidae, and Atelidae
Platyrrhini
Infraorder Platyrrhini
new world monkeys
Lemuriform/Mouse lemur
Distribution: Madagascar
Morphology: Pygmy mouse Lemur smallest primate in the world.
Locomotion: Quadapedal running, leaping and climbing
Diet: High energy foods, insect, gum, nectar and exudates.
Behavior: Nocturnal and highly arboreal, some species hibernate for 6 mths, male-male competition, family units are solitary
Pleisiadapids
early primate evolutioninsectivores, nocturnal, arborealno post orbital barN. America&EuropeBefore 33 mya
platyrrhine characteristics
-almost exclusively arobreal
-pair bonding
-paternal care of young
-nonopposable thumbs
suspension
suspension
large bodied find balancing on top of branches difficult-tend to use suspension
only few groups do this
general mammalian characteristics
greatly reduced fur
Orangutan
South east asia great ape
Cebidae
Family of Ceboidea, Spider/owl/howler monkeys, dental formula 2:1:3:3, spider monkeys are converging on the shoulder anatomy of apes, owl monkey is the only nocturnal monkey, howler is one of the loudest on the planet
Placentals
Humans
Placenta provides nutrients and oxygen to develop fetus
Adapids
larger body sizespatulate incisor- tooth broad and flatstill retain large and fang like caines
the Bonovo's learned ________s in order on a computer screen
numbers
Suborder: Haplorhini
Tarsiers, Monkeys, Apes, Humans
1. Larger body size
2. Larger brain
3. Rounded skull
4. Eyes rotated to front
5. Bony plate at back of eye orbit
6. No rhinarium
7. Chisel like incisors
8. Increased maturation
9. More mutual grooming
howler
territorial, throat pouch (hyoid) to attach muscles for tongue to make them so loud
affilliative behavior
behaviors that promote group bonding....kissing/holding hands/grooming
Chimpanzees
form large communities and associate in fluctuating parties within the community
Prosimii
Suborder of Primates, contains 3 superfamilies (Lemuroidea, Lorisidae, and Tarisodea).
sexual dimorphism
differences in body size, coloring/markings, behaviors, mating indicators between males and females of a species (body size ratio- greater than one)
A. Aethiopicus
May be earlier robust australopithecine than boisei or robustus, perhaps ancestral to boisei
Australopithecus aethiopicus (robust)
2.5 myaoldest robust australopithcombines derived features seen in other robust australopiths with primitive features seen in A. afarensis
Overall, apes demonstrated the ________ and ______ skill of teaching, or passing on ________
passion, mental, technology
homonoidea
y-5 molars, broad thorax, no tail, apes
hominids
humans and other creatures that walk upright
Primate Grooming
Functions as hygiene and reinforces bonds
grooming
the handling and cleaning of another individual's fur
snow macaque
hot springs, rice husks, sweet potatoes
Arboreal Hypothesis
Sir Wilfrid Le Gros Clark:
Primates features are adaptations for living in trees-became specialists
Comparative MEthod: Method used to test adaptaion in species: Example-The prehensile tail has evolved many times...always with species that live near branching plants-test by OBSERVATION
Visual Predation Method: Primates are adaptive to catching insects while in trees-MATT CARTMILL
primate characteristics
complex brain with large neocortex (cerebrum) which supports learning and problem solving
Hominoidea
absence of tail, large body size, complex brain and behavior, extended period of infant development and dependency
Composite tools
Made of more than one material
Possibly earliest hominid (5.8-6 MYA) if bipedal; found in W. Kenya
Orrorin tugenensis
Life History differences
Early stages/gestation - longersocial creatures that need social groups
Australopithecus garhi
good candidate for homo ancestorteeth similar arm/leg ratiostone tools found nearbyhead not robust
intelligence
The relative ability of the brain to acquire, store, retrieve, and process information.
molar
teeth farthest back in the jaw, used for crushing and grinding food
one-male/multifemale group
a social structure in which the primary social group consists of a single adult female, several adult males, and their immature offspring
hylobatid
member of the gibbon, or lesser ape, family
Schools of biological classification
Phenetics-oldest, classify things on overall similarities, not concerned with phylogeny, (linnaeus)
Cladistics-1960's, based on phylogeny only, dominant form of thought, only monophyletic groups allowed
Evolutionary systematics-generally classifies based on phylogeny also reconizes subjective "grades" of evolution common in century after darwin
Ceboidea - Cebidae/Squirrel Monkey
Distribution: Tropical and Subtropical Central SOuth America
Morphology: Prehensile tail - used to suspend themselves while feeding
Diet: Omnivorous
Locomotion: Arboreal - rarely on ground, quadrapedal running, walking and leaping
Behavior: Live in multi male multi female groups, size of groups varies from 5 to 40
Kin selection
Number of genes from relatives other than self
Parent/offspring - 1/2 genes shared
Siblings- 1/2
Aunt/uncle- 1/4
Niece/Nephew- 1/4
Australopithecus robustus
2.0-1.0 MYA, S. Africa, foot bones indicate bipedalism
Homo erectus
species suggested of the genus Homo1.8 mya in Africaspread to parts of Asia&Europe
suspensory climbing
the ability to raise the arms above the head and hang on to branches and to climb in this position
bilateral symmetry
symmetry in which the right and left sides of the body are approximately mirror images
Range of most primates
limited to tropical and semitropical forests
Found in Western Chad about 7 MYA, possibly bipedal intermediate btwn hominid/hominoid features (small brain, large brow ridges, wide face; but hominid-like canines and teeth)
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Pentadactly
Retention of 5 digits on your hand and foot
Retention of less specialized dentition
Diet consisting of insects, leaves, soft fruits etc means teeth can be simple, used for grinding. Fewer, smaller, more efficient teeth doing more work
Found in Kenya with a flat, human-like face but alongside other facial forms, suggesting a non-linear evolution
Kenyanthropus playtops (3.5-3MYA)
(pottos, galagos, lorises)
all nocturnal and fairly small in body sizegenerally solitaryeat insects or gums
What is Kay's Threshold?
Animals smaller than 500g are able to survive on only eating insects.
What does R-selection mean?
strategy is to have a high birth rate, low parental investment, quantity over quality EX-rats
macacs
cercopithecoidea
Bush Baby
Lorisiformes
owl monkeys
ceboidea
Simiiformes and Tarsiiformes
Haplorrhini
Tamarin
New World monkey
What are so
Subphylum
Vertebrata
-notochord replaced by vertebral column (backbone) to form internal skeleton along with skull, ribs and limb bones
Macaques/Baboons and other Eurasian/African Monkies
Cercopthecidae
Handaxe
Requires thought and planning
old world monkey characteristics
-arboreal
-ischial callosities
-omnivore/herbivore
-sexual dimorphism
-quadrupedal or brachiation
marmoset/tamarin
monogamous (mostly), scent marking, territorial
Cercopithicoids
Old World Monkeys
Africa and Asia
body:2.5lbs-70lbs
Diurnal
Arboreal and Terrestrial quadrupeds
Diet-friut, leaves, seeds, invertebrates, vertebrates
22 major genra
Suborders of Primates
Prosimii and Anthropoidea
Cercopithecoidea- Colobinae/Colobus
Distribution: Africa
Morphology: Leaf eaters, no cheek pouches, large sacculated stomachs w/3-4 chambers, enlarged salivary glands, molar teeth have high pointed cusps with sharp shearing crests, thumbs are absent or greatly reducedocomotion:
Locomotion: Quadrapedal, w/frequent leaping
Social organization: One male multi female groups.
Quadropedalism
Walks on 4 legs
Ex: baboon


Multimale-multifemale:
 many reproductively active adult females and males and their offspring
notochord
The evolutionary precursor of the vertebral column.
placenta
organ in placental mammals through which nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother
Order
Primate
-hands and feet capable of grasping; tendency to erect posture; acute development of vision rather than sense of smell; tendency to large brain
causation
The immediate factors that influence behavior
Gibbons
(Hominoidea)
SE Asia, Fruit, 2123/2123, fruit, pairs/monomorphic, sing, true brachiators, territorial
Quadrumanos
one limb moved at a time
Pongidae
Family of Hominoidea, great apes, contains three genera (Pongo, Gorilla, and Pan)
Interbreeding
Modern humans have some Neandertal DNA
RITUALIZED BEHAVIORS
BEHAVIORS REMOVED FROM ORIGINAL CONTEXT & EXAGGERATED
Sahelanthropus
The \"Toumai Skull\"found in Chad6-7 myaPrimitive(ape-like): small brainDerived(hominid-like): small teeth, large brow ridges, flat face
The apes demonstrated __________ when hunting prey _________
cooperation, together
New World Monkeys
outward facing nostrils, 2.1.3.3., about 70 species, prehensile tails
platyrrhini
one of two divisions of anthropoids; broad widely separated nostrils, smaller than old world arthopoids, many lacking opposable thumb, some with prehensile tail, few species with polyandry ; found in South America
Infraorder of Haplorrhine: Tarsiformes
Tarsiers
-Primitive: small body, grooming claw, large ears, unfused mandible, nocturnal insectivore, stable pair bonds
-Haplorrhine: no rhinarium, eye sockets enclosed in bone, unique features, enormous eyes, rotate head 180 degrees, elongated tarsal bone to leap
parental investment
Parental behaviors that increase the probability that offspring will survive
heritable variation
Genes passed down to offspring, sometimes there is variation
Derived haplorhine traits
loss of tapetum lucidium
(what seperates strepsirhines from haplorhines)
Arbitrary
Words have no relationship with what they stand for
Ex: flower
First hominid outside of Africa (earlier African specimen sometimes considered Homo ergaster)
Homo erectus
Sensory differences
Reduced reliance on sense of smell.increased reliance on sightBinocular-depth perceptioncolor visionDiurnalnails on fingers and toeslarger and more complex brain
Australopithecus boisei (robust)
E. Africa2.4&1.4 myavery robust species
hominin
In a cladistic taxonomy, a member of tribe Hominini, including humans and their ancestors, habitually bipedal primates.
Infraorder of Haplorrhine: Catarrhini
Old World Monkeys, Apes, Humans
specialized structure
A biological structure adapted to a narrow range of conditions and used in very specific ways
activity budget
the pattern of waking, eating, moving, socializing, and sleeping that all nonhuman primates engage in each day
social system
the grouping in which a primate species lives, including size and composition
Infraorder Catharrhini
range from tropical jungle to semiarid desert; greater morphological and behavioral diversity
Cercopithecoidea - Cercopithecinae/Macaques
Distribution:Asia as far north as Japan and Nth Africa
Diet:Omnivorous, preferences for fruit, terrestrial forms eat roots or tubers, some baboons hunt small mammals and eat a lot of meat
Morphology: Simple stomachs, cheek pouches, most species have long tails, sexually dimorphic, ischial callosities.
Locomotion: Quadrapedal
Behavior: Diurnal, and arboreal, semi terrestrial, and terrestrial adaptations, live in multi female multi male groups with hierarchies.
Multiregional evolution
Moderns came from Europe, Middle East, and Africa
FREE RANGING
IN NATURAL HABITAT- FREE FROM HMAN INFLUENCE
Brachiation
Using the arms to move from branch to branch, with the body hanging suspended beneath the arms.
New World Monkey
monkeys native to Central and South America. a superclass of the anthropoids
home range
the spatial area used by a primate group
New World monkeys (Platyrrhines)
Grasping tails, Live in trees, Wide and outward facing septum, Arboreal, 3 pre-molars
Found in Chad and dated btwn. 3.5 and 3 MYA (also thought to be contemporary with A. Afarensis)
A. bahrelghazali
In Ape Genius, apes demonstrated 4 human qualities:
1. rationale
2. copying
3. emotion
4. cooperation
Characteristics of Hominoids or apes include?
Only live in tropical forestslarger body size, lack tails, flexible shoulders and hips, suspernsory locomotionsexual dimorphism
The relationship of humans to primates is:
they are in the same taxonomic superfamily
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Term:
Definition:
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