psychology Flashcards

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Thorndike's notion that successful responses are stamped in by experience may be seen as an early statement of Skinner's concept of:
a. negative punishment
b. positive punishment
c. negative reinforcement
d. positive reinforcement
D. positive reinforcement
"Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated." This is the law of:
a. consequences
b. reward
c. effect
d. reinforcement
C. effect
The root of operant conditioning may be traced to ________'s early studies of hungry cats learning to escape from cages.
a. Skinner
b. Thorndike
c. Watson
d. Pavlov
B Thorndike
Which of the following alternatives illustrates classical conditioning?
a. Your mouth waters at the sight of a display of fresh chilli peppers in the supermarket.
b. You no longer use a vending machine in the foyer of the computer science building on campus because it has sometimes failed to deliver your soda.
c. You don't know how best to organise the points you wish to make in one section of a political science term paper. The solution suddenly comes to you, though, after you work on your statistics homework for a while.
d. You squirm at the sight of an addict shooting up in a television movie.
A. Your mouth waters at the sight of a display of fresh chili peppers in the supermarket.
Which of the following alternatives illustrates operant conditioning?
a. Your mouth waters at the sight of a display of fresh chili peppers in the supermarket.
b. You no longer use a vending machine in the foyer of the computer science building on campus because it has sometimes failed to deliver your soda.
c. You don't know how best to organise the points you wish to make in one section of a political science term paper. The solution suddenly comes to you, though, after you work on your statistics homework for a while.
d. You squirm at the sight of an addict shooting up in a television movie.
B. You no longer use a vending machine in the foyer of the computer science building on campus because it has sometimes failed to deliver your soda.
Operant conditioning involves forming associations between:
a. neutral and unconditioned stimuli
b. stimuli and behaviour
c. two or more behaviours
d. behaviour and consequences
D. Behaviour and consequences
The process by which a stimulus increases the likelihood that a preceding behaviour will be repeated is called:
a. reward
b. reinforcement
c. conditioning
d. latent learning
B. reinforcement
Which of the following scenarios is the best example of positive reinforcement?
a. Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the annoying alert sound.
b. Drake no longer cuts class now that his parents confiscated his iPod.
c. Maria now buys a different brand of cigarettes to get two packs for the price of one.
d. Nate no longer arrives late at work following a reprimand from his boss.
C. Maria now buys a different brand of cigarettes to get two packs for the price of one.
One reason Carlos continues to work at his job is the check he receives every two weeks. Carlos' paycheck is a _________ reinforcer.
a. positive
b. primary
c. secondary
d. both A and C
D.
Negative reinforcement:
a. is the same thing as punishment b. leads to an increase in the probability of a behaviour c. decreases the likelihood that a behaviour will be performed
d. is the same thing as secondary reinforcement
B. leads to an increase in the probability of a behaviour
Ava is wheeling her toddler, Jamie, through the supermarket after a long and tiring day. When Jamie begins to fuss, Ava scolds her sharply and Jamie's fussing subsides. Which of the following statements is most likely true?
a. Ava's scolding negatively reinforces Jamie's fussing.
b. Ava's scolding punishes Jamie's fussing.
c. That Jamie stops fussing negatively reinforces Ava's scolding.
d. Both B and C.
D.
Which of the following statements is most true?
a. Punishment is more effective than positive reinforcement in changing behavior.
b. Punishment creates longer-lasting changes in behavior than does positive reinforcement.
c. Punishment may create negative, adversarial relationships.
d. Punishment is rarely effective in changing behaviour
C.
As compared to behaviors reinforced on continuous schedules, behaviors reinforced intermittently are _______ resistant to extinction.
a. more
b. slightly less
c. equally
d. much less
A. More
Paychecks and grades are delivered on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
a. fixed-ratio
b. fixed-interval
c. continuous
d. variable-ratio
B. Fixed- interval
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