Progressive Era Flashcards

Terms Definitions
investigative journalists during the early 1900s who sought to expose problems in industry and corruption in politics as a way to encourage reform; ex: Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell, Jacob Riis, and Lincoln Steffens
New Freedom
(1) Wilson's progressive reform platform in the 1912 election (in contrast with TR's New Nationalism), including more trust-busting, tariff reductions, and reform of the banking system; (2) After Wilson was elected, some of his policies (like the Federal Reserve system) came to resemble strategies that TR had actually advocated.
(1) pseudoscience that attempted to create the "perfect" human society by eliminating "undesirable" racial elements (but that tended only to justify a white supremacist Protestant ideology); (2) more than 60,000 mentally disabled people were sterilized because of laws based on this in the era 1907-1963
business growth by undercutting and buying out any competition.
Eugene Debs
(1) prominent socialist leader and five-time presidential candidate; (2) founder of the the American Railway Union in 1893 & leader of the Pullman Strike; co-founder of the IWW in 1905; (3) he was imprisoned 1918-1921 for opposing the US role in WWI
19th Amendment
amendment ratified in 1920 that extended the right to vote to women in all federal and state elections.
18th Amendment
amendment ratified in 1919, this amendment prohibited the manufacture, transport, or sale of alcoholic beverages; it was made law by the Volstead Act but was sporadically enforced, violated by many, and repealed in 1933
price fixing
competing businesses agreeing on a price for their product
federal reserve
government support for the banking industry
Square Deal
TR's social & economc policies that sought improved relationships btwn capital and labor, control of business, and environmental conservation
Clayton Antitrust Act
Wilson's 1914 act that strengthened the vague Sherman Antitrust Act by enumerating a series of illegal business practices
Margaret Sanger
(1) leader of the birth control movement who was found guilty in 1914 of obscenity for using the mail to promote contraception; (2) she hoped to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies, particularly for poor women; she organized the NY Birth Control League
The Awakening
1899 Kate Chopin novel that reflects the changing attitudes of women at the turn of the century; about a married woman who defies social conventions by falling in love with another man but eventually commits suicide when she learns that his views on women are as oppressive as her husband's
Workman's Compensation
insurance a company uses to pay medical bills of injured workers.
Underwood Tariff
a reduced tariff (by almost 15%) pused through Congress by Wilson in 1913; the law also established a graduated income tax to cover the lost tariff revenue
Susan B. Anthony
leading member of the women's suffrage movement who served as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) from 1892-1900
Meat Inspection Act
1906 law that set federal regulations for meatpacking plants and established a federal monitoring system; the result of muckraker exposés (like Upton Sinclair's The Jungle) that revealed the unsanitary and hazardous conditions in food processing plants
woodrow wilson
democrat who won election of 1912 by borrowing progressive ideas and issues
Federal Reserve Act
1913 act that created "the Fed," which still regulates the money supply through a network of 12 banks that distribute currency & loan money to banks; Wilson's most notable legislative success
Amendment 19
Women's Suffrage-Vote
Writer/Journalist who exposes corruption / problems in American society.
Pullman Strike
Nationwide railway strike 1894.
total abstinence from alcoholic liquors.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People which work for equal rights for African Americans.
Trade Unions
Labor Organizations that brought together workers in the same trade or job, to fight for better wages and working conditions.
the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite
Allows voters to remove corrupt elected officials from office.
the legal prohibiting of the manufacture and sale of alcoholic drinks for common consumption.
U.S. Steel (1911)
Wickersham reveals everything that this company went through to become a monopoly.
Teddy Roosevelt
experience in politics which helped become President, controlled good trusts and banned bad trusts, passed laws on the meat packing industry which protected consumers, protected enviorment by setting aside government land
17th Amendment
Election of Senators by the PEOPLE!
Jane Addams
1.helped settlement houses grow: takes middle class people who help immigrant families adapt to American customs and learn English
2. one of the strongest elements of progressive movement. Believed environment helped shape individual development. WOMEN PLAYED ESSENTIAL ROLE IN PROGRESSIVE ERA REFORM
the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc.:
careful use of resources so they are not wasted
A direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. It can either be binding or non-binding.
What is patronage?
"the spoils system" in which politicians give jobs and favors to friends
Jacob Riis
writer and photographer of the book "How The Other House Lives"-targeted poverty slum life
Triangle Fire
fire in 1911 at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York City that killed nearly 150 workers
Child Labor
Children worked in factories and coal mines in poor conditions instead of attending school.
Susan B. Anthony
A leading proponent of women suffrage; help found the national women suffrage association (NWSA).
1. NEW MEANING: Belief in an activist socially conscious government, originally stood for hands-off economics
2. New activist government at local, state, and national levels
hull house
a settlement house in Chicago, Ill., founded in 1889 by Jane Addams.
Minimum Wage
the lowest wage that an employer is allowed to pay
Reform Movements
Attempts by people to fix problems in society.
Gifford Pinchot
Head of the U.S. Forest Service under President Roosevelt; believed that wilderness areas could be scientifically managed to yield public enjoyment while allowing private development.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
Is a result of lackluster safety reform and results in fire codes that are demanded by Laguardia as well as FDR.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Fire in 1911 that kills 144 workers that helps change fire laws in New York.
"Mother Mary Jones"
Union leader who worked to end child labor and pushed for mandatory public education for children.
Comstock Laws of 1873
Banned abortion as well as any other form of birth control.
What is a business reform
Federal Reserve Act to regulate banks, Federal Trade Commission which investigated unfair Trade practices
Populist Party / The Grange
"People's Party" formed by farmers to fix farming problems.
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
Created as a response to progressives, especially Upton Sinclaire, and required companies to put labels on foods and addictive habit-forming drugs.
Upton Sinclair
Author of The Jungle
gives votes the opportunity rto collect petitions to vote on a new law or to create a bill.
People from different places bring their ideas, skills, art and way of life to America
Giving government jobs to friends (spoils system)
Charles Hughes
Republican nominee for presidential election of 1916, believes he is president due to newspaper misprint
Theodore Roosevelt
became president after McKinley was assassinated who reformed government through the Square Deal
State and federal laws ban child labor; Supreme Court overturns federal ban
when voters start a bill by petition
Gilded Age
Period of history of political corruption and large spending (1870's to 1890's)
the separation of races in the United States
Working conditions
Strike fund aids workers who reject unsafe working conditions
coal strike
to prove himself roosevelt threaten to send in the army when mine owners refused to cooperate
Civil Service
any federal job except officials and the military
Keating-Owen Act
Law enacted to protect against child labor by prohibiting the interstate shipping of goods in which someone under 14 worked to make
Carrie Chapman Catt
Conservative leader of the NAWSA from 1915 - 1920 and pushed the suffrage movement nation-wide
ida turbell
wrote the history of the standard oil company, outraged that john d rockefeller ruined her father
William Tweed
NYC boss who stole $100 million from government, accepted bribes
Northern Securities v. United States
1904 Supreme Court ruling that dissolved the railroad company for establishing a monopoly in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act
example of unfair treatment
were not given raises, paid according to amount of coal mined, paid in scrip money, dangerous conditions
pure food and drug act
banned the manufacture and sale of impure food, drugs and liquor and the mislabeling of food and drugs
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