PSY - Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Agoraphobia
What is parapsychology
what causes sound?
pressure changes
Listening
multidimensional psychological process of receiving, attending to, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken or nonverbal messages
UCS
UCR
CS
CR?
stimulus that automatically and naturally triggers a response
unlearned response due to the presence of the UCS
originally neutral stimulus that gains association with the UCS to trigger a CR
learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship, but it does not prove:
causation
Antithesis
an idea opposing the thesis.
antagonists
inhibits certainreceptors but doesnt affect others
parallel processing
simultaneous distribution of info across different neural pathways
Prestriate
- primary occipital cortex- multiple layers of higher association cortex
Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by
irritability
Reliability
_____________ whether or not test scores are consistent (or repeat)
Generational stake
family members in different developmental stages see the family in different ways.
Rise of Behaviorism(cont.)
Skinner (1957)•Argues children learn languagethrough operant conditioningChildren imitate speech theyhearCorrect speech is rewarded
admin GI tractin
iv im sc oral
prejudice
positive or negative evaluations of a group and its members
Ewald Hering
german physiologist who observed that some colors cant exist together whereas some can
dissociation
a state of acute mental decompensation in which certain thoughts, emotions, sensations, and/or memories are compartmentalized because they are too overwhelming for the conscious mind to integrate. This subconscious strategy for managing powerful negative emotions is sometimes referred to as "splitting", as these thoughts, emotions, sensations, and/or memories are "split off" from the integrated ego.Contents
____ occurs when an observer's behavior changes after viewing the behavior of a model.
Observational learning
extinction
elimination of a learned response by removal of the unconditoined stimulus (classical) or reinforcement (operational)
name the three basal ganglia
caudate nucleusputamenglobus pallidus
short-term illnesses often the result of viral/bacterial invader and usually amenable to cure
acute disorders
LEARNING THEORY
- behaviorist- based on reinforcement and punishment- cognitive development due to experiences- the more you know the greater the ability to reason
causes of love
rusbult's investment model: the greater the investment individuals have in a relationship, the less likely they are to leave even if satisfaction is low and other alts look promising (study on battered women)
Informational social influence
influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality
Night terrors
Wake up screaming, non-REM, don't remember. Ages 4-12.
yes
Is it true that variations in sleep may reflect safety and predator/prey relationship
the older you get
the less sleep you need
sensory transduction
conversion of physical energy from the environment into changes in electrical potential
Pattern or set of behaviors considered appropriate for males or females in a particular culture
Gender Roles
duty to warn
laws that require reserachers to report certain ppl, like child abusers
dependent variable
the variable being measured. this variable depends on the manipulations of the independent variable.
antisocial personality disorder
Cluster B (dramatic, emotional, or erratic) personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others. Similar to the non-DSM label psychopathy but with greater emphasis on overt behavior rather than personality traits.
largest portion of brain; involved in higher order intelligence/ memory/ personality
cerebral cortex
Diathesis-stress model
a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event
hormone
chem messenger that is produced by an endocrine gland and carried by bloodstream to target tissues throughout the body
...elements of a good theory
What are the following considered?
 
a. Logical b. Precise predictions c. Falsifiable d. Parsimonious
item difficulty index
the percentage of students who obtain the correct answer on an item
What animal was captured so that it would breed in captivity?
California Condor
James-Lange theory
the theory that emotion stems from the physiological arousal that is triggered by an emotion-eliciting stimulus
Latent learning (Tolman)
learning that remains hidden until its application is useful (rats in maze)
a condition w/ a nonfunctioning cerebral cortex...making you unaware of yourselve and your surroundings is called
persistent vegetative state (PVS)
when do attitudes change?
people want to be cognitively consistent
Sherif’s conformity
• the experiment with the beam of light.
• They do it by themselves first, then the next day with two others
• At first they argue then they conform
• Private conformity – change in your overt behavior and what you believe privately to be true
What is the central executive?
This aspect of working memory allocates capacity resources for memory & processing
Gestalt Psychology
a school of thought rooted in the idea that the whole (perception) is different from the sum of its parts (sensation)
What is biomedical treatment?
Dealing with the body, often by changing the brain's functioning. Typically, psychiatrists are involved in this process.
Gibson and Walk (1961)
Visual Cliff Experiment to test depth perception-1.5 month olds show some signs of depth perception
What is the age of viability?
22-28 weeks, most systems function well enough for a fetus to survive if born
What are the four lobes of the brain?
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
What are the 2 parts of the nervous system?
central and peripheral
high stereotype is correlated with low test scores in both genders
How has the stereotype threat influenced intelligence
What drug is used to influence the prevelance of the symptoms?
dopamine drug=increase in schizo behaviordrug that decreases dopamine= there is a decrease in dopamine intake
sexual orgasms cannot occur unless...
the areas on the brain involved in fear and anxiety are shut down
Which area of the brain is associated with language production?
Broca's Area is associated with language production, while Wernicke's Area is associated with understanding the sensory image of words.
Problem with any dramatic weight loss intervention (liposuction, gastric bypass, etc)
It treats the symptoms but not the cause
According to the modal model, how do LTM & STM differ in time constraints?
Info stays in long term for YEARS while info stays in short term for only 20-30 seconds
Socrates



philosopher:

Encouraged others to pay attention to the mind and soul and not be governed by bodily appetites and needs


 
probabilistic inference
educated guess
Basic components of emotion
sympathetic and parasympathetic system
autonomic
"Research Strategies"Descriptive(4 methods)
-Survey Method-Naturalistic observation-Case study method-Correlational method
Reuptake
process when neurotransmitters are pumped back into the transmitting neuron, otherwise they are broken up by enzymes
Name parts of the eye
adadfg
people who seek emotional-sexual relationships with members of the other sex
heterosexual
cocaine
-drug from south and central america-most addictive substances known
Culture
behaviors, patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular people that are passed on from generation to generation
Imitation actions can be:
reinforced or punished
• Behaviorism
Field of psychology that concentrates on observable, measurable behaviors and not on mental processes,
innate, automatic response to a stimulus
reflex
close relationships
individuals w/ relationships are happier, have more help, more positive attitudes, longer livesthose not in close relationships have more depression, shorter lives, lonely, illness
the initial information gathering and recoding by the sensory structures
sensation
Arouses you for defensive action:
Sympathetic nervous system
Law of effect
Thorndikes principle that bhaviors followed by positive outcomes arestregthene, hereas behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakend
Problems During Early Development
Poor NutritionPoor Nurturing“Failure To Thrive” ChildrenImpaired Cognitive and Physical Development In Kids Who Receive Little Nurturance
Evolutionary standpoint: function is to increase the likelihood of survival of an individual's group/genes
 
Attacker may obtain possession of desired property & those who retreat may avoid injury or death
 
Dominance hierarchy: structured social gr
Aggression: Biological Determinants
construct
Abstract qualities that we attempt to measure
random assignment
the process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition.
double depression
Severe mood disorder typified by major depressive episodes superimposed over a background of dysthymic disorder.
home practice activities that support goals of a therapeutic intervention
behavioral assignments
Applied Research
Research that attempts to find solutions on specific problems.
Pharm effects
-arousing or calming depenedent on titration
-sympathetic reaction by NE ^ & epinohrine from the adrenals
-^Hr and BP
-^ blood flow to skeletal muscles
- stim. vommiting and respitory centers
-free ^ fatty acids
-^ muscle activity in bowel
-^ saliv
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder primarily affecting adolescent girls and young women, characterized by pathological fear of becoming fat, distorted body image, excessive dieting, and emaciation.
minimal consciousness
what level of consciousness are in when you react to stimuli, but are not aware of mental state
Personalizing the classroom
post pictures of students, artwork, written projects, charts that list birthdays, ect
6. Septal Area
Stimulation causes a profound feeling of well being
Stimulated when apeteites (hunger, sex, etc.) satisfied
Seratonin- is produced and released a giving and good feeling
Brain feed back center when hypothalamus does its job
aneurysm
weak spot in the blood vessel that balloons out
performance measures
make use of tasks that participants are instructed to perform
Fixations
The pause during which the eye is almost stationary
Deductive reasoning
thinking that moves from premise to specific conclusion.
How many girls in the united states between the age of 14 and 21 say that they are on a diet?
70%
pleasure principle
the id's boundless drive for immediate gratification
case study
- in-depth understanding of a single case
- can inspire a theory
- cons - lack comparative information to rule out alternative explanations; generalization issues
a primary reinforcer
what type of reinforcer is innately satisfying
Examples of pseudoscince
Phrenology: The study of the structure of the skull to determine a person's character and mental capacity
How many deer can people kill with a crossbow?
seven
summative evaluations
examine the efects of a program and ask "does it work?"
Explain psychosis.
Psychosis is a general category for a number of severe mental disorders in which perception, thinking, and emotion are impaired.
item discrimination
the extent to which success on an item corresponds to success on the whole test
Retina
The area of the inner surface of the eye that contains rods and cones.
Einstein and Chris Langan
WHo are two examples of extrem IQs
Promoting Recovery by Neurotransplantation
- Fetal tissue: PD discussion- Stem cells: Rats with spinal damage “cured”, but much more research is needed
individual difference variables
what people bring with them that you can't change (age, sex, income)
manic defense
Model of mania in which mania is seen as a protection against a painful psychological state.
at the end of the 19th century in england,what percent of mothers were more likely to die in childbirth?
fifty percent
Balance Theory... We want to:
Agree with people we likeDisagree with people we dislikeAssociate good things with good peopleAssociate bad things with bad people
Aptitude tests vs Achievemental tests
Aptitude tests are designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn. An achievement test is designed to assess what a person has already learned.
According to Bandura, why does a person tend to keep aggressive habits?
-Helps to achieve goals.-Dominate others behaviors.-Accepted by peers.-Aggressor considers it rewarding.
Major Divisions of the Nervous System
The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
Stage      Age              Unconscious Conflict
Oral      Birth to ~15      Sucking & Feeding
              mos
 Anal      12-18 mos to   Potty Training
              3 years Phallic   3 to 6 years      Attachment to Parents
Latency    6 years to      Socialization
                 puberty
Genital      Puberty to      Mature Adult Sexuality
                  Adult
clark and mills exchange and communal relationships: exchange relationships
relationships governed by need for equityexchange of comparable benefits
What is the limbic area?
Part of the brain that pays a large role in emotional reactions.
rates of brain growth in infancy
- rate of growth in brain slower in 2nd yr than in 1st- in 2nd, accelerated myelination w/i cerebral cortex, between cortex & brain stem- results in greater synchrony of brain centers
Mr. and Mrs. Linkletter are parents of a mentally retarded child. It is most likely that their child:
Score 70 or below on an intelligence score
-Extra chromosome (?) 
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