Primatology Test Flashcards

social organization
Terms Definitions
Fruit eater
Ceboidea, Cercopithecoidea, Hominoidea; diurnal, post orbital wall/closure; "higher" primates, larger more encephalized than prosimians, fully frontated orbits (stereoscopic vision), well developed color vision, retinal fovea (for visual acuity), less reliant on scent/smell than prosimians
Aye-Aye niche
Woodpecker niche
Active at night
Includes families Hylobatidae, Pongidae, Panidae, Hominidae
Lemurs only found here
Bamboo Specialists
Hapalemur (Bamboo Lemur)
Baboon- sectorial premolar- terrestrial- omnivorous- sexual swellings- sexual dimorphism
Nose- moist/hairless. Most prosimians and non-primates
Madagascar- most diverse group. Diurnal, females dominant, quadrapeds, vertical clingers and leapers
Panadaee. Social groups, less agressive, less wide range of tools, smart, love sex.
Includes Lemurs and Lorises- "pre-monkey," ancestral traits: naked nose, lateral boney ring around eyes, dental comb, toilet claw, shorter gestation/maturation, smaller than anthropoids
supraprimate; flying lemurs (colugos), tree shrew (primate among mammals)
Ruffed Lemur- large- diurnal- frugivorous- arborial quadruped- born in twins and triplets- male and alloparental care
Lepilemur ( sportive lemur)- nocturnal- vertical clingers and leapers- folivorous- Cecotrophic - reingest feces for nutrients
Panidaee. Ground and trees, fluid social groups, groups organized around related males, leaves veg and meat, tool use, opportunistic predation
Includes African Apes and Gorillas. Sexually dimorphic (canines and sagital crest)
Marmosets and Tamarins
Polyandrous, often twins (likely)
Move by swinging arms through trees
"Lesser Apes" Includes gibbon and siamang. Brachiation, monogamous, no sexual dimorphism, frugivors and leaves and insects, least closely related to us of apes.
Sensory whiskers present near the mouth of prosimians
Panidaee. Herbivorous, don't make and use tools, Africa.
3 Types of Prosimians
Infraorders: Lemuriformes, Lorisiformes, Torsiformes
Lorises, Pottos, and Galagos
Family - Lorisidae
Grasp between 2nd and 3rd digits
Multi-male Multi-female Groups
Most complex social organization. Chimps, bonobos, lemurs, NW monkeys. Advantage= protection
Solitary Dispersed Polygyny
Simplest social organization. Many wives/offspring in same home with husband. Most common among sub-nocturnal primates, also occurs for orangutans.
More than one husband, found only among marmosets and tamarinds.
Wallace's Line
falls between Borneo and Sulawest, Java and New Guinea, boundary between the oriental and australian provinces; Primates to the north of the deep ocean trench with the exception of Tarsiers
Haplorhini Characteristics
- larger brains- tend towards diurnality- dry nose and reduced olfactory sense- larger body size - allows them to eat food not eaten by birds (e.g. leaves) and fruits that birds cannot eat (with coverings or large fruit)
Sexual Dimorphism
Variance of appearance (size, color, etc.) between males and females of a species
Capuchin Monkeys- tool use - hammer and anvil with nuts, rolling and banging or oysters, use stones to dig for tubers, probes
Dominance Hierarchy
Everyone has a place. Advantages for those higher up: greater reproductive success, access to partners and food. Dominance is fluid, initially you learn your place.
eat insects; most active; tend to be small in body mass, have teeth with sharp and pointed cusps, simple digestive systems
fight or flight response
when threatened, the instinctual reaction of a primate to either run away or stand ground and fight
- fruit- broad incisors and low molar cusps; - short fingers, long thumbs- similar length limbs- primarily quadrupedal; forests and savannahs- sexual swellings
Sectorial Premolar
Premolar used to sharpen the upper canines (Baboons)
Tarsiers go with Lemurs and Lorises in the Prosimii suborder versus the Anthropoidia (monkeys, apes, and humans)
- New World Monkeys- Found in Central and South America
Ecological correlate
Two species' that fill the same specific niche in different ecosystems
Strepsirhini Nocturnal Characteristics
- Reflective tapetum- large eyes- loris, galago, potto
Sexual selection
Certain traits that are found among one (female) or the other of the species which the (female) uses to judge the ability and attraction to different (males)
Home Range
Area over which an individual or group will forage during a year or lifetime.
encephalization quotient
ratio of actual brain size divided by expected brain size for mammal of a given body mass.
Baboons are the society
Yes - they represent complex relationships, importance of females, social rather than just aggressive tactics to move up in societyNo - there really isn't one society that can define primate behavior, all are adapted to best fill their niche and to socialize as best fits their own needs
Japanese Macaques
- deal with harsh winters by spending time in hot springs- show non-utilitarian behaviors - snowball fights, wrestling around
Primates emphasis on vision
A. Eyes centered
B. Eyes surrounded by bony ring/socket
C. Improved retina/color vision
D. Expansion of brain areas used for interpreting visuals
canine honing mechanism
use of the sharp upper canines in aggressive behaviors
Olfaction in Strepsirhini
Very important as a means to mark territory, sense menstrual changes, attract mates, etc.
One Male, Multiple Female Groups
Most common kind of primate social organization. NW and OW monkeys, apes, some prosimians, gorillas, humans, baboons
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