Ap S. History Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Aeschylus
...
mercantilism
state-controlled economic activity
Hebrews
Semitic-speaking nomadic tribe influential for monotheistic belief in Yahweh
Achaemenid Empire
- - -
Architecture
the art of designing buildings
1324 CE
Date: Mansa Musa's Pilgrimage
FDIC
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation is a United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks, currently up to $250,000 per depositor per bank. As of November 18, 2010, the FDIC insures deposits at 7,723 institutions. The FDIC also examines and supervises certain financial institutions for safety and soundness, performs certain consumer-protection functions, and manages banks in receiverships (failed banks).
Pendleton Act
created Civil Service Commission, administered gov. jobs based on merit
Politburo
Executive committee of the Soviet Communist party; 20 members
Gullah
combination language of African and American
Alignment
an organization of people (or countries) involved in a pact or treaty
bushido
Japanese warrior code of conduct, similar to the chivalry system in Europe
Stelae
tall structure with inscriptions in Ethiopia. There are 1,300 stelae found at Axum in Ethiopia.
Haganah
Zionist military force engaged in violent resistance to British presence in Palestine in the 1940s
keiretsu
Alliances of corporations and banks that dominate the Japanese economy. (p. 861)
Imperalism
policy of strong nations controlling weaker ones
"Champagne Charley"
A nickname for Charles Townshend
Copperheads
Most extreme portion of the Peace Democrats. They openly obstructed the war through attacks against the draft, against Lincoln, and the emancipation. Based in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. There was really no victory for this group.
Lutheranism
supported by the common people because it sanctioned money making.
Supreme Soviet
Parliament of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; elected by universal suffrage; actually controlled by Communist party; served to ratify party decisions.
67. Huguenots
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
House Of Burgesses
Representative Assembly to give immigrants same rights in America than in England.
Alexis de Toqueville
French political thinker and historian. He wrote the book "Democracy in America," on the democratic institutions in America, and their strengths and weaknesses.
Meiji Restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
Quipu
A record-keeping device of the Inca empire consisting of a series of variously colored strings attached to a base rope and knotted so as to encode information, used especially for accounting purposes
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.
Enclosure
the process beginning in England in the 1700s in which the owners of land enclosed it with fences whereas previously it had been easily accessible and often used by peasants to graze animals or grow crops; a cause of urbanization as it forced peasants off the land and into cities
khipu
System of knotted colored cords used by preliterate Andean peoples to transmit information. (p. 312)
George Dewey
A United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War, U.S. naval commander who led the American attack on the Philippines.
Implied Powers
Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions; used by Hamilton to create the national bank
The Iranian state which followed the achaemenids and which rivaled the seleucids was the
Parthian
Islamic arts
Arabesque design - geometric designs; no human figures in art
Miniature painting in Persia
Poetry
Mosques with domes, pillars, and minarets
Quebec Acts
former French subjects in Canada allowed to keep Catholicism, while American colonists expected to participate in the Church of England
1754-1763
Date of the French & Indian War
extraterritoriality
immunity from the jurisdiction of a nation, granted to foreign diplomatic officials, foreign warships, etc.
Whig Party
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
William Penn
Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718)
Black Death
an outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-14th century, carrying off vast numbers of peoples. One in three Europeans died.
The first ruler to unify India was?
Chandragupta Maurya
Great Awakening
It was a revival of religious importance in the 17th century. It undermined older clergy, created schisms, increased compositeness of churches, and encouraged missionary work, led to the founding new schools. It was first spontaneous movement of the American people (broke sectional boundaries and denominational lines).
Isaac Newton
English Scientist. 3 Laws of motion. Mathematics Principal of Natural Philosophy (1687).
Spanish Armada
fleet of Spanish ships, defeated by the English
At the time of WWI schools and universities discouraged opposition to the war T or F
T
Red Guards
the Radical youth of the Cultural Revolution in China starting in 1966. Often wore red armbands and carried Mao's Little Red Book.
Endeavors
to make a serious and sincere effort to achieve something
Ex: The focus on human endeavors became known as humanism. (C.177)
Mark Antony
Roman general under Julius Caesar in the Gallic wars
the silk road
connected china to the mediterranean, carried much more than silk - carried religion and other food.
william jennings bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party. Later a witness in the Scopes Monkey Trial
George Whitfield
English preacher who led the Great Awakening by traveling through the colonies
Wedgwood
a type of pottery made by Josiah Wedgwood and his successors
1120. Normalcy
Harding wanted a return to "normalcy" - the way life was before WW I.
Tigris
One of the two rivers which surrounds Mesopotamia.
Alexis de Tocqueville
a french political thinker and historian
James McPherson
Historian who has noted other ways in which the Civil War extended the authority of the Central Government. It expanded federal powers of taxation. It encouraged the government to develop the National Banking System, print currency, and conscript an army. And it also made federal courts more influential. He provides information to contrast the popular belief that the Civil War resulted in more individual rights (which it did through slavery, but these new extensions to authority decreased the power of the individual).
Theravada Buddhism
'Way of the Elders' branch of Buddhism followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia. Therevada remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha; it downplays the importance of gods (181)
polytheism
the doctrine of or belief in more than one god or in many gods
nobility
noble class or body of nobles in a country.
English Civil War
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
Philip II
By 338 BCE, the Greeks had fallen to
Medieval Japan
1185 - 1608 a period of Japanese history when Japan acted like Feudal Europe. warlords controlled land and economy
ethnic cleansing
Effort to eradicate a people and its culture by means of mass killing and the destruction of historical buildings and cultural materials. Ethnic cleansing was used by both sides in the conflicts that accompanied the disintegration of Yugoslavia (883)
sir francis drake
in 1578, he became the first englishman to circumnavigate the globe
The "holy experiment"
name for William Penn's idea that people of different nationalities and religious beliefs could live peacefully together in his Pennsylvania colony
Keynesian Economics
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
486. Emma Willard (1787-1870)
Early supporter of women's education, in 1818 she published Plan for Improving Female Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. In 1821, she opened her own girls’ school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.
the May 4 Movement
happened after the Paris Peace Conference when China expected the US to support China but instead the US approved of the Japanese controlling China so students and intellectuals protected anything foreign
John Jacob Astor
fur trader and real estate speculator, he left 30 million in his estate
the compromise of 1850
a strict fugitive slave law was passed
Dar al-Islam
the "house of Islam', a term for the Islamic world
Tallmadge Amendment
(JMon) , This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
Seneca Falls
July, 1848 - Site of the first modern women's right convention. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Staton read a Declaration of Sentiment listing the many discriminations against women, and adopted eleven resolutions, one of which called for women's suffrage.
Lord de la Warr
New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.
Shi'ite Muslim
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
War Industries Board –
WIB coordinated the nat’l economy by making purchases, allocating supplies, and fixing prices.
Paul
A Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia, he initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but, after receiving a revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, became a Christian. (156)
Vietnamese Declaration of Independence
Declaration that Ho Chi minh made to get rid of the French and become an independent nation
International Atomic Energy Agency
the United Nations agency set up in 1957 concerned with the control of atomic energy
Haymarket Square Riot
1886
A bomb goes off in Haymarket Square in Chicago, killing police; radical unionists are accused.
George Washington
Was to be the leader of the new army and navy, and insisted on serving without payment
Declaration of the Rights of Man
its a french version of our independence
1207. Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
1936 - The second AAA appropriated funds for soil conservation paymnets to farmers who would remove land from production.
Amended Fugitive Slave Act 1793, 1850
Part of the Compromise of 1850, this act authorized federal commissioners to compel citizens to assist in the return of runaway slaves. Once captured, the accused runaways could not testify in their own behalf, and they were denied a jury trial.
its central location in the Indian Ocean basin
India was a natural location for the establishment of emporia because of
Gilgamesh
...
Labor's evolution
became specialized
Brahmins
Hindu caste of priests
Sparta
- Military Greek city-state
Mesopotamia
means "land between the rivers"
Olympics
Greek athletic competitions to celebrate the Gods and feed city-state rivalries
trust
a consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service
Barbary Wars
under Jefferson; Barbary States demanded payment to trade in Africa, Jefferson refused
Pancho Villa
Mexican revolutionary and militery commander in Northern Mexico during the Mexican Revolution; succeded along with Emiliano Zapata in removing Diaz from power in 1911; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta
another name for Neolothic Revolution
Agricultural Revolution
OAS
Organization of American States, an international governmental organization formed by the states of North and South America formed to promote democracy, economic cooperation, and human rights 1948
Arabesque
Ornament or surface decoration with intricate curves and flowing lines based on plant forms
Nubia
an ancient region of northeastern Africa (southern Egypt and northern Sudan) on the Nile
Apartheid
Policy of strict racial segregation imposed in South Africa to permit the continued dominance of whites politically and economically.
Islam
Religion expounded by the Prophet Muhammad (570-632 C.E.) on the basis of his reception of divine revelations, which were collected after his death into the Quran. (231)
Washington
1st President of the United States
Sufis
Mystics within Islam; responsible for expansion of Islam to southern Asia and other regions
Ostend Manifesto
American ministers in Spain, England, and France had a confidential meeting attempting to acquire Cuba for $120,000,000. This secret quickly leaked and Northerners rose against manifesto of Brigands. Helped territorial expansion.
William Harvey
English physician (17th century) who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump.
Gestapo
Secret police in Nazi Germany, known for brutal tactics.
1450. Angela Davis
Black Communist college professor affiliated with the Black Panthers, she was accused of having been involved in a murderous jail-break attempt by that organization.
Separatists
People who want change in state, religion, politics etc.
William Clark
Explorer along with Merriwether Lewis sent out to explore the recently purchaced Louisiana Territory. He served as the artist and cartographer. Their exploring lasted from 1804-1806. They traveled up Missouri River, through the Rockies, and to the mouth of the Columbia River.
Yi Dynasty
Korean Dynasty that succeeded Koryo dynasty following period of Mongol invasions; established in 1392; ruled Korea to 1910; resotred aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence
differentiated labor
labor shared amongst the peasant class
Vladimir Lenin
Leader of the Russian Revolution; Bolshevik.
Sandinista
Rebel forces in Nicaragua fought the Contra established in the 1960s that was sponsored by the Cuban government under Castro
Ashikaga Shogunate
The second of Japan's military governments headed by a shogun (a military ruler). Sometimes called the Muromachi Shogunate. (p. 365)
big-stick diplomacy
Diplomatic policy developed by T.R symbolizing his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.
Loose Construction
way of interpreting the constitution that allows the federal government to take actions that the constitution does not specifically forbid it from taking
the early Chinese shipped textiles and metal goods to the steppes ancestors of the turks and mongols and received what in return?
Horses
nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Jay's Treaty
provied for evacuation of English troops from posts in the Great Lakes
Boston Tea Party
Event where disguised colonists boarded a ship and dumped 342 chests of tea into the Harbor
diaspora
the scattering of the Jews to countries outside of Palestine after the Babylonian captivity.
Know Nothing Party
Secret Nativist political party that opposed Immigration during the 1840's and early 1850's. Officially called the American Party
toleration
an act of acceptance toward the views and opinions of culture and religion
Cosimo de' Medici
This Florentine banker, nicknamed "the Magnificent" spent immense sums on paintings, sculpture, and public buildings
In 1492 on Oct 12th Columbus made landfall on an island that the Tainos natives called?
Guanahani
Valley Forge
the site where George Washington and his troops endured a harsh winter without proper food, shelter, or clothing
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
indentured servant
poor people who traveled to America and worked off their debt of travel
the jungle
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
Globalization
The process of the world becoming more economically interconnected and interdependent. The tendency of investment funds and businesses to move beyond domestic and national markets to other markets around the globe, thereby increasing the interconnectedness of different markets.
Joint-stock company
An organization created to pool the resources of many merchants, thereby distributing the cost and risk of colonization and reducing the danger for individual investors. Investors bought shares, or stock , in the company. If the company made money, each investor would receive a profit proportional to his or her initial investment. {Commercial Revolution in Europe} (C.191)
Maya
a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Wabash Case
1886 supreme court case that decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce
Second AAA
has the same general objectives, rests not on the taxing power but specifically on the powers of Congress to: 1) regulate interstate commerce, and 2) promote the general welfare. As a further safeguard against the Court, the drafters of the AAA of 1938 inserted a provision separating the Act into sections dealing with each crop, so that the whole Act could not be thrown out by one adverse decision.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
826. Lester Frank Ward
Sociologist who attacked social Darwinism in his book, Dynamic Sociology.
Beginning in march 1940, Hitelr conquered denmark, norway, the netherlands, Belgium and finally, by june of 1940, had the surrender of_____. He then began a bombing campaign against ____, known as the "blitz". Witht he use of radar and Britis resistance,
france; britain; russia
Samuel Gompers
founder of the American Federation of Labor
The Monitor
A tiny Union ironclad built in about 100 days, fought the Merrimack on March 9. A few months after the battle the Confederates destroyed the Merrimack to keep it from being stolen by the Union.
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans. (p. 763)
Anthropomorphic (gods in mesopotamia)
give human qualities to non-living things
John Peter Zenger
person who printed mean things about the government and was decided "not guilty" - freedom of press
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
The leader, supported by the Roman aristocrats, who led a slaughter of more than ten thousand of his political enemies
Four Noble Truths
suffering is always present in life; desire is the cause of suffering; freedom from suffering can be achieved in nirvana; the Eightfold Path leads to nirvana
coureurs de bois
(runners of the woods) French fur traders, many of mixed Amerindian heritage, who lived among and often married with Amerindian peoples of North America. (p. 489)
treaty of tordesillas
portugal and spain were fighting over territory, so they established the treaty of tordesillas, which made a line of demarcation on a longitudinal (morth-south) line that runs through the western atlantic ocean. everything to the east of the line belonged to portugal and everything on the west belonged to spain.
Halfway Covenant
A Puritan church policy of 1662, which allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members. Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Muller v Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
1306. Tehran Conference
December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.
Most New Immigrant
tried to preserve their old country culture in america
Joint Occupation
Britain and US had a joint occupation on Oregon, they both were occupying the territory
battle on the river zab
victory of abbasids over umayyads; resulted in capture of syria
Corpus iuris civilis
"Body of the Civil Law', the Byzantine emporer Justinian's attempt to codify all Roman law
Ethics in Govt
(GB1) main issue = larges fees for lobbying and weak laws governing campaign spending
General Winfield Scott
Led the U.S. forces' march on Mexico City during the Mexican War. He took the city and ended the war.
Regulator Movement
It was a movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.
Mauryan Empire
The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C.E. and survived until 184 B.C.E. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes. (184)
Selective Service Act
requiring all males between 21 and 30 (changed to 18 and 45 later) to register.
Shah Abbas I
Shah of Iran (r. 1587-1629). The most illustrious ruler of the Safavid Empire, he moved the imperial capital to Isfahan in 1598, where he erected many palaces, mosques, and public buildings. (p. 533)
Brown vs. Board of Education
Stated in 1954 that it was unconstitutional to maintain separate black and white schools
Edict of Nantes
edict issued by Henry IV of France in 1598 that ended the persecution of protestants, specifically Huguenots, in France
The "Revolution of 1800"
The first change of power from the Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans. Occured peacefully and without bloodshed, an important test for the growing nation.
56 delegates and 13 colonies
The number of delegates and colonies reprented at the Second Continental Congress
What was considered the "Middle Ages" or the "Dark Ages"?
The fall of Rome in 476
259. Bill of Rights adopted, 1791
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Statement of liberal and universal goals made by the leaders of the french Revolution in August 1789
Positive effects of the french and indian war
New York merchants bring in good money for business
Elizabeth I
...
gligamesh
legandary Summerian king
John Winthrop
Head of puritans
James Oglethorpe
solider-statesmen: interested in prison reform; saved charity colony; repelled Spanish attacks
Stoics
Hellenistic group of philosopher; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery
scalawag
white Southerner who supported Reconstruction after the Civil War
Benjamin Franklin
only American Enlightenment person"Fish and visitors stink after 3 days"'Poor Richard's Almanac'paris loved himbifocals, Franklin stove, KITE->ELECTRICITY
tropics
Equatorial region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It is characterized by generally warm or hot temperatures year-round, though much variation exists due to altitude and other factors. (370)
Chatauqua Movement
American Adult educational movement which was popular through the 19th and 20th movements - brought people into communities to lecture
Inca
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco. (p. 316)
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
-Upton Sinclair
-1906
-Chicago, America.
-This book was written by a famous Muckraker and it was meant to open the eyes of Americans to the plight of workers in the filthy, dangerous Chicago stockyards.
-Popular outrage focused mostly on the threat of spoiled meant and Congress quickly passed the nation's first legislation regulating the meat, food, and drug industries.
-Sinclair was upset that he failed to provoke more sympathy for the underpaid workers, but he still created change.
Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
recaptives
Africans rescued by Britain's Royal Navy from the illegal slave trade of the nineteenth century and restored to free status. (p. 655)
Progressive Movement
(1901 -1917Formed by Midwestern Farmers, Socialists, and Labor Organizers -attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax
Lynchings
when small vigilante mobs or elaborately organized community events where an individual (typically black) was publicly hung due to a crime (true or perceived). Resulted from white supremacy or fear of black sexuality.
Kentucky
Became the 15th state in 1792
leon trotsky
Russian revolutionary and writer: minister of war 1918–25.
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)
Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, from Massachusetts with a Harvard Ph.D.; Republican senator
Varna
A caste in the Hindu caste system
patent medicines
Many people assumed that these remedies were safe and/or backed by the the government, but they were often spiked excessively with alcohol, addictive, or otherwise harmful. They were advertised widely, and their sale was profitable to unscrupulous businessmen.
medieval
Literally 'middle age,' a term that historians of Europe use for the period ca. 500 to ca. 1500, signifying its intermediate point between Greco-Roman antiquity and the Renaissance. (p. 250)
Manchu
Zhurchen people from region to the northeast of the Chinese empire; seized power and created the Qing dynasty after the collapse of the Ming
li-passion
Which of the following Confucian terms and its translations is NOT correct?
The Curie's
Marie (1867-1934) a polish born physicist, and her husband Pierre discovered that radium constantly emits subatomic particles, which means it doesn't have a constant weight.
cuneiform
Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets
variolation
The technique of enhancing immunity by exposing patients to dried mucous taken from those already infected. (p. 559)
Ka'aba
(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
Polynesian Mariners
Took long voyages; settled Easter Island (300), reached w. coast of S. Amer., brought back sweet potato (new staple crop in Polynesia), settled hawaiian islands during 12-13 c. voyages
aristocracy
the most powerful members of a society
Kellogg-Briand Pact
The Washington conference began the New Era effort to protect the peace without accepting active international duties. This pact of 1928 concluded it. When the French foreign minister, Aristide Briand, asked the U.S. in 1927 to join an alliance against Germany, Frank Kellogg instead proposed a multilateral treaty outlawing war as an instrument of national policy 7: 1934-1941
rough riders
..., volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Enumerated pwers
the pwers explicity granted to congress by the constitution
Turner Thesis
late 19th century, the historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that the frontier was the key factor in the development of American democracy and institutions; he maintained that the frontier served as a "safety valve" during periods fo economic crisis
Divorce Bill
Van Buren tried to "divorce" the country of its bank, the money would be locked into vaults so it would be safe. It was not a popular idea and led to the Treasury bill passed by Congress in 1840.
Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy
(WT) Pinchot found out that Ballinger had taken a series of 'no-bid' contracts out (to friends, with the promise of substantial kickbacks to Ballinger) companies intent on mining coal on federally protected land. Pinchot went to Taft, Teddy Roosevelts hand picked successor, and informed him. Taft basically told Pinchot that it was ok, and that the contracts would be allowed to stand. This caused a heated argument between Pinchot and Taft with Pinchot getting fired by the President.
Natural Rights
Jefferson used Natural Rights in the declaration of Independence and he gave his appeal universality by invoking "natural rights" not just British rights. (John Locke)
781. Boycotts
People refuse to buy a company's product until the company meets demands.
Gettysburg Address
Speech by Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg: key ideas were liberty, equality, and democratic ideas, and that the purpose of war was to protect those ideas (November 19, 1963)
Empresarios
Americans were required to give up US citizenship, covert to Catholicism, and become Mexican citizens in order to receive huge tracts of land in the region bordering Louisiana. First one was Moses Austin.
Peace Corps
(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Romulus Augustulus
In 476 the Germanic leader Odivasor brought an end to the end of the W empire when he overhtrew what Roman emporer?
Mesolithic Age
from c. 12,000-8,000 BCE; ability to fashion stone tools & such improved greatly; made better weapons & cutting edges; had increased numbers of log rafts & dug out which improved fishing; increased manufacture of pots & baskets for food storage; domesticated animals; population growth accelerated producing more conflicts & wars;
Industrialization
began in the late 1800s; started when a great sense of nationalism grew; building up of cities and buildings; urbanization; new technologies and resources make life easier; those who could not keep up with the modern times often fell behind
monotheism
Belief in a single divine entity. The Israelite worship of Yahweh developed into an exclusive belief in one god, and this concept passed into Christianity and Islam. (102)
Constitutional Convention
Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States. (p. 583)
Anne Hutchinson
woman in Massachusetts Bay Colony who preached idea of antinomianism; 1638, banished and forced to walk to and settle in Rhode Island
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Antislavery novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe; became bestseller and extended abolitionist views to enormous new audience.
Wilson Gorman Tariff
Enacted during Cleveland's second term in office (1894)
Democrats promised lower Tariff rates, but so many exceptions and special-interest protections were added that in effect it did very little to lower current rates (McKinley Tariff)
Han an income-tax clause (2% on incomes over $4000)
preparedness
..., the state of having been made ready or prepared for use or action (especially military action)
New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
The middle colonies
20th Amendment
Written by George Norris and also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to January 20 for president and vice president, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.
courtly love
a highly stylized code of behavior popular chiefly from the 12th to the 14th century that prescribed the rules of conduct between lovers, advocating idealized but illicit love, and which fostered an extensive medieval literature based on this tradition.
War Hawks
(JM), Henry Clay and Calhoun, one of the members of congress from the south and the west who called for war with Britian prior to the war of 1812
Industrial Revolution
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
Stamp Act Congress
Comprised of delegates from 9 colonies that petitioned Parliament to repeal the act. They were ignored and people got violent.
Moderate Phase of French Revolution
Goal: create Constitutional Monarchy. National and legislateive assemblies abolished noble privilages and nationalized lands belonging to the Catholic Church.
Shari'a
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Indian National Congress
a movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government; its demands were modest until World War I; Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor
Jay Treaty 1794
Britain said they would evacuate the Northwest. The British would not promise to leave American ships alone and decided Americans still owed British merchants for pre-Revolutionary war debts.
American Colonization Society
A society which established the colony of Liberia, to which freed blacks were sent from the United States. The colony later declared its independance.
Samuel Slater
He memorized the way that the British made machines and he brought the idea to America. He made our first cotton spinning machine.
yellow journalism
Hearst and pulitzer were noted for it. , sensational, biased and often false journalism
D.W. Griffith
The Birth of a Nation (1915)first sit down film in America, celebrated the KKK from protecting southerners from "animal blacks"
General John Pershing
1916 - Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico and Pershing was directed to follow him into Mexico by America because he was leading an American front. Pershing met with resistance and eventually left without finding Pancho Villa.
Ghengis Khan
The title of Tem?jin when he ruled the Mongols (1206-1227). It means the 'oceanic' or 'universal' leader. Genghis Khan was the founder of the Mongol Empire. (p. 325)
919. "Pitchfork" Ben Tillman
A senator from South Carolina, he compared Cleveland's betrayal of the Democratic party to Judas' betrayal of Jesus.
James Buchanan
When Lincoln was voted in he became a lame-duck leader. As southern leaders carried our secession plans, he did nothing, unwilling to use force and unable to persuade the delegates in the Deep South to stop. He also refused to desert Fort Sumter.
George H. W. Bush
Peace in Europe encouraged the United States and the Soviet Union to scrap a significant portion of their nuclear weapons in a series of agreements. In September 1991 President George H. W. Bush also canceled the around the clock alert status for American bombers outfitted with atomic bombs, and a floundering Gorbachev quickly followed suit. For the first time in four decades, Soviet and American nuclear weapons were no longer standing ready to destroy capitalism, communism, and life itself.
Genghis Khan (7. Song Dynasty)
built largest empire in history; conquered China
Tariff of Abomination
Tariff with very high rates on goods imported from other countries. Northerners wanted tariff to promote own industry-Southerners had no protection.
144. Sam Adams (1722-1803)
A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party. He served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as Governor of Massachusetts from 1794-1797.
27 delegates and 9 colonies
Number of delegates and colonies represented at the Stamp Act Congress
819. Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), The Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.
eternal enemy of Rome
What did Hannibal promise to both Rome and Carthage as a young man?
Marbury v Madison (1803)
Right to hold actions of each branch of the government unconstitutional, by the Supreme Court. Established judicial review.
 
 
 
 
89. Petition of Right, 1628
A document drawn up by Parliament’s House of Commons listing grievances against King Charles I and extending Parliament’s powers while limiting the king’s. It gave Parliament authority over taxation, declared that free citizens could not be arrested without cause, declared that soldiers could not be quartered in private homes without compensation, and said that martial law cannot be declared during peacetime.
460. Mormons: Joseph Smith (1805-1844)
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. In 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844. He translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
The US suggested the open door policy for china to
keep themselves from completely destroying cina by dividing it among themselves, allow us merchants to trade in china without the interference pf foreign governments, achieve a foreign policy victory without using military force and promote the economic ideal of free markets
519. Reoccupation of Texas and reannexation of Oregon
Texas was annexed by Polk in 1845. Oregon was explored by Lewis and Clark from 1804 to 1806 and American fur traders set up there, but during the War of 1812, the British essentially took control of Oregon and held it jointly with the U.S. The land was returned to the U.S. with the Oregon Treaty of 1846, supported by Polk.
Tensions had been mounting between the US and britain on one side, and russia on the other, about he fate of germany and eastern europe after the war. The US and russia both raced to liberate as much territory as possible. At the end of the war germany wa
4; russia; west; east; berlin; east; cold; 1989
1. Every Indian would get 160 acres of land2. If Indians "behaved" for 25 years, they kept land and gained citizenship
Terms of the Dawes Severity Act 1887
Motecuzoma II
...
proved Jefferson/Hemmings affair
DNA
Installment plan
buying on credit
long distance travel
improved navigational skills=?
Shogun
definition: a hereditary military dictator of Japan
significance: established in place of an emperor, fractioned imperial rule
Rurik
legendary Scandinavian regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev
Babylon
1900 to 1600 BCE;Tigris-Euphrates river system;achieved political dominance over region;highly centralized society
manor
In medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord's residence (manor house), outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land. (p. 254)
sacrament
the consecrated elements of the Eucharist, esp. the bread
Josiah Wedgwood
English industrialist whose pottery works were the first to produce fine-quality pottery by industrial methods. (p. 603)
Waldensians
believed in poverty and austerity, promoting true poverty, public preaching and the personal study of the scriptures
Toltecs
Nomadic peoples from beyond the northern frontier of sedentary agriculture in Mesoamerica; established capital at Tula after migration into central Mesoamerican plateau; strongly militaristic ethic, including cult of human sacrifice.
Janissary
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826. See also devshirme. (p. 526, 675)
Commentaries and Reflections on the Vedas is...
Upanishads
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
Cod
Main fish caught in New England
infrastructure
the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization.
Ibn Khaldun
Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city. (336)
(Emilio) Aguinaldo
He was the well-educated, part-Chinese leader of the Filipino insurgents who Dewey brought back from exile in Asia to oppose Spanish rule.
Migration
the movement of persons from one country or locality to another
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages. (p. 472)
During the Civil War, the Union...
a. Launched a new national banking system
b. Lowered tariff rates
c. Imposed a 10% levy on farm produce
d. Experienced runaway inflation
e. Was plagued by unstable banks
a
Social Gospel
1865-1900, gospel preached by Walter Rauschenbusch of a German Baptist church that insisted that churches tackle the burning social issues of the day, and predicted that socialism would be the outcome of Christianity. The social gospel symbolized the growing amount of social diversity in the U.S. during the Gilded Age.
Young plan
program for settlement of German reparations after World War I. Presented by American Owen D. Young. Set the total reparations at $26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years. Was adopted by the Allied Powers in 1930 to supersede the Dawes Plan.
hegemony
the consistent dominance of one state or ideology over others
Perestroika
Policy of 'openness' that was the centerpiece of Mikhail Gorbachev's efforts to liberalize communism in the Soviet Union. (See also Gorbachev, Mikhail.) (p. 863)
Quran
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Disfranchise
To take away the right to vote
Farmer's Alliance
1880s - Organized farming economic system - tried to raise commedy prices by collective action of individual farmers
Liberation Theology
a movement in Christian theology, developed mainly by Latin American Roman Catholics, that emphasizes liberation from social, political, and economic oppression as an anticipation of ultimate salvation
william shafter
Overweight general, led an American army that was to be sent in from the rear to drive out the Spanish ships
Economy
greek for: one who manages a household
depression mentality
millions of people developed an attitude of insecurity and economic concern that would always remain, even in times of prosperity
Vicksburg
This was a Union Victory coming the day after Gettysburg in Mississippi and was the South's lifeline o the western sources of supply. The significance of back to back victories for the North was monumental as it convinced many of Republican success. The most important aspect of this victory is it ended any hope of Britain interfering on the side of the South. It also tipped the scale in favor of the abolitionists.
compromise of 1850
cali admitted as a free state
scientific revolution
500-1750s- if mankind would give its mind over to science and reason- then you could get rid of a lot of superstition and wrong idea beliefs -begins process of turning science into religion
51. Five Nations
The federation of tribes occupying northern New York: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Senecca, the Onondaga, and the Cayuga. The federation was also known as the "Iriquois," or the League of Five Nations, although in about 1720 the Tuscarora tribe was added as a sixth member. It was the most powerful and efficient North American Indian organization during the 1700s. Some of the ideas from its constitution were used in the Constitution of the United States.
Ming Dynasty
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
Dawes Plan
Negotiated by Charles Dawes, the Dawes Plan rescheduled German reparations payments and opened the way for further American private loans to Germany. The whole financial cycle now became still more complicated, as U.S. bankers loaned money to Germany, Germany paid reparations to France and Britain, and the former Allies paid war debts to the United States. This helped American credit flow well.
Terrorist Plot
(WJC) garage - Twin Tower, Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Tim McVeigh and Terry Nichols, bomb Olympic Stadium because = abortion there
Suleucid Monarchy
What was the largest part of Alexander's conquest, essential former Acheamenid Empire taken over by?
Tet Offensive
surprise attacks on cities all over South Vietnam, hurt support for the war in the US
Jackson's Inauguration
March 4, 1829 thousands of Americans from all regions of the country crowded at the Capitol in Washington D.C they followed Jackson to the White House where they trashed it with their partying.
labor union
An organization of workers in a particular industry or trade, created to defend the interests of members through strikes or negotiations with employers. (p. 709)
Alexander (356-323B.C.E.)
King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East. Later known as Alexander the Great. (p. 136)
Australopithecus
A genus of bipedal hominids living in Africa approximately 2 million years ago; first bipedal hominids
lincoln douglas debates
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Whigs (patriots)
most numerous in New England, fought for independence
anthracite coal strike 1902
Roosevelt demonstrated a willingness to use troops on the side of labor
Half-way Covenant
The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn’t achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
Emancipation Proclamation
September 22, 1862 – Lincoln freed all slaves in the states that had seeded, after the Northern victory at the Battle of Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.
metallurgy
the technique or science of working or heating metals so as to give them certain desired shapes or properties.
Force Bill
(AJ) , Bill that says Congress is authorized to use the military against belligerent states. Is nullified by South Carolina.
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which initially insured deposits up to $5000
Byzantine and Russian state
Vikings established trade route to _______ and _____ ____.
Quadruple Alliance
Met at the Congress of Vienna circa 1815. Consisted of Metternich- Austria, Great Britian- Castlereagh, Russia- Tsar Alexander , and Prussia. Divided up the power in Europe
Adam Smith
wrote The Wealth of Nations in 1776 which postulated capitalism and laissez-faire economics; suggested that porsperity and fairness is achieved through private ownership in an economy with a free market
paul of Tarsus
the most important figure in the spread of Christianity after Jesus's death
Yorktown
The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The was over, and colonists had won!
Jane Addams
the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. In a long, complex, career, she was a pioneer settlement worker, founder of Hull House in Chicago, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in woman suffrage and world peace.
australian ballot
allowed people the right to vote in secret
Popé’s Rebellion
revolt in which Indians took over New Mexico and held control for nearly half a century.
American Anti-Slavery Society
Formed in 1844, a major abolitionist movement in the North.
1538. Senator Edmund Muskie
Senator from Maine, although he was favored to win the Democratic candidacy, he lost to McGovern.
Warren G. Harding
One of the best-liked men of his generation. Easy-going, warm-handed backslapper, he exuded graciousness and love of people. Unfortunately, Harding was not able to detect moral corruption in his associates (Ohio Gang). Under him, corporations relaxed and expanded. Antitrust laws were ignored.
Separation of Church and State
the division between religion and government
Treaty of Paris
Signed by the United States and Spain in December 1898, this treaty ended the Spanish-American War. Under its terms, Spain recognized Cuba's independence and assumed the Cuban debt; it also ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States. At the insistence of the U.S. representatives, Spain also ceded the Phillipines. The Senate ratified the treaty on February 6, 1899.
sargon of Akkad
was an Akkadian emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 23rd and 22nd centuries BC.[2] The founder of the Dynasty of Akkad, Sargon reigned from 2270 to 2215 BC (short chronology).[3] He became a prominent member of the royal court of Kish, killing the king and usurping his throne before embarking on the quest to conquer Mesopotamia
957. Teller Amendment
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but the Teller Amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.
Founded in 1693 the oldest college in the South
Willam and Mary
589. Webster's 7th of March Speech
Daniel Webster, a Northerner and opposed to slavery, spoke before Congress on March 7, 1850. During this speech, he envisioned thatg the legacy of the fugitive slave laws would be to divide the nation over the issue of slavery.
Bank of the United States
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
Federal Housing Authority (FHA)
It made people build houses and put people into houses. The goal was low interesting housing.
4 reasons for Kennedy's popularity
1. Cuban Missile Crisis2. Vietnam was "back page news"3. Mistakenly connected with MLK4. First "television president"
153. Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts
A Boston-born merchant who served as the Royal Governor of Massachusetts from 1771 to 1774. Even before becoming Governor, Hutchinson had been a supporter of Parliament's right to tax the colonies, and his home had been burned by a mob during the Stamp Acts riots in 1765. In 1773 his refusal to comply with demands to prohibit an East India Company ship from unloading its cargo percipitated the Boston Tea Party. He fled to England in 1774, where he spent the remainder of his life.
Reasons/causes for the rise and spread of islam
trade, built large empires and conquered others, conversion, jihads to force Islam to people, Ridda wars to defeat prophets of other clans, holy city was moved from Mecca To Damascus, writing system, authors, built mosques
275. Location of the capitol: Washington D.C., circumstances surrounding it
The South was angry that the whole country was assuming state debts incurred primarily in the North, and that slaves were not being counted as full persons for purposes of assigning the number of representatives that each state would have in the House. As part of the Compromise Plan adopted at the Constitutional Convention, it was agreed that the nation's capitol would be located in the South.
Dutch West India Company's search for quick profits ===>
Lay behind the founding of New Netherland
What were the main causes of world war II?
military expansion by the axis powers, germany, japan and italy
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