PSG: Polysomnography Board Prep Flashcards

Delayed sleep phase syndrome
Terms Definitions
SE?(calculation)
(TST/TIB)*100
Sleep stage percent?(calculation)
(TS1/TST)*100
TS2?
Total stage 2 sleep
Deflection is measure in...?
mm
Where is the pons located?
Brainstem
TWT?(calculation)
Total number of epochs awake/2
Sensitivity is measured in...?
uV/mm (microvolts/mm)
What are synapses?
Specialized connections between neurons
Sensitivity calculation?
V=SD(voltage = sensitivity x deflection)
*What is an IPSP?
-Inhibitory post-synaptic potential within the synaptic gaps-Negative uV
What are the regions of the cerebrum?
-Frontal-Parietal (crown)-Occipital-Temporal (temples)
When does the growth hormone peak?
During delta sleep
How much sleep does an adult need?
7-9 hours
In an action potential, is the cell positive or negative in relation to outside of cell wall?
Positive
What are neurotransmitters?
Special chemicals formed and released at synapses
*How large do the electrical potentials have to be in order to see them on the EEG?
>= 70 uV
What are the subcategories of dyssomnias?
Arousal disorders,Sleep-wake transition disorders,REM-related parasomnias,Other parasomnias
Sleep latency?(calculation)
(Sleep onset epoch - lights out epoch)/2
What are synonyms of recurrent hypersomnia?
Periodic hypersomnia,Klein-Levin syndrome,Binge eating,Hypersexuality
How is central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome treated?
Mild: Not treatedModerate: Ventilatory assistance at nightSevere: Full-time ventilatory support
What is trace alternante?
Periods of relatively low voltage between bursts of mixed frequency activity (looks like arousals)
Which direction do the dendrites carry information?
Towards the cell body
What is white matter?
Tissue within the cerebrum composed of groups of axons
What is the cerebral cortex (cerebrum) composed of?
Gray and white matter
What occurs to delta sleep during ages 10 - 20?
Decreases nearly 40%
What is the treatment of extrinsic sleep disorders?
Treat underlying cause
What are synonyms of periodic limb movement disorder?
PLMs,Nocturnal myoclonus,Periodic movements in sleep,Leg jerks
TIB or TRT?(calculation)
(Lights on epoch - lights out epoch)/2
For which physiologic functions is the temporal lobe responsible?
Centers for hearing and memory
How much sleep does a child of 18 months to 3 years need?
12-14 hours
What is the neurotransmitter of REM sleep?
Acetylcholine (from the pons)
What is adenosine?
A chemical that builds up in our blood while we are awake, and causes drowsiness (it gradually breaks down while asleep)
*What part of the brain is known as the "gatekeeper"?
Frontal lobe
What is gray matter?
Surface tissue of the cerebral cortex which consists of cell bodies of neurons
What is the treatment of periodic limb movement disorder?
1) Benzodiazepines2) Dopaminergic agents3) Pain relievers4) Anticonvulsants
What are treatments of shift work sleep disorder?
1) Phototherapy2) Chronotherapy3) Sleep hygiene4) Medications such as hypnotics
What are synonyms of insufficient sleep syndrome?
1) Sleep curtailment2) Sleep restriction3) Inadequate sleep
What is the function of the cerebellum?
Helps coordinate movement (balance and muscle coordination)
Which system do many drugs that keep us awake or make us sleepy primarily have an effect on?
Reticluar activating system (RAS)
What is the reticular formation?
Group of nerve fibers located inside the brainstem which form the central core of the brainstem
Where is the cerebral cortex (cerebrum) located?
Rest of brain besides the cerebellum
What is the direction of electrical impulse through a neuron?
Dendrites--> cell body--> axon--> synapse
Which direction do the axons carry information?
Away from the cell body
What is the central sulcas?
The area between the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain; this is where the central leads are placed
What is the definition of restless leg syndrome?
Characterized by disagreeable leg sensations, usually prior to sleep onset, that cause an almost irresistable urge to move the legs
What is the definition of limit-setting sleep disorder?
A childhood disorder that is characterized by the inadequate enforcement of bedtime by a caretaker, with resultant stalling or refusal to go to bed at an appropriate time. AKA childhood insomnia.
What does stimulation of the reticular formation cause?
Fibers pass to the thalamus, then cerebral cortex, which activate and alert the cortex
What are action potentials the result of?
Ion (sodium, chloride, and potassium) flow through voltage-gated channels
*What part of the neural process does EEG potentials come from?
Synaptic gap (between the synapses)
How much sleep does a child of 5 - 12 years need?
10-11 hours
At what age does NREM stages consist mainly of REM?
At 2 - 6 months
What part of the night is delta sleep more prominant?
First 1/3 of night
What is the definition of environmental sleep disorder?
A sleep disruption due to a disturbing environmental factor that causes insomnia or EDS
What are MSLT findings for narcoleptics?
Sleep latency <5 minutes,2 or more sleep-onset REMs
What is the definition of advanced sleep phase syndrome (ASPS)?
Sleepiness beginning early in the afternoon, and sufferers often wake up early and are unabel to resume sleep (more common in older adults)
What is the definition of parasomnias?
Disorders that intrude into or occur during sleep but do not result in insomnia or excessive sleepiness
What are the symptoms of periodic limb movement disorder?
1) EDS2) Complaints from bedpartner of being kicked3) Usually unawake of movements
What is the definition of periodic limb movement disorder?
Periodic episodes of repetitive and highly stereotyped limb movements that occur during sleep
How does the pons communicate with other parts of the brain?
-It sends signals to the visual nuclei of the thalamus and the cerebral cortex-It sends signals to the spinal cord causing the temporary paralysis of REM sleep by shutting off neurons in the spinal cord
From where does the reticular formation get input?
Most of the sensory systems of the body and also from the cerebral motor regions
What is the definition of delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS)?
The inability to fall asleep until late with difficulty arising in the morning (more prevalent in young adults)
What is the definition of time zone change syndrome?
Varying degrees of difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep & excessive sleepiness related to rapid travel across several times zones.
What are the PSG findings of RLS?
1) Sustained tonic EMG activity that alternates from one leg to another2) Movements seen du ring wakefulness and at sleep onset3) Many people who suffer from RLS also have PLMs
What is the definition of inadequate sleep hygiene?
A sleep disorder due to the performance of daily living activities that are inconsistent with the maintenance of good quality sleep and daytime alertness
What are synonyms of time zone change syndrome?
1) Jet lag2) Transmeridian flight desynchronisis3) Transmeridian dyschronism
How does an IPSP effect an action potential?
It reduces the chance that the post-synaptic cell will initiate action potential
What are the PSG findings of central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome?
1) Periods of decreased Vt lasting from minutes to hours with sustained arterial O2 desaturation (worse in REM)2) Increased CO2 during the hypoventilation3) Frequent awakenings & arousals
What are the PSG findings of periodic limb movement disorder?
1) Usually appear at sleep onset & persist through delta sleep2) Momements usually absent during REM3) Fragmented sleep if limb movements are associated with arousal
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