AP quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
le plâtre
l'interprète (m/f)
la soucoupe
not believable
la mermelada
ridiculous; exaggeratedly comical
la prensa
the press
hardware store
la ferretería
le cañon, la gorge
(partly conscious, partly unconscious)-mediates between instinctual needs and conditions of the environment to maintain our life and ensure species lives on;
guided by the reality principle.
rat and mouse killers
to establish by evidence, prove
Degree-granting institutions of higher learning. Those that appeared in Latin West from about 1200 onward became the model of all modern universities. (p. 407)
not paying attention; indifferent; unconcerned; without an interest
An associated or additional meaning that a word, image, or phrase may carry.
Armistice on 8.12.98
a day too early
substituting the name for the whole
to make smooth or glossy; polish
Colonists who wanted independence from Britain
to try to do something/to aspire
organisms resembling each other in appearance, behavior, chemistry, genetic makeup
the omission of conjunctions, as in "he has provided the poor with jobs, with opportunity, with self-respect."
Marquis de Condorcet
Transformed enlightenment beleif in gradual hard won progress into fanciful Utopian "Progress of the Human Mind believed someday people would become perfect
dramatic irony
the audience knowing something the characters do not
Religion of Georgia?
freedom to all, except Cathiolics
Erie Canal
Inspired by Clay's American System, built in New York in 1825
Ramses II
pharaoh of New Kingdom Egypt (1290-1224 BCE) underwent many monumental building projects all over Egypt
The year William the Conqueror became the first Norman king of England after defeating the English at the Battle of Hastings. This laid the foundation for centralized government.
Matthew Perry
American naval officer; in 1853 insisted under the threat of bombardment on the opening of ports to American trade.
Second State Demographic
Low birthrates, low deathrates

(still makes zero population growth
capable of being touched or felt; tangible
figure of speech in which one directly addresses an absent or imaginary person, or some abstraction
John Locke
widely known as the father of liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers. His work had a great impact upon the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influences Voltaire and Rousseau. His thoughts on classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the American Declaration of Independence. His theory is often considered the origin of modern conceptions of identity as self. He was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness.
(n) a subtle or slight variation (as in color, meaning, quality); delicate gradation or shade of difference (shade, refinement)
Battle in 1757 between troops of the British East India Company and an Indian army under Sirud-daula ruler of Bengal; British victory resulted in control of northern India
Gadsden Purchase
The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement.
black codes
1865 Southern laws that were created after the emancipation proclamation that were designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed blacks. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment and set up military governments in southern states that refused to ratify the amendment.
to perplex or amaze, eps. by sudden disturbance or surprise; bewilder;confuse
to cause to become less harsh or hostile; to make less severe
Stamp Act
March 22, 1765 - British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
is the attitude a writer takes towards a subject or character: serious, humorous, sarcastic, ironic, satirical, tongue-in-cheek, solemn, objective
a phrase or sentance that has lost its uniqueness due to overuse
Non-Intercourse Act
It allowed Americans to carry or trade with all nations except for Britian and France
Mt. Vernon Conference
Meeting hosted by George Washington at his home to discuss the problems facing the new nation after the Revolution. Representatives of four states attended in 1785 and agreed to reconvene the following year so all states could be represented
Panama Canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746)
Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas
-Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan-Humas exist in primitive "state of nature" and consent of government for self protection
-John Locke's Two Treatises on Government-ppl r sovereign; consent to gov't for protection of natural rights to life, liberty, and property
-Montesquieu's The spirit of Laws-the best form gov't includes separation of powers
-Jean-Jacques Rousseau's The Social Contact-Gov't is a contract btw rulers and the ppl.
-Voltaire-religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism, separation of church and state
Repetition of a word or words at the beginning of two or more successive verses, clauses, or sentences
a state or quality of feeling at a particular time:
Responsibilities of Citizens
1.) vote in all elections 2.) be informative for yourself 3.) to obey laws of citizenship 4.) to collaberate and cooperate ideas w/government 5.) work w/the government for a successful nation
National Labor Union
1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
Nonrandom mating (smaller populations)
the effects of nonrandom mating are greater and the results in the predominance of a few preferred alleles
Benedict of Nursia
A Saint in Italy who was the founder of Western Christian monastic communities.
3 parts of the retina:
1. ganglion cells - conducts elect. signals to optic nerve
2. bipolar - transmits elect. signal to ganglion cells
3. photoreceptor - deepest layer (closest to the back of eyeball, lies just over the pigment layer.
savoir quelque chose sur le bout du doigt
to have something at one's fingertips
r Atem
le front
from, since
to drown
el pingüino
le pupitre
student desk
opposition; hostility; resistance
A long hooded cloak
to reject or decline
le tir a l'arc
les persiennes (f pl)
shutters (outside)
Chinese defensive fortification intended to keep out the nomadic invaders from the north; initiated during Qin dynasty and reign of Shi Huangdi.
travel agency
la agencia de viajes
se regarder
to look at oneself, eachother
mid 9th century Japanese aristocratic family; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern-post rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.
New Imperialism
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories. (p. 726)
in classical conditioning, learning to give a known response to a new
stimulus, the neutral stimulus
US --> UR
NS + US --> UR
CS --> CR
A specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character.
The repetition of connectives or conjunctions in close succession for rhetorical effect, as in the phrase here and there and everywhere.
A statement of some general principle, expressed memorably by condensing much wisdon into few words. ( no pain no gain)
case law
the reported decisions of selected appellate and other courts (called courts of first impression) which make new interpretations of the law and, therefore, can be cited as precedents in a process known as stare decisis.
Regulatory Movement
started by Scots-Irish in North Carolina. They didn't like that the east took care of most of the political side of things. Many people involved in this protest went on to join the American revolutionaries; one of these people was Andrew Jackson.
rhetorical modes
this flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing
A vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India. It includes the Bhagavad-Gita
From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505). (pp. 340, 551)
relating to or using force or threats
Winston Churchill
British prime minister during World War II; responsible for British resistance to German air assaults
To stop bleeding. Three step process, vascular response, cellular response , clotting mechanism.
Sites of adipose tissue
50% subcutaneous
12% kidneys
10-15% omenta
20% genitals
5-8% muscles
Dependent Variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the Amorite king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E.
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of European demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
"Salary Grab"
In 1872 Congress voted themselves a 50% payraise; later the 27th amendment will fix this issue
Thomas McDonough
Naval Captain who defeated the British navy on Lake Champlain in 1814
new prisons in PA where prisoners were placed in solitary confinement to force them to reflect on sins and repent; high rate of prisoner suicides caused the end of the system
As Mali began to decline what group emerged to dominate this area?
Impact of world depression
-High unemployment in industrial countries
-bank failures and collapse of credit
-collapse of prices in world trade
-Nazi Party's growing importance in Germany; Nazi Party's blame of European Jews for economic collapse
ph increases what happens?
more oxygen available to tissues
Critical mass
the minimum amount of U-235 required for a chain reaction
deus ex machina
any artificial or improbable device resolving the difficulties of a plot.
Russian Modernization
The most of these were economical and not political, and even then were mostly only halfway efforts
toussaint L'Ouverture
ex slave and leader of the Haitian Revolution slave rebellion, died in a prison in france
Anecdote - A
brief account of some interesting or entertaining and often humorous incident.
Treaty of Paris of 1783
The British recognized the independence of the United States. It granted boundaries, which stretched from the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south. The Yankees retained a share of Newfoundland. It greatly upset the Canadians.
Gens De Couleur
term meaning "people of color." This is often a short form of gens de couleur libres ("free people of color"). In practice, it can refer to creoles of color with Latin blood, and certain other free blacks. The term was commonly used in France's West Indian colonies prior to the abolition of slavery.
Natural Standards
Levels of risk humans have lived with in the past
26. Mohenjo-Daro
the largest of the cities in the Indus Valley Civilization. Centrally located on Indus river floodplain in what is now Pakistan. Little is know but that it was large have there was extensive central planning for the city.
John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism: ID Supreme Court Cases
9. John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism: ID Supreme Court Cases
Despite the slavery setback, post-Ghent nationalism was fostered by the Supreme Court, which was ruled by the ever present John Marshall. In the 1819, Supreme Court Case McCulloch v. Maryland, the state of Maryland was attempting to destroy a branch of the Bank of the United States, by imposing a tax on its notes. John Marshal denied Maryland its right to tax the bank, ruling it constitutional, following the doctrine of implied powers, which formulated the doctrine of "loose construction." He did this because, he said the Constitution derived from the consent of the people and thus, permitted the government to act for their benefit. Two years later, in 1821, Marshal was given the opportunity to defend federal powers in the case of Cohens v. Virginia. The Cohens were found guilty of illegally selling lottery tickets, however, the state of Virginia "lost" in that they were shown how the Supreme Court had power over the decisions of the state supreme courts, leaving state's rights supporters dumbfounded. In the case of Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824, New York attempted to grant to a private concern a monopoly of waterborne commerce between New York and New Jersey. In response, Marshall told the upstart state that the Constitution conferred on Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Thus, once again re-enforcing the power of the federal government.
Prince Henry (the navigator)
a member of the Portuguese royal family who hoped to acquire gold for Portugal and start a Crusade against the Muslims in Africa. He is thought to have founded a school of sailing and navigation in Sagres. His navigators began a series of explorations westward into the Atlantic and southward along the west coast of Africa in 1418.
What is a joint?
Site where two or more bones meet.
stability- change controversy
deals with the issue of whether or not personality traits present during infancy endure throughout the lifespan.
Immigration Reform and Control Act
A 1986 update of the 1965 Immigration Act, this act outlawed the hiring of undocumented immigrants, but offered legal status to aliens who had lived in the United States for five years.
There is not harm in maximizing one's daily protein intake.
False, Excessive protein intake can cause renal damage
First metallurgy
followers of Islam
National Urban League
-African Americans.
-Local black clubs and churches set up employment agencies and relief efforts to help African Americans get settled and find work. More than 100 of these groups joined together in many cities into this league.
-It focused on poorer workers, unlike the NAACP. It helped buy clothes and books and send children to school.
-It helped factory workers and maids find jobs.
-Like the NAACP it is still an aid for African Americans today.
virginia plan
representation based on population
Mahayana Buddhism
Buddha is a god
Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk. (p.66)
Benjamin Franklin
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution. (p. 577)
powerful city-state in present day Nigeria and remained relatively free European influence
central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph
A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.
1969 automobile accident that happened on an island in which a young woman assistant was drowned when Kennedy's car plunged off a bridge
embellish: to add decoration or ornamentation to something
Ex: The Catholic Church noticed the developments in artistic techniques, and soon the greatest artists were hard at work adorning the great palaces and cathedrals of Italy (C.178)
Mounted troops of Japanese warrior leaders (bushi); loyal to local lords, not the emperor
john adams
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
What Ottoman sultan successfully eliminated the Janissary corps as a military and political influence?
Mahmud II
System in which landowners subdivided large plantations into farms of 30-50 acres, which they rented to freedmen under annual leases for a share of the crop, usually half.
Japanese internment
fear of Japanese-American as traitors, sent off (by law) to internment camps; removal of deemed threats in military areas
Delhi Sulatanate
Centralized Indian empire of varying extent, created by Muslim invaders. (p. 374)
jefferson davis
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Abu Bakr
First muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
Thomas Jefferson
A prominent statesman, became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, organized the national government by Thomas Jeffersonian Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality. Wrote the deceleration of independence and was a delegate from Virgina during the 2nd continental congress.
a philosophy in which interests and values of human beings are of primary importance
tax on imported goods; proposed by Hamiton to bring in revenue and protect infant industries in America
Tokugawa dynasty
This Dynasty ended Japan's medieval period. Centralized power and unified Japan in the sixteenth century
Literally 'middle age,' a term that historians of Europe use for the period ca. 500 to ca. 1500, signifying its intermediate point between Greco-Roman antiquity and the Renaissance. (p. 250)
an imaginary place considered to be perfect or ideal
Thomas Gallaudet
Founded a school for the deaf.
The first major urban civilization in South America (900-250 B.C.E.). Its capital, Chav?n de Hu?ntar, was located high in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Chav?n became politically and economically dominant in a densely populated region. (89)
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, but had their own land to work as well.
people who believed the Church of England needed to be "purified" or cleaned up
Homestead Strike
Strike that turned violent at Carnegie's Homestead steel plant. (1892)
newly industrialized economies
Rapidly growing, new industrial nations of the late twentieth century, including the Asian Tigers. (p. 861)
personalist leaders
Political leaders who rely on charisma and their ability to mobilize and direct the masses of citizens outside the authority of constitutions and laws. Nineteenth-century examples include Jos? Antonio P?ez of Venezuela and Andrew Jackson of the US. (628)
A soldier in South Asia, especially in the service of the British. (p. 658)
James Monroe
provided country with a break from partisan politics, Missouri Compromise, issued Monroe Doctrine
Republic of Liberia
1822- created to transport freed blacks back home- most didn't want to become they had already been Americanized. Capital was Monrovia
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe. (p. 863)
Spanish American War
Occurred in 1898, supposedly because of sinking of USS Maine, marked beginning of US imperialism
Zebulon Pike
an American soldier and explorer for whom Pikes Peak in Colorado is named. His expedition, often compared to the Lewis and Clark Expedition, mapped much of the southern portion of the Louisiana Purchase.
Sandra Day O'Connor
first woman supreme court justice. appointed by Reagan
Mexico; from 1400 to 1200 BCE; corn, beans, squash, irrigation, and large buildings; polytheistic; writing and calendar systems
Treaty Ports
Cities opened to foreign residents as a result of the forced treaties between the Qing Empire and foreign signatories. In the treaty ports, foreigners enjoyed extraterritoriality. (p. 685)
Empress Wu
Tang ruler 690-705 C.E. in China; supported Buddhism establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state of religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created
dominion of new england
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
American System
an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
Cultural Diffusion
the spreading of ideas through contact such as trade or war
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
The US recieved slightly more than half of the disputed territory and the northern boundary was moved further west towards the Rocky Mountains. This treaty occured in 1842 and improved relations with our northen neigbors.
257. The Federalist Papers, Jay, Hamilton, Madison
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
president of Egypt; attends a summit conference at Camp David along with Menachem Begin of Israel ; they sign the 1st peace treaty between Egypt and Israel – their people not happy
(of persons) liable to err, esp. in being deceived or mistaken.
Paul Revere
• Bostonian silver smith • Rode to Lexington (his goal was Concord but he was captured at Lexington) shouting "the British are coming!" to warn the people
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor. (p. 663)
1306. Tehran Conference
December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.
Federal Judiciary
consists of the nine justices of the US Supreme Court and hundreds of federal judges, all of whom are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. Federal judges preside over constitutional courts, which include 94 district courts and 12 courts of appeal; and legislative courts, which consists of special courts like tax and military courts.
A supposed asset for the South at the beginning of the Civil War that never materialized to its real advantage was...
a. Effective military leadersihp
b. Intervention from Britain and France
c. The fighting skill of Southern males
d. Its ability to fight
william randolph hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."
sargon of akkad
A conqueror from Akkad, north of Sumer, who took over all of Mesopotamia and created the world's first empire.
The Vatican
the residence of the Catholic Pope in the Vatican City
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Legislation the prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territories (North of the Ohio River) and provided the model for the incoporation of future territiores into the union as co-equal states.
Bear Flag Revolt
A revolt of American settlers in California against Mexican rule. It ignited the Mexican War and ultimately made California a state.
harry s. truman
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
898. Chief Joseph
Lead the Nez Perce during the hostilities between the tribe and the U.S. Army in 1877. His speech "I Will Fight No More Forever" mourned the young Indian men killed in the fighting.
Greek Philosophy - Socrates
- teaching through questions- stressed integrity- died 399 BCE forced to drink hemlock
Turks who had come to Anatolia in the same wave of migrations as the Seljuks. (344)
Second Bank Veto
Biddle applied to Congress in 1832 for a bill to renew bank's charter. Jackson vetoed. 1832 campaign centered on future of the Bank. Defeat for Clay and Biddle
tributary system
A system in which, from the time of the Han Empire, courtiers in East and Southeast Asia not under the direct control of emperors based in China nevertheless enrolled as tributary states, acknowledging the superiority of the emperors in China in exchange for trading rights or strategic alliances
John D. Rockefellar
He was the owner of the notorious Standard Oil Company that practiced horizontal integration to consolidate with competitors and eliminate competition to monopolize his company. Rockefeller's company took over the entire petroleum market and could now charge outrageous amounts for his products. He symbolized the evil of monopolies in the American economy. He controlled 95% of oil refineries in country by 1877.Had secret rebates. He was Baptist.
Tupac Amaru II
Member of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family. (p. 493)
A key element in establishing trade across the indian ocean was
mastering the monsoon system
Oregon Territory
Claimed by the US, GB, Russia, and the Indians and eventually declared American under President Polk.
Necessary & Proper Clause
gives Congress the means to execute its enumerated powers; elastic clause
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
This act declared that all runaway slaves be brought back to their masters; Denied runaway slaves a trial by jury; required citizens to assist federal marshals in its enforcement, whites and freedmen to face fines and prison terms if caught aiding runaway slaves
French and Indian War
a war in North America between France and Britain (both aided by indian tribes); also known as the Seven Years War
board of trade and plantations
chief body in England for governing the colonies; the group gathered information, reviewed appointments in America and advised the monarch on colonial policy.
1470. Domino Theory
1957 - It stated that if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would fall, producing a domino effect.
Pure Food and Drug Act
(TR) 1906 , 1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Statement of findamental political rights made during the French Revolution
After experiencing a relative peace after the repeal of the Townshend acts, what act resumed the unrest?
How did the colonists combat this act?
Tea Act of 1773
Boston Tea Party, Tarring and Feathering.
146. Repeal of the Townshend Acts, except tax on tea
1770 - Prime Minister Lord North repealed the Townshend Acts, except for the tax on tea.
once elected, did george w bush continue to be a 'compassionate conservative' as he pledged?
he became more of a crusader than compassionate. in his choice to go to war, he only divided the nation further
Ibn Battuta
Ridda wars began
French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans.
powhattan daughter; helped create peace after first anglo powhattan war by her marriage to colonist john rolfe
became communist with Castro's Revolution, located close to the USA
In finance, an interest-bearing certificate issued by a government or business that gurantees repayment to the purchaser on a specified date.
Joseph Black
Scotsmen scientist/philosphedecides to find out what air is made out of 'grandfather of chemistry'
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794. (See also Robespierre, Maximilien.) (p. 588)
Elkins Act
strengthened the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 by imposing heavy fines on railroads offering rebates and on the shippers accepting them
A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these 'barbarians,' as they called them, and dispersed them in 1st Century. (168)
definition: the imperial dynasty of China from 618 to 907, restored centralized rule after war
Puritan Colonies
Puritan colonies were self-governed, with each town having its own government which led the people in strict accordance with Puritan beliefs. Only those members of the congregation who had achieved grace and were full church members (called the "elect," or "saints") could vote and hold public office. Other colonies had different styles of government and were more open to different beliefs.
Gothic Cathedrals
Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows. (p. 405)
New types of literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England - middle 1800s - Ralph Waldo Emmerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margret Fuller
Year the National Bank was established
reza shah pahlavi
shah of Iran 1941–79; in exile after 1979 (son of Riza Shah Pahlavi).
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
solemn referendum
Wilson's proposed method of appealing to the people on the topic of the treaty in the presidential campaign of 1920
King Andrew
Andrew Jackson's nickname, term given to the tyrannical actions of president andrew jackson
Workers in this state started a crippling strike in 1902 against the corporation that owned the coal mines. In the case, Roosevelt's policies prevailed, and it worked out as a momentous victory for labor.
Vietnam War
Conflict pitting North Vietnam and South Vietnamese communist guerrillas against the South Vietnamese government, aided after 1961 by the United States. (p. 838)
Southern island of the Philippines; a Muslim area able to successfully resist Spanish conquest.
the hearth
Vesta was the Roman goddess of
"Bloody Sunday"
When peaceful demonstrators marched to Tsar Nicholas II with a petition but were then gunned down by the Imperial Guard. The petition and march were organized by Father Gapon who was paid by the Okhrana, the Russian secret police. The Okhrana employed him so that he could disrupt the Russian government's activities from within the Russian government - I'm not sure of the point of that, but they did it. The term for someone who does this is "agent provocateur".
the capital and largest city of Greece
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria. (236)
pax mongolica
-Mongol Peace-used to describe the eased communication and commerce the unified administration helped to create
Mexica Cultivators/ Slaves
Worked on chinampas/ aristocratic lands, paid tribunes and provided service for public works, domestic servants
Christian warriors sent to regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims that controlled
Quebec Act
Britain gave France religious freedom. Many colonists angered with that.
Old guard
conservative members of the republican party
A government without a monarch, rooted in consent of the governed, whose power is exercised by elected representatives responsible to the governed
Boston Massacre
late 18th century, further inflamed colonials against British, British troops acting apparently without orders but under extreme provocation, opened fire and killed or wounded eleven "innocent" citizens
Jefferson Republicans
Begun by Jefferson and Madison, the Jeffersonians regretted the bloodshed of the French Revolution, but believed it to be a cheap price for human freedom. The Jeffersonians also believed that America should honor the Franco-American alliance of 1778. This is one of the first examples of political parties that later developed into harsh rivalries that are now known as the Democrats and Republicans.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(AJ) , 1815-1902. American social activist and early proponent of women's rights. Her Declaration of Sentiments speech delivered in Seneca, NY, in 1848, is often credited with initiating the first organized women's suffrage and women's rights movements in the U.S. Was also an early abolitionist.
A Loyalist is an American colonist who wishes to remain a part of England. A Torie is basically a Loyalist although it is the English counterpart.
790. Pinkertons
Members of the Chicago police force headed by Alan Pinkerton, they were often used as strike breakers.
Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy
(WT) Pinchot found out that Ballinger had taken a series of 'no-bid' contracts out (to friends, with the promise of substantial kickbacks to Ballinger) companies intent on mining coal on federally protected land. Pinchot went to Taft, Teddy Roosevelts hand picked successor, and informed him. Taft basically told Pinchot that it was ok, and that the contracts would be allowed to stand. This caused a heated argument between Pinchot and Taft with Pinchot getting fired by the President.
Harrapa and Mohenjo-Daro
All archeological evidence from early Indian history suggests what two places had central authority?
Catal Hüyük
in southern Turkey; founded in 7,000 BCE & coverd 32 acres; houses were made of mud bricks on timber wood; crowded together w/ few windows; people spent lots of time on the roof tops & suffered from many broken bones; religious images both of powerful male hunters & mother goddesses devoted to agricultural fertility; large villages ruled over smaller communities leaving families to specialize in politics; by 3,000 BCE became part of a civilization
Pullman Strike
Strike of 1894. Eugene V. Debs organized the American Railway Union (150000 members). Maintained a company town, and when the Depression hit, wages were cut one third, but the rent and living expenses remained the same. Strikers overturned Pullman cars, paralyzed railway traffic from Chicago to Pacific Coast. Eventually, bayonet militia came in from Washington from Cleveland himself. Strikers were imprisoned without jury trials. The beginning of the end of company towns.
Nazis' program during World War II to kill people they considered undesirable. Some 6 million Jews perished during the Holocaust, along with millions of Poles, Gypsies, Communists, Socialists, and others. (p. 800)
One who takes advantage of a shortage of supply to charge excessively high prices and thus reap large profits.
New England Confederation
inter-colonial alliance formed in 1643 between Bay Colony, Plymouth, New Haven, and scattered Connecticut valley settlements; purpose was to provide defense against Indians, French, and Dutch; each colony had two votes; first united representative government in America
Elizabeth Blackwell
English woman who gained success and fame as a physician; very rare for time period.
Election 1884
Low point in American politics
Few fundamental differences between parties
Republicans: James Blaine (Mulligan Letters linking him to corrupt railroad deal) - caused many Republican "mugwumps" to switch parties
Democrats: Grover Cleveland (affair with a widow in Buffalo)
Republican "Rom, Romanism, Rebellion" speech - insulted the culture, religion, and patriotism of New York's irish-American voters - most turned to the Democrats - deciding factor in election
Cleveland wins 219 EV to 182 (only a 29,000 pop. Vote majority)
zimmerman note
..., Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
Henry Hudson
discovered both Hudson Bay and Hudson River while trying to find a new sea-route to the Indies
Tammany Hall
Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.
acting or tending to act too hastily or without due consideration.
Panic of 1873
(USG) , Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
American Revolution
The war between Great Britain and its American colonies, 1775-1783, by which the colonies won their independence.
Eva Duarte Peron
wife of Juan, appealed to urban workers
Tecumseh & Tenskwatawa
was a revolt, leaders were Shawnee chief Tecumseh and his bro Tenskwatawa, known as "The Prophet" b/c he claimed to have religious visions. Worked to unify tribes of east of Mississippi against white "invaders" Tecumseh tried to recruit followers, his bro and a few braves attacked Harrison. Called Battle of Tippecanoe.
Democracy in France
Napoleon III made himself emperor of France. He helped industrialize and modernize France.
Prince of Kiev, 987
This is person converted to Christianity on this date
spheres of influence
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
Annapolis Convention
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
Trail Of Tears
Indian Removal Act moves more than 100,000 Indians to the West of the Mississippi
Mann Act
A United States law which in its original form prohibited white slavery and the interstate transport of females for "immoral purposes". Its primary stated intent was to address prostitution, immorality, and human trafficking. While its ambiguous immorality language allowed selective prosecutions for many years, it was later amended by Congress to apply only to transport for the purpose of prostitution or illegal sexual acts.
roosevelt's corollary
professed the right of the U.S to intervene in the internal affairs of Latin America
War Guilt Clause
formally placed blame on Germany and charged them $33 billion for war costs
Sweatt vs. Painter
Segregated law school in Texas was held to be an illegal violation of civil rights, leading to open enrollment.
A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water. (p. 326)
186. Benedict Arnold
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
Sand Creek Massacre
In Colorado, a battle that showed U.S. dominance over Indians. The Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes were kicked out due to the gold rush
Dawes Plan-
The U.S lent money to Germany to help pay France&Britian so they could pay the U.S. this plan ensured payments of reparations by Germany after World War I, it was devised by an international committee headed by Charles Gates Dawes and put into effect in 1924.
Zheng He voyages (9. Ming Dynasty)
launched large trading expeditions with massive fleets & huge ships that dwarfed European ships; traveled entire Indian Ocean & China Sea trade routes
Rosie the Riveter
A cultural icon of the United States, representing the American women who worked in factories during World War II, many of whom worked in the manufacturing plants that produced munitions and war supplies. These women sometimes took entirely new jobs replacing the male workers who were in the military. The character is considered a feminist icon in the U.S.
1180. Bonus Army
1932 - Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.
Stamp Act of 1765
Tax on all legal documents and commerical (newspapers, deeds, and wedding licenses)
1429. Dennis v. U.S., 1951
In 1948, the Attorney General indicted two key Communist leaders for violation of the Smith Act of 1940 which prohibited conspiring to teach violent overthrow of the government. They were convicted in a 6-2 decision and their appeal was rejected.
usually consisted of independent, autonomous city states
The political structure of the ancient Greeks
Matthew Lyon
He was the first person to be put to trial for violating the acts on charges of criticizing Federalist president John Adams and disagreeing with Adams' decision to go to war against France. Lyon was sentenced to four months in jail and ordered to pay a $1,000 fine and court costs. While in jail, Lyon won election to the Sixth Congress. In the election of 1800 Matthew Lyon cast the deciding vote for Jefferson after the election went to the House of Representatives because of an electoral tie.
53. New York and Philadelphia as urban centers
New York became an important urban center due to its harbor and rivers, which made it an important center for trade. Piladelphia was a center for trade and crafts, and attracted a large number of immigrants, so that by 1720 it had a population of 10,000. It was the capital of Pennsylvania from 1683-1799. As urban centers, both cities played a major role in American Independence.
456. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America
De Tocqueville came from France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
In the late 1800s most of the foreign immigrants
established close-knit ethnic communities
1081. Lusitania, Arabic Pledge, Sussex Pledge
May 7, 1915 - British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs, but the Lusitania had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war. Germany promised to stop submarine warfare.
AFter World War I, Italy was in Chaos. A journlist and former socialist, ______joined the fascist party, and with the help of his paramilitary group, the _____gained control of Italy by 1922. He was known as ____, which means leader.
mussolini; black shirts; il duce
1. Haymarket Riot 18862. Pullman Strike 18943. Homestead Steel strike 1892
Three most famous strikes of the 19th century
Leif Ericsson
"three-fifths" compromise, date
1607 colony in Virgina
Handsome lake
a prophet an iroquios
Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world
To improve oneself without assisstance.
Indus River Civilization
- - -
Chinese School of Thought: Daoists believe that the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao, or 'path' of nature.
This political party found itself within the era of Jacksonian democracy. It was formed to oppose the policies of President Jackson and the Democratic party. They supported the supremacy of Congress over the Executive Branch (president) and favored a program of modernization and economic development (reform). Name in emulation of the Patriots of 1776. Henry Clay, William Henry Harrison, and Abraham Lincoln. Eventually its leaders either quit politics or changed parties.
Initiative, Referendum, Reform
-Around 1913 and 1916
-To make sure that elected officials would follow citizens' wishes they worked for the initiative which gave people the power to put a proposed new law directly on the ballot in the next election by collecting citizens' signatures on a petition. The referendum which allowed citizens to approve or reject laws passed by legislature. And the Recall which gave voters the power to remove public servants from office before their terms ended.
Virtual Representation
representative not elected by constituents, but resembles them in politcal beliefs and goals. colonies only had virtual representation in british government
A Persian-influenced literary form of Hindi written in Arabic characters and used as a literary language since the 1300s. (p. 388)
Republicans 1780-1801
States' rights, strict interpretation, encouraged agriculture and rural life, South and West, France, Civil liberties and trust in people
Oliver Evans
(1755-1819) developed the first application of steam power in an industrial setting. He also developed a method of automating flour mills
George Washington
Unanimously elected president in 1788
slavery or bondage of any kind:
Woodrow Wilson
President of the United States (1913-1921) and the leading figure at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. He was unable to persuade the U.S. Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations. (p. 762)
four-minute men
Men who delivered countless speeches with "patriotic pep"
Ten Commandments
The moral law of the Hebrews
(Victor L.) Berger
This Austrian-born Socialist, was elected as a House of Reps member for Milwaukee, but was denied his seat in 1919 during a wave of anti-socialist hysteria.
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa. (p. 425)
Francis Xavier
Franciscan missionary who worked in India during the 1540s among outcast and lower-caste groups; later worked in Japan
The Roman policy of toleration and respect for conquered peoples was most similar to the
Wassily Kandinsky
A Russian-born artist who turned completely away from nature and focused on Dadaism.
Daoism (Taoism)
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu
advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with
the course of natural event
First Temple
A monumental sanctuary built in Jerusalem by King Solomon in the tenth century B.C.E. to be the religious center for the Israelite god Yahweh. The Temple priesthood conducted sacrifices, received a tithe or percentage of agricultural revenues. (102)
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia
Inca Society Structure
Hereditary Aristocracy; chief ruler was descendent of the sun, mummified rulers joined gods, aristocrats enjoyed luxuries, priests led celibate & ascetic lives (very influential)
foot binding
practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
John Steinbeck
Perhaps the most successful chronicler of social conditions in the 1930s, particularly in his celebrated novel The Grapes of Wrath. In telling the story of the Joad family, migrants from the Dust Bowl to California who encounter a unending string of calamities and failures, he offered a harsh portrait of the exploitive features of agrarian life in the West. 7: 1934-1941
hebert croly
...Herbert David Croly (January 23, 1869 - May 17, 1930) was an intellectual leader of the Progressive Movement as an editor, and political philosopher and a co-founder of the magazine The New Republic
A cartoonist who pilloried Tweed mercilessly.
Thomas Nast
"King Mob"
The name given to the transition between Jeffersonian simplicity and a Jacksonian vulgarity. It was first used to describe the style Jackson's inauguration because the white house was thrown open to the masses which interwove the notables with the unknowns. This was a transition in American politics from a political genius to a president for the people. It further established America as an identity of capitalism where anyone can rise up to become anything even president.
Haymarket Riot**
(GC)1886,, A planned strike by the Knights of Labor results in police confrontation and a bomb
Common Sense
Written by Thomas Paine, argued that no where in the universe was a larger body ruled by a smaller body, and this same rule should apply to America and Britain.
580. "King Cotton"
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the South's cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, "You daren't make war against cotton! ...Cotton is king!".
Ordinance of Secession
After the 1860 election, South Carolina held a special election to choose delegates to a convention in Charleston on December 20, 1860. The convention unanimously endorsed an ordinance of secession, declaring the union with other states dissolved.
Office of War Information
consolidated government news services in America and abroad. Conducted propaganda campaigns and provided war news. Gov generally relied on self-censorship.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(LBJ), Southern Christian Leadership Conference, freedom riders, sits ins, based philosophy of Gandhi,
Mansa Musa
Who made the famous pilgramage to Mecca in 1334?
the name of the king leadership role in Egypt; had a godlike status
Square Deal
made up by Roosevelt; wanted control of corporations; consumer protection; conservation of natural resources; one should use their talent to the best of ability; aimed at helping middle class by attacking trusts and protecting business from extreme demands of organized labor
Tianamen Square
Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life. (p. 862)
Charlemagne (742-814)
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival. (p. 254)
collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages.
Welfare state
New activism of the West European state in economic policy and welfare issues after World War II; introduced programs to reduce the impact of economic inequality; typically included medical programs and economic planning
Granger Laws
Some Grangers got into politics and passed legislation to regulate railway rates and the storage fees charged by railroads and by the operators of warehouses and grain elevators- declared unconstitutional/ revoked by the Supreme Court
building up an army and/or navy before a war happens
John Winthrop
was the famous Puritan governor of Massachusetts
D.W. Griffith
Produced the move "The Birth of Nations" in 1915 which glorified the KK of Reconstuction days and defamed both blacks and Northern carpetbaggers.
To make amends or reparation, as for an offense or a crime, or for an offender usually fol. by for:
San Francisco Conference
(FDR) 1945 - This conference expanded the drafts of the Yalta and Dumbarton Oaks conferences and adopted the "United Nations" Charter.
Bhagavad Gita
"Song of the Lord," an Indian short poetic work drawn from the lengthly Mahabharata that was finished around 400 CE and that expressed basic Hindu concepts such as karma and dharma
Credit Mobilier
a scandal in which the Union Pacific Railroad had formed the Credit Mobilier construction company and then hired themselves at inflated prices to build the railroad line. The company then "bought" several prominent Republican congressmen with shares of its valuable stock.
Senegal to Angola
the region from which most African slaves came from (on the West Coast)
Umayyad Caliphate and Damascus
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs (661 to 750). From their capital at Damascus, the Umayyads ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate., an ancient city (widely regarded as the world's oldest) and present capital and largest city of Syria
Khanate of Chaghatai
Khanate ruled by Chagatai Khan; taken over the the Mughal empire soon after its fall
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
battle in which Andrew Jackson received help from the Cherokees in defeating the Creeks and opening up settlement in the southwest
Ancient Order of Hibernians
semisecret society of irish, founded in ireland to fight landlords, helped out fellow irish in america, led to molly maguires
Nominating conventions
A new way of choosing candidates. Each state would send delegates to choose the party's candidate, allowing common people to become more involved with the selection of the candidate and the election itself.
belleau wood
..., The first battle that America was seriously involved in. They dug no trenches, and fought bravely. Great casualties were suffered, but emerged victorious.
Immigration Act of 1924
Replacement law for the Emergency Quota Act. Cut the quota from 3% to 2% - racial undertones and nativism
Charles Coughlin
He ran against FDR and disliked the New Deal. He voiced his opinions on the radio.
Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported antiforeign movements, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces. (p. 721)
1525. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Proposed the 27th Amendment, calling for equal rights for both sexes. Defeated in the House in 1972.
John Calhoun
Jackson's VP but fell out of his favor especially w/ the South Carolina exposition. Instead of being Jackson's successor Martin Van Buren (secretary of state). Was lots of controversy over the tension between him and Jackson
Night of the long knives
Purge of Adolf Hitler's potential political rivals in the Sturmabteilung (SA). targeted SA leaders and members who were associated more with socialism than with nationalism, and were viewed as a threat to the continued support for Hitler within the Army.
5. Sui Dynasty
Sui Yangdai evil ruler & built grand canal (linked 2 rivers)
Cult of Domesticity
idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands
397. New states, 1815-1840
The government tried to maintain a balance between slave states and free states. The new states admitted were: Indiana (1816, free), Mississippi (1817, slave), Illinois (1818, free), Alabama (1819, slave), Maine (1820, free), Missouri (1821, slave), Arkansas (1836, slave), and Michigan (1837, free).
"Engineer of the Revolution" and "Penman of the Revolution"
Two nicknames for Samuel Adams
407. Age of the Common Man
Jackson's presidency was the called the Age of the Common Man. He felt that government should be run by common people - a democracy based on self-sufficient middle class with ideas formed by liberal education and a free press. All white men could now vote, and the increased voting rights allowed Jackson to be elected.
leading a balanced and moderate life
The Buddha believed that salvation came from
New York City Draft Riot
In 1863, Irish killed Blacks because they feared for their jobs; tried to prove they were better than Blacks and burned Draft buildings.
80. Currency Act, 1764
This act applied to all of the colonies. It banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia’s decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
344. Lewis and Clark expedition and its findings
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
The political activity of the late 1800s can best be described by the statement tht
politiicans did not address the problems caused by the rapid social and economic changes of the times
178. July 4, 1776 and the Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4. It dissolved the colonies' ties with Britain, listed grievances against King George III, and declared the colonies to be an independent nation.
Treaty of Kanagawa (Japan and United States)
In 1857, Admiral Perry sailed into Tokyo harbor in his iron-plated steam ships with a letter from U.S. president Millard Fillmore requesting that the Japanese government agree to trade with American merchants, help American sailors stranded on Japanese territory, and sell water and coal to American ships passing by on thier way to trade in China.
As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the United States gained...
fishing rights off the coast of CanadaBritish recognition of US independencea western boundary of the MS rivera peaceful settlement of the Revolutionary War
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