Primatology Flashcards

old world monkeys
Terms Definitions
Family
-idae
Primates-suborders
Prosimii, anthropoidea
Folivorous
Leaf eating
ischial callosities
sitting pads
Diurnal Lemur Families
LemuridaeIndriidae
Cercopithecoidea
Superfamily of OWM
Catarrhini
Old World Monkeys
Prosimian
Lemuroidea, Lorisoidea, Galagos, Tarsiodea; night-dwellers, post orbital bar
Daubentoniidae
Aye-aye- nocturnal (largest)- quadrupedal- large ears- large and ever-growing incisors- long derived 3rd digit
Most Herbivorous Primate
Gelada Baboon
Diurnal
Active during the day
Torsiformes
Phillopeans and Indeonesia. Some traits prosimian, some anthropoid. Can turn head 180 degrees, eyes dont move. No rehnarium. 2 grooming combs. Carniverous, long ankle bones
Cercopithecinae
Africa. "Catch all" category. Omnivores, some sexual dimorphic, cheek pouches
Bilophodont
The Old Work monkeys (Cercopithecoidea) are recognizable by their bilophodont molar teeth, a dental adaptation that permits effective slicing of leaves or grass stems even under conditions of extreme tooth wear. Bilophodont molars have a transverse crest between molar cusp pairs. Molars one and two are reduced to four cusps, each bearing a constriction between the mesial pair of cusps and the distal cusp pair. The combination of transverse crests and mid-tooth mesial-distal constrictions produces two lophs.
Strepsirhini
- Lemurs and Lorises- Cladistic
Nocturnal Lemurs
Cheirogaleidae- Cheirogaleus (dwarf lemur)- Microbeus (mouse lemur)Lepilemuridea- Lepilemur (sportive lemur)
Daubentoniidae (Aye Aye)
Cheirogaleidae
Microbeus (mouse lemur)- quadrupedal- very small- eat flowers, nector, gums, fruits, insects- sleeping groups-torporCheirogaleus (dwarf lemur)- quadrupedal- solitary-torpor
Hominids
Shortened trunk, chest shallow and wide, greater range of shoulder movements, larger brain and cognition, increased infant dependency
Monogamous Pairs
Adult male/female plus offspring. Found in aboreal primates who are territorial who are not sexually dimorphic. Least common type of social organization. Found among Prosimians, NW monkeys, gibon, siomang, and humans.
Anthropoids
Suborder of primates that includes monkeys, apes, and humans
Pongidae
Only member is orangutan. Indonesia, sexually dimorphic, frugivors, fist walking, tool use
Colobinae
Asia, leaf eaters, chambered stomach, infantacide
Folivores
eat primarily leaves; least active tend to be large in body mass, have small incisors and molars with sharp crests, complex digestive systems
Genus and species of Humans
Homo sapiens
Ateles
- Spider monkey- True prehensile tail
Faunivorous
Use only animal resources (lizards, birds, snakes, insects, etc)
Haplorhini
- Tarsiers, Monkeys, Apes, Humans- Cladistic
Tarsier
- faunivorous- elongated tarsal bone (ankle)- vertical clingers and leapers- highly vulnerable- tactile pads on hands- large eyes, but NO reflective tapetum!- grooming claw- no dental comb (strepsirhini)
Primatology
The study of non-human primates, to learn about ourselves
Lorisiformes
Africa and Asia. Nocturnal, closest to ancestral primates, 2 types: Lorris, Bush Baby. Slow climbers and creepers
Primates Maturation
Very long maturation period. Behaviors learned, not instinctive.
Territory
Portion of the name area defended against.
Platyrrhini
one of two divisions of anthropoids; broad widely separated nostrils, smaller than old world arthopoids, many lacking opposable thumb, some with prehensile tail, few species with polyandry ; found in South America
Frugivores
eat fruits; active; have large upper central incisors and molars with rounded cusps, digestive systems with long small intestines
Cladistic
Tarsiers go with monkeys, apes and humans in the Haplorhini versus the Strepsirhini (Lemurs and Lorises)
Indri
- Largest lemur- vertical clinger and leaper- rain forest habitat- short tail- monogamous - vocalizations/duets- babies born black and turn white- hang upside-down to reach fruit on small branches
Strepsirhini Characteristics
- less derived, more primtive- seasonal breeders- tooth comb- grooming claw- rhinerium- nocturnal adaptations - reflective tapetum - large eyes
Cathermeral
Randomly active during the night and day (24 hour Activity)
Terrestrial Ceropithecinae
- Cheek pouches- Ischia callosities- sexual swellings
Fission-fusion
Type of social order wherein members of the larger group come and go at will and the group varies from day to day (Ateles)
Nocturnal New World Monkey
Aotus - Owl Monkey
stereoscopic binocular vision
eyes face forward, increased depth perception, see objects from two different angles, causes primates to be more susceptible to attacks from behind;
Haplorini
the second of the two major branches in the Primate tree, includes Tarsiodea, Ceboidea, Cercopithecoidea, and Hominoidea; relatively short rostrum (snout), plate separates orbits from temporal fossa
Alloparental care
Non-related adults help care for the infant
Sacculated Stomach
a chambered stomach which helps to break down plant material (observed among arboreal old world monkeys.)
Galagos
Differ in terms of locomotion - fast, vertical clingers and leapers vs. slow loris and potto
Saki and Uakari
- Large, procumbent incisors, strong jaw- eat unripe and encased fruits
Adaptive Radiation
This process in which one species gives rise to multiple species that exploit different niches
Semi-prehensile Tail
Can wrap around things for support, but are not fully independent and able to support the full weight of the animal
Core Area
Where the group spends the majority of its time. Area that has the most resources.
Behavior of Primates
Tendancy to form social groups- a characteristic of the order.
8 Characteristics of Primates
1. Retention/mobility of 5 digits
2. Flat nails mostly
3. Reduction of snout/muzzle
4. Emphasis on vision
5. Expansion of brain areas for memory/association = learn
6. Social groups w/ roles
7. Dec. liter size, Inc. maturation
8. Longer lifespans
social brain hypothesis
intense social life of primates and larger groups leads to complex social world
NWM vs OWM
NWM - round, wide, lateral facing nostrils; 2133 dentition; arborealOWM - narrow, down facing nostrils; 2123 dentition; more folivory; widely distributed; sexual swellings; no locomotive specializations; some have ischial callosities
Primitive (retained) traits
Traits that are believed to be original to the species
Haplorhini in Diurnal Niche
- limited competition (only giant squirrels and primates in niche)- most mammals are nocturnal and solitary, only birds are diurnal- eat fruits and leaves other animals don't
Lemurs versus Lorisidae
Lemurs:- Vary more in body size- nocturnal, diurnal and cathemeral- femal dominance- large and complex social systems
Cladistic vs. Gradistic
Cladistic - based on derived traits and relationships from evolutionGradistic - based on derived AND primitive traits and relationships
Patas Monkeys
- specialize in acacia and open areas with no trees- fastest primates- can stand bipedally- sexual dimorphism - sexual selection, defense from predators, male competition
Leafy Diet
- abundant- easy access- cell wall and fiber are high in energy
Primate Society and Learning
Learn by 1. observation and imitation 2. direct interaction with environment. Use protoculutre.
tapetum lucidum
layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrate animals, that lies immediately behind or sometimes within the retina; reflects visible light back through the retina, increasing the light available to the photoreceptors; improves vision in low light conditions; beneficial to nocturnal animals; strepsirrhine primates possess this, where haplorhines do not.
Loris hands
Derived to be help them cling to a surface for a long period of time
Prehensile Tail
The tail of an animal that has adapted to be able to grasp and/or hold objects
Female Hour Glass Patches
Gelada baboons- on chest so males can easily see when females are ready to mate since they are sitting too much for them to have anal-genital swellings
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