PSY 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions


Empiricism: humans are born as a “blank slate” and must learn all knowledge through experience

alcohol, barbiturates, opiates
motor neurons (another name)
Photoreceptor for evening (sensitive in dark), grayscale, gross detail, good motor perception
Type of Play: Social level
Playing along & independently, no attempt to get close to one another
a person who initiates communication
normative influence
desire to be liked
Person has obsessive worry that creates anxiety and cannot be stopped. Person engages in compulsive acts in an effort to counteract and control this obsessive worry.
What is the logic underlying hypothetical constructs?
loathing/denial of one's own body parts
Lev Vygotsky
emphasized the importance of learningfrom other people.
A type of antipsychotic medications, dopamine antagonists, that diminish delusions, hallucinations, and aggressive behavior in psychotic patients but that may also cause serious side effects. Fewer side effects are present with atypical antipsychotic medications.
Watson's Little Albert
classically conditioned fearfrom stimulus generalization
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Primary source
Authors report their own observations
our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
not either/or of nature vs. nurture.a combination
When does the rut begin?
IN mid november
Children will imiatate:
violent characters on TV
(both ordinary humans and cartoons)
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
Relatively common type; found equally in men and women. Age of Onset: Early 20's or somewhat earlier. Uncertain course, depending on specific symptom patterns.
the tendency to assume one's own cultural values and beliefs are better than the values and beliefs of other groups
Puzzle box
First made by Thorndike, demonstrates stop-action
William James
• Started first American psych lab Proposed multi-componentmemory system: Primary Memoryvs. Secondary memory Wrote Principles of Psychology• chapters on sensation, perception,attention, consciousness, memory,reasoning
the process by which sensations are organized into an inner representation of the world
An index of intelligence, originally derived by dividing mental age by chronological age, but now derived by comparing an individual’s score with the scores of others of the same age
Intelligence Quotient
Reticular formation
Located in the hindbrain, involved in respiration, heart rate, gastrointestinal activity, maintaining wakefulness, pain modulation
Test 4The embryo
the developing prenatal organism for about 2 weeks through 2 months after conception
Rett’s Disorder
Occurs Only In Females!Incidence: 1 in 10,000. Onset: 5 months to 4 years.Loss of Motor Skills (Handholding And Impaired Gait) -- they have tremors & disturbed walkingSevere Language Impairments
prototype matching
individuals decide whether an item is a member or a category by compaing it with the most typical items of the category
short-term memory
a memory storage system that holds about seven items for up to twenty seconds before the material is transferred to long term memory or is forgotten
-If you break down behavior you change it too much-Not safe to assume that what you observe with rats is true of humans
panic attack
Abrupt experience of intense fear or discomfort in the absence of danger accompanied by a number of physical symptoms, such as dizziness or heart palpitations.
Who came up with the theory of personality and psychosexual.
psychological interventions in OA with adv. cancer may extend longevity
fawzy and spiegel
Piaget's stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor (birth-2 months), preoperational (2-7 years), concrete operations (7-12 years), formal operations (12-adulthood).
social loafing
the tendency to put out less effort when working in a group compared to when working alone
Test 5Wavelength
Which refers to the distance from the peak of one light (or sound) wave to the next.
5. Pre-Labor Events
1) random movement of baby
baby moves down uteras head first
2) Muscle tissues of the uterus thin out, EFFACEMENT
3) 5-6 months before birth contractions start,give off signs of a false pregnancy
4) Oxytocin is released from pituitary gland inducing labor
starts contractions
delivers milk to breasts
5) Mucus plug is dislodged when cervix dialates
redish blood like discharge is expelled
The decrease in sense of pain, can be produced by a hypnotic state
needs that are basic to human growth & functioning: 1)Competence 2)Relatedness 3)Autonomy
negative punishment aka omission
take away /reward/ when behavior /does/ happen so it won't happen again.
Case Study Method
In-depth study of one or more individuals. Info is drawn from interviews, observation or written reports. (Problems) Limitations of memory, Withholding of important info, concerns over making favorable impressions.
-looking at the relationship between child and parent.-observing child reaction to mothers departure and between when being left alone with strangers.-replicated many times
Ainsworm strange situation study
Preconventional Level of moral development
Resolved in ways that satisfy self-serving motives. Morality judged in terms of obtaining reward andavoiding punishment
A meme is?
A bit of culture that spreads via imitation
Inattental Blindness
fail to see an object we're looking at directly, even a highly visibal one b/c our attention is directed somewhere else.
What is Kohlberg Stage 2?
Naive HedonismYou scratch my back, i'll do yours.
That activity increases when walking through a neighborhood but not remembering a musical jingle or doing math
What did neuroimaging suggest about the occipital lobe
An infant is most likely to be at risk for mental retardation if her mother is
heavy drinker
How does social equity theory differ from social exchange theory? Recognize examples.
Some researchers have criticized social exchange theory for ignoring an essential variable in relationships – the notion of fairness, or equity. Proponents of equity theory argue that people are not just out to get the most rewards for the least cos; they are also concerned about equity in their relationships – wherein the rewards and costs they experience and the contributions they make to the relationship are equal to those that their partner makes. These theorists describe equitable relationships as the happiest and most stable.
-Equity theory: the idea that people are happiest with relationships in which the rewards and costs experienced and the contributions made by both parties are roughly equal.
type II error
- failing to reject the null when it should have been rejected
Which of the following best characterizes the interest in “social/emotional intelligence” SEI?
There has been more popular interest than scientific interest (little scientific evidence of it).
When is an experiment an effective research method?
cause & effect between 2 variables.
growth rate of the fovea(small pit near the center of the retina)
- changes rapidly during the first year- area of the eye that provides teh sharpest vision
- the Eustachian tube is less supported; the Eustachian tube extends from the middle ear to the back of the mouth, balancing pressure by opening to let air in/out.
What are the implications related to the middle ear changes?
social exchange theory: costs and rewards of helping
much of what we do stems from the desire to max our outcomes and min our costshelping can be rewarding:can incrase the prob that someone will help us in return in the futurecan relive the personal distress of the bystandersit can gain us social approval and increased self-worthcan be costly
What effect do different moods have on helping? (the phone booth study, the broken camera study)
The mood that people are in at a given time plays a huge role in behavior (whether or not someone will offer help).
-Phone booth study: people who found a dime in a phone booth at a mall (and were thus in a good mood) were much more likely to help a man pick up papers that fell out of his folder than people who did not find a dime.
Norepinephrin, Dopamine, Serotonin
Three types of neurons:
Observational Learning:
-vicarious (non-direct) learning-Bandura's Bobo doll experiment-need to postulate memory, what was observed
Clue: Wundt
analysis of constituents of human mind
Gender: Physical differences (which one?)
Males physically more                                  from conception on; more miscarried, suffer from mental illness
concerned with proper vs improper
Secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
Problems During Gestation
Substances/ ToxinsAlcoholFetal Alcohol Syndrome1 in 1000 birthsMild to Severe MRPhysical Characteristics If Mom Drank In 1st TrimesterCognitive Deficits Possible If Mom Drank In Any TrimesterCocaineIncreased MR RatesReduced Head Circumference And Reduced Birth WeightMaternal Infection During GestationMaternal Infection During GestationRubella (German Measles) During 1st Trimester
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
Introduction to practical intelligence
• Prenatal development is divided into three 3-month trimesters—germinal, embryonic, andfetal.• Three general trends characterize earlydevelopment—cephalocaudal, proximodistal,and gross-to-specific.• Genetic defects and environmental influences(e.g., maternal age, malnutrition, and specificteratogens) can cause birth defects.
dissociative amnesia
Inability to recall personal information, usually of a stressful nature, that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness.
who studied classical conditioning?
Pavlov and watson
Sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
Independent variable
The variable that is manipulated
fixed ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
multiplier effects
feedback loops between biology and environment
True or False: People are encouraging wildlife people to kill as many deer as they can.
Costs of Openness
(Mental Associations)
Unusual beliefs, depression, psychosis
Sociocultural Domain
The processes of socialization and enculturation
Self Disclosure
sharing of personal information that is not generally known by others
The two sorts of reinforcers
Primary and 2ndary
Longitudinal-Sequential Design
-Different Sequences of children are tested longitudinally
Associative learning
learning that certain events occur together; the events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
the strong affectionate bond a child forms with the mother or primary caregiver
Short Term Memeroy
Step in the Information Procession Model of Memory where unrehearsed information is lost.
Test 5parapsychology
is the study of ESP, pyschokinesis, and other paranormal forms of interaction between the individual and the environment.
In _____% of mammalian species the male does not contribute to offspring care, ________ are a rare exception.
95, humans
Autobiographical memory
the recollections people have of their own personal experiences and observations
Cognitive Psychology involves:
the total range of psychological processes ("higher" mental resources)
Person who has earned an M.D. degree and then has specialized in psychiatry during residency training. Psychiatrists are trained to investigate primarily the biological nature and causes of psychiatric disorders, and to diagnose and treat them as well.
clinical interviews
most widley used; both verbal and nonverbal. need to be empathetic, nonjudgemental, and genuine.unstructured (based on what patient says); allows interviewer freedom, flexible. realiability and validity may be reducedstructured (questions); standardized format, reduces inferences, increased reliability, can reduce clinical judgement.
focus is on study of prevention and management of disease of aging
equal opportunity of all in population to be selected, obtains representative sample
correlational study
ill-defined problem
a problem, such as the search for "happiness," that has no well-stated goal, no clear starting point, and no mechanism for evaluating progress
Test 4Adolescence
refers to the life stage from puberty to independent adulthood, denoted physically by a growth spurt and maturation or primary and secondary sex characteristics, cognitively by the onset of formal operational thought, and socially by the formation of identity
Non-purge type of Bulimia Nervosa
using other compensatory behaviors such as excessive exercise
Costs of Extraversion
(Response to Reward)
Physical risks; reduced family stability 
fundamental attribution error(or correspondence bias)
the tendency for observers to underestimate the situational influences and overesimate dispositional influences upon others' behavior
This kind of box led to avoidance paradox
Shuttle box.
neuropsy. tests assess memory impairment by evaluating
attention, memory, and problem solving
the failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems because of a tendency to view objects only in terms of their customary functions
Functional fixedness
What is Job Analysis?
The process of thinking about and understanding jobs  to determine:
-emotional, cognitive and physical demands
-requisite behaviors
-situational demands
-dimensions of performance
-outcomes valued by the organization
-requisite KSAOs
Where were pro-eugenics associations first and most widely proliferated?
The US in the early 1900s
Learned helplessness
the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past
coefficient of determination
% of the variability in one variable explained by the other variable
What are the infants' abilities when it comes to TASTE?
Can discriminate among different tastes.Shows preferences for sweetness.
Damage to the brain’s right hemisphere is most likely to reduce a person’s ability to
recognize the emotional content of facial expressions
What characteristics or perceived characteristics of a person make it more likely that someone will help them (from lecture)?
-the person is perceived to need help
-the helper/victim mentality
-gender bias
Freud's Psychodynamic Theory
First 5 years of your life the most important
How did Thurstone explain positive manifold?
All cognitive tests are “impure” & determined by a large number of separate abilities/intelligences
What last change in psychology gave rise to the complete view we have today?
realization that the method, not material of covert studies was flawed. these people are known as cognitive psychologists.
When the brain is damaged, oh goodness!, what will you do???
The brain can change it's functions and shape
-Impact of personality of cultural and historical forces .
What are the characteristics of orally and anally fixated personalities?
How many 65 year olds and older suffer from a chronic condition? What are the top three most prevalent chronic conditions?
80% of 65+ year olds suffer from a chronic condition. The top 3 chronic conditions: Alzheimer's, hearing loss and hypertension.
Way of measuring memory:



—Assessed by comparing time needed to relearn material to initial learning time

—May be most sensitive test

spinal accessary: neck muscles
organize useful information about environments
Gender: Social & Personality Differences (which one?)
Girls develop self-regulatory capabilities more rapid
Boys have difficulty with tasks demanding impulse control (whispering command)
attributional style
The relatively consistent explanations a person forms about why personal stressors or other negative life events occur, taking the form of internal vs. external, stable vs. unstable, and global vs. specific.
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
arguments that challenge and oppose other arguments
How do you calculate a z-Score?
movement of body as a whole
The scientific study of the prevalence, distribution, and consequences of disorders in populations.
When did psychology bloom?
The 20th century
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Represents a qualitative difference in the variable measured
raymond cattell
g has 2 components:1) fluid intelligence- ability to learn, patterns2) crystallized intelligence- ability to apply your acquired skills and knowledge to solving problems
The coat of the deer provides essential:
Winnowed Out
Mutations will always be winnowed because they are bad and not adaptive. 
changes over time in a person’s body,thought, and behavior due to biological andenvironmental influences.
those thoughts that go through our minds about our perceived success or failure in particular situations
Explain the MRI
magnetic field gives brain image
Cognitive dissonance is:
tension created when acting inconsistently with self
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
the developmental stage that begins at puberty and encompasses the period from the end of childhood to the beginning of adulthood
...ethical issues
What are the following considered to be?
a. Informed Consent
b. Deception
c. Milgram's study
test 3chromosomes
are threadlike sturctures made of DNA molecules, which contain the genes.
Public Observability
when their responses will be observed by others, people agree more with group judgements
Episodic Memory
the retension of information about the where and when of life's happenings (ex:what did you do on your birthday?_
Protein Synthesis
• Genes work by directing the synthesis ofover 200,000 different proteins.• Proteins are the molecules that control life.• Protein synthesis is a complex process oftranscription of the message in the DNA,processing of the genetic message, andthe ultimate production of proteins.
civil commitment laws
Legal proceedings that determine a person is mentally disordered and may be hospitalized, even involuntarily.
Where users put faith
Science:in honesty of reported dataReligion:supernatural beings or authorities who interpret text/eventsArt:in own perceptions
majority of deaths in us occur in hospitals and nursing homes; true or false?
lead to hypothesis but not confirmed result
naturalistic observation
social cognition
the study of how people use cognitive processes-such as perception, memory, thought, and emotion-to help make sense of other people as well as themselves
top-down processing
Grant, Lee, think of as generals, but what if they represent something else
Anorexia Nervosa
15% under avg. body weight for size95% are femalesavg. age: 17 years old or menopausalRestricting vs. Binge Eating/Purging
Change of Optimum

The change of the optimum, (the most adaptive function at that time,)should be quicker than the rate of winnowing out (the thing that takes away the less adaptive).
The _ refers to the quality and strength of the collaborative relationship between client and therapist.
Therapeutic alliance
Explain the PET scan
measures brain activity by measureing glucose levels. good for determining which parts of the brain are in use during certain activities.
NEO 5 factor model of personality shows support for
long term stability
Parents who make few rules or demands and allow children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior
Permissive parents
What are the various construct domainsin the United Framework?
3 fundamental domains:  *Physical, Cognitive, and Affective
Interstintial-3 Hubrid Domains: *psychomotor, valuative, and somatic functioning
All 6 above create personality
Thoughts on hypnotization?
Hint: women and lying
Some people thought only women could be hypnotized
Some people thought people could not lie when hypnotized
Cognitive map(mental map)
mental process composed of a series of psychological transformations by which an individual can acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment
How to we describe emotion?
a response by whole organism. (physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experiences)
What is the Germinal stage?
This is from fertilizaton to the implation in the wall of the uterus.
Carroll & Cattell-Horn’s hierarchical theories of intelligence have been blended into what’s known as the “CHC” theory. What’s the key difference between C-H’s & C’s theories?
The role of g (It’s more important to Cattell-Horn than Carroll)
How does relational dialectics explain the dissolution of relationships?
Relational dialects say that the dissolution of a relationship is the result of tensions resulting from conflicting emotional needs that are not met.
gradual or slow developing of schizophrenia
worse outcomes, condition is chronic, more negative symptoms
What was the evidence for Spearman’s “big idea” about intelligence?
Positive manifold (the fact that scores correlate positive with each other regardless of the type of questions)
Maslow's Needs are divided into what groups?
- Deficiency Needs which are critical to the physical and psychological well-being - Growth Needs which are critical to the growth and development into knowing and understanding, which people try to satisfy after their basic needs are met
How can correlational data be used to make effective causal claims about 2 variables?
When several different kinds of correlations suggest the same causal conclusion
All of the following would be considered an altered state of consciousness.
1. sleep2. being high on cocaine3. meditation4. Being under hypnosis.
rely more and revise less on initial impressions
older adults in social situations (new person)
What will happen if to a starving doe carrying twins?
One of the twins will die in utero and be absorbed.
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