Primates 2 Flashcards

New World Monkeys
Terms Definitions
Tarsiers
-Insectivorous
mandrils
cercopithecoidea
Anthropoids
-generalized dentition
Night Monkey
Nycitipithecidae
Old world
Cercipithecoids
plattyrrhine example
howler, spider
Platyrrhini and Catarrhini
Simiiformes
Melanocytes
specialized skin cells
Kenyapitheus
Arboreal quadthick enamal
Primate Depletion
-Habitat destruction
-Hunting
-Live capture for export and local trade
Great Apes and Humans
Hominidae
primate characteristics
tendency toward erectness
Lemuriforms/Indris
Distribution: Confined to Madagascar
Morphology: Adaptations to vertical clinging and leaping, adaptations to leaf eating specialization
Locomotion: Trees; vertical leaping, Ground bipedal hopping
Diet: Leaves, buds, flowers, fruit and unripe seeds
Behavior: Arboreal, diurnal, one male one female groups and multi male multi female groups
Prehensile
Having the ability to grasp
haplorrhine characteristics
-less primitive than strepsirrhine
gibbon
adaptations for brachiation, basic social unit is monogamous
Frugivore
fruit eaters(medium body size)
large incisors rounded and short crests on molars to crush fruit
simple gut
Pongidae
traditionally: fairly similar in morphology, but differ greatly in their social behavior and mating systems
Cercopithecoidea
Superfamily of Catarrhine, sub-saharan Africa S.E. Asia India China and Japan, molar teeth have bilophodont cusp pattern, tails are not prehensile, upright sitting posture, contains two subfamilies (Cercopithecinae and Colobinae)
Cercopithecoidea - Cercopithecinae/Guenons
Distribution: Mostly Africa
Diet:Omnivorous, preferences for fruit, terrestrial forms eat roots or tubers, some baboons hunt small mammals and eat a lot of meat
Morphology: Simple stomachs, cheek pouches, most species have long tails, sexually dimorphic, ischial callosities.
Locomotion: Quadrapedal
Behavior: Diurnal, and arboreal, semi terrestrial, and terrestrial adaptations, live in multi female multi male groups with hierarchies.
Displays
Stereotyped behavior that communicate emotions


Polyandry: 
One reproductively active female, several adult males and their offspring
The taxonomic superfamily that primates and humans share is:
Hominoidea (hominoids)
Skull features
-High vaulted cranium
-forward shifted foramen magnum
-reduced snout
lemur
found on the island of Madagascar
quadrupedalism
moving around on all four limbs
Chimpanzees
males cooperate in hunting and defense; rank-oriented communications among males include aggressive displays (fluffing up hair, stomping, charging, slapping, and dragging branches)
Infraorder Catharrhini
old world monkeys, apes, humans
Ceboidea
Superfamily of platyrrhine, contains 2 families (Callitrichidae and Cebidae),
fission
individual primates "split apart" and join other location
A Robust Australopethicine with adaptions for heavy chewing and the largest teeth of any hominid, 2.2-1.2 MYA found in East Africa
A. Boisei
Archaic Homo sapiens (AHS)
130,000&28,000 yamiddle east&europelow skulls and sloping foreheadslarger skulls face&teethrarely have chinsthicker bones and greater musculaturelarge brainspostcranial skeletons
The spears used by apes represented the __________ aspect of culture
technology
colobinae
high teeth cusps, no cheek pouches, sacculated stomach, more arboreal, old world monkey
loris
A South Asian prosimian in the superfamily Lorisoidea. They are about the size of domesticated cats. They are slow, cautious climbers and creepers on forest branches. They have unpleasant tasting poisonous saliva that they lick onto their fur. Mothers also lick the fur of their babies which helps to protect them from potential predators.
Alloparenting in Primates
Common behaviour where individuals other than parent hold, carry, groom and interact with infants
placenta
An organ that develops inside a pregnant placental mammal that provides that provides the fetus with oxygen and food and helps filter out harmful substances
Directional selection
- Favors one side. Ex: Speed
Why live in groups?
predator defense
resource defense
mate acquisition
Gorilla
family consists of one fully adult male, one or two smaller males, several adult females and their dependent offspring
Altruistic behavior
Self sacrificing behavior, females and relatives fight to defend infants
Some anthropologists believe that A. afarensis and A. anamensis should not be placed in a separate species, because they resemble the later hominid species:
A. africanus.
Post orbital bar
bone that completes eye socket
Australopithecus robustus (robust)
2&1.4 myaspecies of robust australopith
homind
In a cladistic taxonomy, a member of family Hominade, including humans and the African apes.
Hylobatidae Family
Lesser Apes in SE Asia
-Gibbons and Siamongs
-Smallest of apes
-Brachiators (use arms to move from branch to branch)
-Monogomous
-Territorial: alarm calls
dominance hierarchy
the ranking system within a society that indicates which individuals are dominant in social behaviors
secondary compounds
toxic chemical compounds found in the leavers of many plants which the plants use as a defense against leaf-eating animals
What do we want to organize?
Phylogeny:
a) Monophyletic Grouping-clade(an ancestral species and all its descendants)
b)Paraphyletic Grouping-an ancestral species and some of its descendants
c) Polyphyletic Grouping-some species but not the common ancestor
Orangutan
females with 1 or 2 young have overlapping feeding ranges of a few square miles with males ranging over larger areas including the ranges of females
Ceboidea - Callitrichidae/Marmoset
Distribution: Forest of Central and South America
Morphology: Small primate weighs less than 1kg, small brains relative to body size, sharp squirrel like claws on all digits except the great toe, lack prehensile tails found among larger new world monkeys
Diet: Fruit, animal prey, excudates, gums, seeds, nectar and buds
Locomotion: Quadrapedal branch running, vertical clinging and leaping between tree trunks
Behavior: Diurnal, arboreal, social structure varies from one male one female to multi male multi female groups,territories defended through vocalization. Scent marking on branches, twin births, parental care shared by both sexes, only the dominant female breeds and babies raised by entire groups, scent of dominant female suppresses estrous cycle of other females
Bipedal characteristics
Location of foramen magnum, shape of innominate, angle of femur (thigh bone)
- Shows transition between quadropedal primates and modern humans
Similar to A. Afarensis (3.6MYA) but with much larger teeth, found in Ethiopia and dating to about 2.5MYA
A. Garhi
Sivapithecus
massive jaws don't portrude as much as apessmaller canines (side to side chewing)Harder enamelstarting to eat harder foods (nuts, seeds, etc)quadrapedallike orangutans14-7mya
dental formula
a short hand method of describing the number of each type of tooth in one half of one jaw on a mammal
behavioral ecology
The study of behavior that focuses on the adaptive value of behavior from an ecological and evolutionary perspective
Infraorder Platyrrhini
tend to use tail as grasping tool (Fifth hand)
What is a Harem Group?
1 dominant male, 3-5 females
life history theory
The study of how characteristics of an organism's life cycle affects reproduction, focusing on tradeoffs between energy expended for numbers and fitness of offspring
_______________ (3.6MYA) and ______________ (4.1-3.9 MYA) are both found in East Africa
A. Afarensis (3.6) and A. Anamensis (4.1-3.9)
One researcher's Bonovo ape learned 3000 ______ _______
One researcher's Bonovo ape learned _____ English words
Gibbons and Siamangs or "lesser apes"
13-25lbsfound in SE AsiaEat fruit- frugivoryBrachiationmonogamous
How is Primate behavior useful for human evolution?


-Helps us better understand our origins and we can make comparisons between human anatomy and that of primates who resemble our earliest ancestors
Order
Primates
galagos
lorisoidea
prenatal
before birth
Subclass
Eutheria (placental)
arboreal
Living in trees.
agonistic
unfriendly social relationships
Prosimians
lemuroids, lorisoids, tarsius
Primates
Prosimian - anthropoids
bonobo
solve problems with sex
Haplorhines
Tarsiers, Platyrrhines(New world monkeys), cercopithicoid(old world monkeys), hominoids(apes)
Lemuroidea
Superfamily of prosimii, Strepsirhines, only found in Madagascar, can't compete with other fossils, arboreal/terrestrial, nocturnal/diuranal (only daytime prosimian eater), example of adaptive radiation, various forms of locomotion, rhinarium, dental combs, post orbital is not fully closed
CERCOPITHECOIDEA (OWM) OR (NWM)
OWM
anthropoid
fused mandible, fused frontal, postorbital closure
Hominoidea
Apes and Humans
-Larger body
-No tail
-Shortened trunk
-Changed ms of shoulder joint
-Complex behaviour
-Enhanced cognition
-Increased infant dependency
premolar
used for grindind and chewing
homerange
are primates occupy and go
Cercopithecinae
Subfamily of Cercopithecoidea, baboons mandrills and macaques, more generalized form, omnivorous, secondarily derived long noses,
Hominoidea - Pongidae/Gorilla
Distribution: Equatorial Africa
Morphology: Largest of living primates
Diet: Leaves
Locomotion: Quadrapedal, knuckle walking
Social Organization: Live in groups of two adult males and several females
So different from other Australopithecines and with larger brain capacities (490 cc to 530 cc), anthropologists sometimes put A. boisei and A. robustus under this category
Paranthropus
Aegyptopithecus
33 myasmaler eye socketsdiurnal lifestyleeye socket is fully enclosed, like modern primatessmall, aboreal, generalized quadrupedsOligocene Anthropoid
hylobatidae
true brachiation, gibbons and siamangs AKA lesser apes
chordata
a vertebrate phylum consisting of organisms that possess a notochord at some period during their life
Cercopithecoids
Narrow nose, Narrow palate, Rigid molars, Long tail
Mastoid Process
turns head left to right
Suborder Anthropoidea
subdivided into two infraorders: catharrhini and platyrrhini
Callitrichidae
Family of Ceboidea, marmosets and tamarins, some have claws, dental formula 2:1:3:2, consistently have twin births,
Platyrrhine
Infraorder of anthropoidea, contains 1 superfamily Ceboidea, flat nose with nostrils to the side, dental pattern 2:1:3:3
Homeothermy
Maintenence of constant internal body temperature through cellular respiration. Allows mammals to survive in a wide variety of temperatures.
dominance hierarchies
Males ranked individually can fluctuate alotFemales ranked by matrilines- very little movement.
Grooming
The ritual cleaning of another animals skin and fur to remove parasites and other matter.
cercopithcinae
low teeth cusps, cheek pouches, simple stomach, mainly terrestrial, old world monkey
hominins
humans and their ancestors since the time of divergence from the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees, and bonobos
Primatology
The study of non-human primate biology & behaviour
cerebrum
The area of the forebrain that consists of the outermost layer of brain cells, associated with memory, learning, and intelligence
Catarrhini
Infraorder of the order Primates that includes the Old World monkeys, apes, and hominids
Washoe
Female chimp trained by Gardner, knew 132 signs
Taxon
Any named species or groups of species
Ceboidea - Pithecinae/Uakari
Distribution: Amazon, Colombia, and Southern Bolivia
Morphology:Contrasting patterns on face is common, 3 molars with having gaps (diastema) between canines and premolars.
Diet: Fruit, seeds, supplemented with insects
Locomotion: Arboreal, rarely on ground, quadrapedal running, walking and leaping
Behavior: Polygynous living in groups of 8 to 30 individuals multiple males and male dominance hierarchies
Hominids
Modern humans and all bipedal species back to the split between apes and humans
polyandry
a mating system wherein a female continuously associates with more than one male (usually 3-5)
binocular stereoscopic vision
overlapping fields of vision, with both sides of the brain receiving images from both eyes, thereby providing depth perception
alloparent
An individual that cares for an infant but is not a biological parent
ontogeny
the life cycle of an organism from conception to death
brachiation
swinging by the arms from branch to branch
Surreptitiously copulation
estrous females may wander off and copulate with males from neighboring communites
hominidae (greater apes)
gorilla, pan (chimps and bonobos), pongo (orangutan), homo
Language
Apes can't speak - throat anatomy is different
Hyoid bone is the capacity for language
Why are lemurs only on Madagascar.
Competitive exclusionAdaptive RadiationArboreal Quadruped
Human characteristics include: (4)
1. bipedal locomotion
2. long periods of childhood dependency
3. big brain
4. use tools and language
Enlarged, complex brain
Visual activity came from the brain, stimulating it as all senses used brain activity.
Wilson's Hypothesis
- Supported the out of africa theory
- mitochondrial DNA
Eocene Epic (55-35 mya)
Warmest period, everything had a tropical enviroment1st true primate found- POMA- primates of modern aspect Adapids & Omomyids
primate dental formulae
New world monkeys: 2-1-3-2 or 2-1-3-3. old world monkeys, humans and apes are 2-1-2-3
Human Foot
adapted to running; big toe as long as others, first metatarsal connected to the other metatarsals, strong muscles for pushing off with the big toe
Miocene "golden age of Apes"
Earliest Proconsul- bigger body size, no tail, thin enamel, arboreal quadruped
What is a primate?
GRASPING HANDS & FEET-all have a nail on the hallux(big toe) rather than a claw, most have nails on all digits
ENHANCED VISION-eyes rotated towards the front
REDUCED SENSE OF SMELL-
INCREASED BRAIN DEVELOPMENT-
Highly developed sense of touch
Needed to grab insect prey and to prevent falls while moving through trees
The best demonstration of emotion as a human-like characteristic was:
the mother carrying the dead baby on her back
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