PSG: Polysomnography Board Prep 2 Flashcards

shift work sleep disorder
Terms Definitions
Sleep effeciency
Total delta sleep
Total stage 1 sleep
Which neurotransmitters keep some parts of the brain active while we are awake?
Voltage is measured in...?
uV (microvolts)
Total number of sleep epochs/2
What are the neurotransmitters of NREM sleep?
Output voltage?(calculation)
Exploring electrode - reference electrode(calculation)
What sleep stage does trace alternante occur?
Quiet sleep
Through what process do neurons communicate with each other?
Electrochemical process
What are the symptoms of narcolepsy?
EDS,Cataplexy,Hypnagogic hallucinations,Sleep paralysis
What happens to the heart rate with sleep deprivation?
Where is the SCN nucleus located?
In the hypothalmus
At what ages are K-complexes first seen in stage 2?
6 months
What synaptic potentials are we recording on an EEG?
For which physiologic functions is the frontal lobe responsible?
-Cognition and memory-Planning-Organizing-Problem solving-Selective attention-Personalilty-Behavior and emotions-"Gatekeeper" for judgement and inhibition
What is cataplexy?
Abrupt, reversible decrease or loss of muscle tone (while awake)
What 3 physiologic functions regulate the circadian rhythm?
-Endocrine secretion (hormones)-Heart rate-Kidney action
What is the resting potential in a cell?
60-80 uV
What is the raphe nuclei?
-Serotonin-producing neurons of the brainstem-Component of the reticular formation
What are some effects of sleep disorders in a child?
-Learning disabilities-Reading disorders-Development delays-Behavior delays
What are the projections on a neuron?
Dendrites and axons
What is the treatment of RLS?
1) Benzodiazepines2) Dopaminergic agents3) Pain relievers4) Anticonvulsants
What is the treatment of recurrent hypersomnia?
Stimulents during episodes
What are synonyms of central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome?
Primary alveolar hypoventilation,Idiopathic alveolar hypoventilation,Non-apneic alveolar hypoventilation,Obesity hypoventilation syndrome
What are PSG findings for narcoleptics?
Decreased sleep latency,Sleep-onset REM,Increased stage 1 sleep,Increased fragmentation
What produces serotonin and norepinephrine?
Neurons in the brainstem which connect the brain with the spinal cord
What happens to sleep architecture as we age?
-Decreased sleep efficiency-More fragmentation
What is an action potential?
Form of information used by electrically excitable membranes to control the activity of cells and to support or suppress communication between cells
What physiological events occur in REM?
-Atonia-Dulled reflexes (no swallow reflex)-Increased blood pressure (up to 30%)-Irregular heart rate-Errataic respiration-No thermoregulation (no sweating or shivering)
In which stage of sleep is it most difficult to arouse someone?
Delta sleep
What do hormone levels do during the sleep cycle?
Rise and fall
Where is the thalmus located?
Near the center of the brain
What are the symptoms of recurrent hypersomnia?
Excessive daytime sleepiness: -episodes of somnolence last for at least 18 hrs, -occurs at least once per year, lasting a minimum of 3 days,Voracious eating,Hypersexuality,Disinhibited behaviors
What is the definition dyssomnias?
Disorders that produce complaints of insomnia or excessive sleepiness.
What is the definition of insufficient sleep syndrome?
Failure to obtain sufficient nocturnal sleep required to support normally alert wakefulness.
At what age does fully-developed EEG patterns of the NREM stages gradually emerge?
At 2 - 6 months
What is the hypothalamus?
Area of gray matter below the thalmus which is part of the RAS
What sleep staging events occur during ages 1 - 5?
-Four sleep stages seen-Unable to differentiate stages 3 and 4-Spindles become symmetric (between the 2 hemispheres of the brain)
How much sleep does a child of 12 - 18 months need?
13-15 hours
How often does REM occur during sleep?
Adults: every 90 minutesChildren: every 60 minutes
How much sleep does a newborn of 2 - 12 months need
14-15 hours
What part of the night does REM predominate?
Last 1/3 of night
What is the definition of primary circadian dysrhythmias?
Malfunctioning of the biological clock within the conventional environment
What is the definition of adjustment sleep disorder?
A sleep disturbance temporarily related to acute stress, conflict or environmental change causing emotional arousal. AKA transient insomnia or short-term insomnia.
What is an action potential (simplified)?
An electrical impulse moving down a neuron
What is the function of the hypothalamus on sleep?
-Controls NREM sleep-May keep track of length of wake time (how large the sleep debt is)
What is the purpose of the thalmus?
-Relay station-Generates many of the brain rhythms in NREM sleep that we see as EEG patterns
How much sleep does a child of 3 - 5 years need?
11-13 hours
What scoring considerations are there with newborns?
-Transition from wakt to sleep is often done through REM-NREM-REM cycle is about 50-60 minutes-Active, quiet, and indeterminate sleep-Need to watch behaviors
What sleep staging events occur by age 5?
-Sleep architecture of an adule-Use R&K scoring rules
Where is the pineal gland located?
Behind the brain stem, under the hypothalmus
How does the pineal gland contribute to the sleep/wake cycle?
It responds to light-induced signals by switching off production fo the hormone melatonin
What is the definition of narcolepsy?
A disorder of unknown origin, which is characterized by abnormal sleep tendencies, excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep and manifectations of REM sleep
What is the definition of intrinsic sleep disorders?
Sleep disorders which originate or develop within the body or arise from causes within the body (apnea, narcolepsy)
What are the symptoms of RLS?
1) Itchy, creepy crawling feeling in the legs2) Intense urge to move legs3) Usually occurs when sitting quietly or laying in bed4) Chief complaint is insomnia
What is the definition of extrinsic sleep disorders?
Sleep disorders that originate or develop from causes outside the body (i.e. poor sleep hygiene, environmental)
*Where are pyramidal cells located?
In the III and IV layer of the cerebral cortex
How much sleep does a newborn of 0 - 2 months need?
1.5 to 18 hours
How are sleep stages indicated in a newborn?
Active (REM), quiet (NREM), and indeterminate sleep
Where is the reticular formation located?
Top tip of brainstem, at top of midbrain
What is the definition of shift work sleep disorder?
Symptoms of insomnia or excessive sleepiness that occur in relation to work schedules
What are the symptoms of central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome?
1) Insomnia or EDS2) Hypercapnia & hypoxemia3) Morning headaches4) Cardiac arrhythmias
How do our sleep stages change as we age?
Decreased delta and increased stage 2
How does an EPSP effect an action potential?
It increases the possibility that the post-synaptic cell will initiate an action potential
What is the purpose of the pyramidal cells?
Thought to be the primary cell for discharge of EEG activity
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