Protists Flashcards

Terms Definitions
stipe
stem
chloroplasts
phototsynthesis
cercozoans
amoebas
stramenopiles
algae
ciliates
Paramecium
Protozoans
heterotrophic protist
chlorophyta
algae-plantlike protists
Plasmodium
causes malaria
glass-like wall
silica
brown algae
ager
Cercozoa
(Radiolara, Foraminifera, Chlorarachinophyta) Move by pseudopods.
eyespot
sensitive to light
Trypanosoma
causes sleeping sickness
diplomonads
Two equal-sized nuclei
amoebozoans
have lobe-shaped pseudopodia
Mycetozoa- Slime molds
-Decomposers
Oomycota
Funguslike, no chloroplasts, heterotrophs.
anal pore
eliminates solid wastes
Gametic Meiosis

Algae and Animals
dinoflagellates
two flagella enabling spinning
radiolarians
phagocytize microorganisms with psuedopodia
Kinetoplast
Organelle that has DNA
Diplomonads and parabasalids are adapted to ________ enviroments.
Anaerobic
Apicomplexa
nonmotile, parasitic. absorb nutrients through their membranes. no vacuoles.
Endosymbiont theory
Certain eukaryotic organelles (particularly mitochondira and chloroplasts) arose from symbiotic relationships between larger cells and smaller prokaryotes that were incorporated and lived withinh them.
Zooflagellates
Mostly heterotrophic, unicellular (a few are colonial) organisms with spherical or elongated bodies. They move with flagella, and some ingest food by means of a definite "food" or oral groove.
oral groove
brings in water-containing food
euglenoids
term for flagellated, free-living cells, such as Euglens, that can be autotrophic or heterotrophic
diplomonads & parabasalids
lack mitochondrial DNA
What constitutes a living entity?
Reproduce
Self-repair
Metabolism
Evolve (change over time)
Are animal-like protists heterotrophs or autotrophs?
Heterotrophs
what kind of environment do dipolmonads and parabasalids live in?
anaerobic
Gymnamoebas
Are common unicellular amoebozoans in soil as well as freshwater and marine environments
What is commonly called “seaweeds”
brown algae.
Eugenoids
Freshwater, auto and hetero. Profuse organelles. Spirally grooved pellicle instead of cell wall. Two flagella.
Conjugation
Sexual process where two individuals come together and exchange genetic material, ciliates are capable of this.
Alveolates
Alveolates have similar ribosomal DNA sequences and alveoli, flattened vesicles located just inside the plasma membrane. Alveolates include the ciliates, dinoflagellates, and apicomplexans.
Golden algae
Most species are biflagellate, unicellular organisms, although some are colonial. Tiny scales of either silica or calcium carbonate may cover the cells. Reproduction is primarily asexual and involves the production of flagellate, motile spores called zoospores. They are photosynthetic and produce carotenoids and fucoxanthin.
Chromalveolata, Ciliates
Protozoa, cilia locomotion
has a macro nucleus, mini flagellums called cilia and micronuclei
ex. Paramecium caudatum
amoeboid prtozoans
protozoans such as amoebas, foraminiferans, helizoans, and radiolarians that move by means of pseudopodia
Pfiesteria
creates blooms which affects food chain
Stramenopila- Oomycota (water molds)
 
-Mostly decomposer
-Phytophthora ramorum: sudden oak death (SOD)
-Phytophthora infestans: Irish Potato Famine
 
What are protozoans that have flagellas called?
Zooflagellates
Flagellates
Phylum Zoomatigina, they have one or more large flagella. many are free living, some are parasitic to mammals.
Diatoms are a major component of ___________ and are highly diverse.
phytoplankton
The main feature distinguishing Euglenozoans as a clade is a ____ or _____ rod of unknown function inside their ______.
spiral or crystalline.flagella.
Diatoms
Unicellular, although a few exist as colonies. THe cell wall of each diatom consists of two shells taht overlap where they fit together. Silica is deposited in the shell, and the glasslike material is laid down in intricate patterns. Some have radial symmetry and some have bilateral symmetry. Diatoms sometimes glide through water, which is facilitated by the secretion of a slimy material from a small groove along the shell. Diatoms contain carotenoids and fucoxanthin (photosynthetic pigments). Diatoms reproduce asexually and sexually.
Chromalveolata, Alveolates
Dinoflagellates - algal, marine and freshwater, mostly unicellular, has wierd chromosomes that don't decondense, some are heterotrophs


Saxitoxin (neurotoxin produced by dinoflagellates) - called a bloom when there is an increased population. It kills fish and other animals, red in color therefore the term Red Tide
tsetse fly
vector that transmits the african sleeping sickness
tests
form extensive fossil record in marine sediments
Modes of Nutrition for Protista>
Photosynthetic autotrophs, haterotrophs, mixotrophs, plankton.
What are the gas-filled sacs that allow algae to float upright in water?
Bladders
Fungus-like Protist
Slime molds, water molds, and mildews. they feed bysecreting enzymes like fungi.
Paramecium
a Ciliate that lives in all water environments. A few are parasitic. Humans can get one of these from pigs.
Plasmodial Slime Molds
large composite mass. plasmodium -- individual nuclei are suspended in a common cytoplasm surrounded by a single plasma membrane. fruiting body.
Phycoerythrin
Red pigment, red algae have this in their chloroplasts.
ectoplasm
living content of the cell (clear and watery)
ciliated protozoans
protozoans such as paramecia that move by means of cilia
Name the 3 categories of protists
Animal-like protists
Fungus-Like protists
Plant-like protists
Foraminiferans, or forams
Are named for their porous, generally multichambered shells, called tests
What are some characterists of kingdom protista
mostly microscopic
many unicellular
some colonial
some even multicellular
autotrophic
heterotrophic
free living
parasitic
 
When algae lives in large groups it is said that they live in what?
Colonies
Haplontic Life Cycle
A zygotic meiosis  is a meiosis of a zygote immediately after karyogamy, which is the fusion of two cell nuclei. This way, the organism ends its diploid phase and produces several haploid cells. These cells divide mitotically to form either larger, multicellular individuals, or more haploid cells. Two opposite types of gametes (e.g., male and female) from these individuals or cells fuse to become a zygote.
In the whole cycle, zygotes are the only diploid cell; mitosis occurs only in the haploid phase.
what is the difference between protists and prokaryotes?
protists are eukaryotes, and have organelles and are more complex
Name 3 kinds of fungus-like protists.
Water mold, Downy Mildew, Slime Mold
Many species of the euglenid are Mixotrophs, which means?
In sunlight they are autotrophs, but when sunlight is unavailable, they can become heterotrphic, absorbing organic nutrients from their environment.
What is the red pigment of red algae especially good for?
Good at absorbing small amounts of light
rhizopoda
animal like
whiplike strucutres
flaggella
phytoplankton
Microscopic, free-floating, autotrophic organisms that function as producers in aquatic ecosystems.
karyogamy
2 nuclei fuse
multicellular
cells have specialized functions
algae
multi/unicellular protists that use sunlight as an energy source; primitive chlorophyll-containing mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms lacking true stems and roots and leaves
Rhodophyta
closest relatives of land plants
merogony
asexual reproduction, occurs before sex
how do you classify protoans?
movement
foraminiferan
member of the phylum Foraminifera bearing a calcium carbonate test with many openings through which pseudopods extend
zooplankton
Tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa, that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments
heteromorphic
meaning that the sporophytes and gametophytes are structurally different
foraminiferans
named for porous shells (tests). multichambered shells and pseudopodia extending through pores to swim, form, and feed.
diverse group of protists with animal-like characteristics
protozoans
exocytosis
when protein products in vacuoles are exported outside the cell
pseudopod
A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food
large varied group of protists named for their use of cilia to move and feed
ciliates
amoebas
a protist grade characterized by the presence of pseudopodia
what formed the white cliffs of Dover?
foraminiferans
binary fission
cell splitting, when the cell splits and the daughter cell receives an exact copy of the parent's DNA
larges and most complex algae, also called phaeophytes
brown algae
Red algae
absorb the wavelenths of light that penetrate into deep water. marine and multicelluar, often filamentous, delicately branched thalli.
once thought ot be fungi because they produce fruiting bodies that aid in spore dispersal
slime molds
What are the two sub-groups in Cercozoans
Chlorarachniophytes and Foraminiferans
What are the three sub-groups of Alveolata?
Dinoflagellates, Apicomplexans, & Ciliates.
HOW is euglena similar to a plant cell? (Hint: pigment/photosynthesis.)
how is euglena different? hint, how does it move? how does it protect its cell?)
it has chloroplasts.

it has fleggellum for movement and NO cell wall.
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