PSY 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ivan Pavlov's theory:
Classical conditioning
on the same side
Does intermittent reinforcement last longer than continuous
Ability to experience another's emotional state or condition vicariously
origins or causes of illness
organizing items into familiar, manageable units, often occurs automatically
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Mental Retardation
Is An Axis II Disorder
Individual Differences Psychology
Person-to-Person differences inherent to individuals. This is naturally occurring, (you can't assign a person an I.Q. or an age) This is also how people differ from one another (we are interested in differences among people).
complex composition of sensory stimuli that can be recognized as a member of a class of objects
Inability to recognize and name objects; may be a symptom of dementia or other brain disorders.
trying to increase emotions (coach trying to fire up team..i really like this gift!)
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions; the cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations
Participant reactivity
Participants aware they're being observed may react differently
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
freedom from random error. in tests: repeatability of scores
True or false: During breeding the deer start to loose its antlers.
Benefits of Agreeableness
(Regard for Others)
Harmonious interpersonal relationships; valued coalitional partner
The Domains of HumanDevelopment
• Physical• Cognitive• Personality• Sociocultural
Public Speaking
a sustained formal presentation made by a speaker to an audience
positive reinforcement
Give /reward/ when behavior /does/ happen so that it'll happen again
Baby Biography


best described as a detailed observation of individual children
Unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth
parents who make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from their children, punish transgressions, and values obedience to authority
Authoritarian parents
Part of the brain that regulates some important reflexes (e.g.swallowing), respiratory functions, arousal and some basic movements
Test 4Accomodation
Refers to changing an existing schema to incorporate new information that cannot be assimilated, according to Piaget's theory
marriage custom in which 1 man marries 1 woman
Divergent Thinking
thiking which produces many answers to the same question and is more characteristic of creativity
trial and error
a problem-solving strategy in which several solutions are attempted until one is found that works
Cognitive Models:
A metaphor based on observations and in inferences that describes the detection, storage, and use of information.-ex: information processing model -assumes that cognition can be analyzed into series of stages
dimensional classification
A system of organizing the attributes of psychological disorders as occurring on a continuum or spectrum (such as a scale of mild to severe), rather than present or absent. Can specify a cutting point and resemble a categorical system.
Lovaa's Behavior Modification Program
Relies on imitation and reinforcement.Intensive Behavioral therapyParents trained to use operant conditioning
are part of acquired branch of immunity - orchestrating or directing immune response, most compromised as result of aging process
T cells
biological perspective
how the brain, nervous system, an other physiological mechanisms produce behavior and mental processes
elaboration likelihood model
a model proposing two primary routes to persuasion and attitude change: a central route, which operates when we are motivated and focusing our attention on the message, and a peripheral route, which operates when we are either unmotivated to process the message or are unable to do so
Test 5Optic Nerve
Comprised of the axons of terinal ganglion cells, this nerve carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
Clitoral Orgasm
according to Freud, it was less mature and made you less of a woman than vaginal orgasm
Costs of Conscientiousness
(Response Inhibition)
Missing of immediate fitness gains; obsessionality; rigidity 
What is considered the single best predictor of violent behavior?
Hare Psychopathy Checklist-2
Partial reinforcement effect
The paradox that occured when people realized that CRF had highest extinction even though it was reinforced the most.
plasticity model of aging neuron
dendritic growth and regeneration through life
The fear and distress shown by a toddler when the parent leaves, occurring from 8 to 24 months and reaching a peak between 12 and 18 months
Separation anxiety
how much the scores in a set of data differ from each other and from the mean
What did Alfred Binet do?
Gave intelligence tests to identify schoolchildren in France who needed remedial tutoring
Bobo doll buddy
Kids that watched adult beat up bobo doll started acting the same way. Kids that didn't, played with other toys.
Who is the father of psychology in the U.S?
William James
What is the five factor model?
This is the dominant contemporary trait model of personality. It consts of five broad factors: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
In terms of their length of effect, endocrine messages are to ____________ as neural messages are to____________.
marble sculptures, sand castles
What does it matter whether people help for altruistic or egoistic reasons? (e.g., predicting when help is likely to occur, the study about determinants of who remained volunteers longer in helping those with AIDS).
Empathy and altruism explanations:
If we feel empathy -> attempt to help regardless of the costs.
If we don’t feel empathy -> social exchange theory takes over.
sudden onset of schizophrenia
tend to have a more positive response to medication, recovery more likely, more positive symptoms
In hierarchical theories of intelligence, what do higher levels of the hierarchy represent?
What is general or common among the factors below them.
Name the 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex.
Occipital lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, frontal lobe
What point does the Deary text make about interpreting the meaning of correlations?
That correlations tell you about probabilities for groups, not specific individuals
The importance of the early years of childhood in shaping the adult personality
What are the four protective mechanisms?
How do short term and long term memory differ in size (according to the modal model)?
Short term is 7 +or- 2, while LTM is unlimited
Role of cerebellum
occipital lobe
visual processing center
Psychological disorders
deviant, distressful,and disfunctional 
structures of Limbic System?
The average of the scores
Disorder of movement involving immobility or excited agitation.
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience.
Brain activity results in telltale electrical signals that can be detected by a(n):
Achievment tests
______________ tests, Have large sample with clear norms to determine how well has mastered material (as compared to similar others)Stanford Achievement Test popular in 1920’s
marriage between people with similar interests and backgrounds.
Piaget's Theory
Children are CONSTRUCTIVISTS = construct knowledge for themselves-learn on their own-intrinsically motivated
morphinelike agonists
stimulates certain receptors but doenst affect others
the processes that underlie the mental manipulation of knowledge, usually in an attempt to reach a goal or solve a problem
visual illusion
discrepancy between reality and the perceptual representation of it
piece of information it takes to reduce uncertainty by 1/2
___ is the cognitive concept reflected by the satisfaction achieved by attaining a particular outcome.
Color constancy
constant in color despite lighting changes
Genetic Studies
• Adoption Studies– Studies how adopted children resemble theiradoptive versus their biological parents• Twin Studies– Compares identical twins for traits thought tobe heritable– Hard to interpret because no twin’senvironment is identical, even within samehome
Type 1 error
Incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis when it is in fact correct (gullability)-assuming a drug your testing actually works when it doesnt
measure of how much things relat
correlation coeficent
catharsis (reducing aggression...freud)
freud's psychoanalytic notion of catharsiswatching aggressive acts helps to blow off steam and gets anger out of your systemnot much support for this theory
in Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
2 Theories of Sleep
1-Repair, replenish, restore; 2-Protect from nocturnal predators
Phi Phenomenon
Staring at  a light, the light appears to be moving but eyes are moving
when do infants first begin to demonstrate hand preference?
5 months
Stress diathesis model of Depression
a predisposition to increased stress response following a stressor plays a role in the initiation or and relapse of depression in some cases 
Critical Families:
those that return to families after treatment and families will talk about pt. and pt. will relapse faster.
the point that is seldon reached at which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential
Mower’s two-factor model
Mowrer's theory of avoidance learning according to which (1) fear is attached to a neutral stimulus by pairing it with a noxious unconditioned stimulus, and (2) a person learns to escape the fear elicited by the conditioned stimulus, thereby avoiding the unconditioned stimulus.
bystander effect
phenomenon in which the greater the number of bystander who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help
Changes in brains of those w/ MDD
smaller hippocampus
association cortex
all of cerebral cortex except those areas devoted to primary sensory processing or motor processing. this is where all higher-level cognitive processing that requires association (integration) of info, such as perception and language, occurs
Monocular cues
Depth cues tha can be extracted from the image in either eye.
instructional validity
the extent to which the assessment is a reasonable sample of what actually went on in the classroom
Which expectancy answers the question, just because you have the ability to achieve a goal doesn’t mean you will, due to factors out of your control?
Performance to outcome expectancies
Binocular depth cues
-convergance: our eyes get closer as objects get closer-binocular disparity: the closer the object, the more different it will be to each retina
Hind Brain
located at the base of the skull, cerebellum, medulla, pons, reticular formation
measures degree to which people perceive themselves to be in control of their health, perceive powerful others to be in control of their health, or regard chance as the major determinant of their health
health locus of control
Psychodynamic Approach & who
(Freud) behavior controlled by inner forces of which they are unaware
mental age
the level of native mental ability or capacity of an individual, usually as determined by an intelligence test, in relation to chronological age
What are the 3 memory forms in Tulving's taxonomy of memory?
episodic, semantic, procedural
What is the cornea?
Protective coating on the surface of the eye.
What are symptoms of depression?
Paralysis of will, thoughts of failure, loss of appetite and sleep, fatigue, and extended periods of feeling sad.
Do Dreams have a purpose?
Hobson: brainstem sends signals to neocortex. Cortex in response to excitation, generates images, actions, and emotion from personal memory stores. BC frontal cortex controls working memory, less active in dreaming and you can't remember linking dream events as they take place

Opp view: Revonsuo argues that dreams lead to enhanced performance in dealing w threatening events. Dreams are organized and bias towards threatening images...content that incorporates current emotional problems
test 2MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that show brain sturctures more clearly.
What is an unconditioned response (UCR)?
An unlearned reaction to the unconditional stimulus. (an instinctual or inborn reaction) *salivation
Several factors influence the type of attachment. Describe moms of securely attached, resistant, avoidant, and disorganized infants.
Securely Attached - sensitive, responsive, interact with synchrony.Resistant - inconsistent, parents are over enthusiastic or under based on their mood. Infant clings and cries then becomes angry or resentful.Avoidant - mothers are impatient, rigid, and self-centered; unresponsive to infant's signals OR overzealous and try to stimulate kid when he does not want it.Disorganized - kid is drawn to but fearful because parents are abusive or depressed.
The "old" stereotype with the words
What is an example of unconscious priming
Is there something tied to being elderly?
Low neuroticism increased risk for death in the elderly. High extraverted elderly people had decreased risk of death. (When controlled for physical and social activity, these effects went away.)
The brain may be thought of as..
a good information processor (relates to cognitive learning)
What emperical evidence supports the theory that schizo's hallucinations are in fact not hearing the voices of others, but are listening to their own thoughts or their own voices and cannot recognize the difference?
Because they have more activity in the Broca's are which is responsible for speech production meaning taht they are thinking of speaking and they just cant distinguish the difference.
what is the Babinski reflex?
- if a finger or a pencil is rubbed along the inner side of the young infant's foot from HEEL to TOE, the big toe will move upward while the other toes fan inward toward the bottom of the foot- disappears between 12 and 16 months of age
According to Tulving, what do you need to be conscious of to retrieve SEMANTIC memories?
A concept or a "knowledge" state of consciousness
Definition of schemas
4 Goals of Psychology
Serial position effect
The tendency
powerful aspect of stressful expeiriences
(Edward Titchner) introspection to explore elemental structure of the human mind
The underlying unconscious meaining of a dream is the ________ content and the consciously recalled plot is called the ________ content.
neurotrans involved in attention, thought processes, reward centers, and mvmt
-dried plant-smoked-we all know the effects
Types of sampling
Random sampling
Stratified random sampling
Representative sample
condition when children don't grow from not feeling other's human touch.
In percentage terms, Smith and Glass’s 1977 study showed that the average person receiving treatment was better off at the end than ___ % of those who had not received treatment.
Gradual dismissal of a stiumulated response.
Dissociative Amnesia
inability to remember important personal information; sudden, no new identity
Influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.
Experiementing with how we think, perceive, and solve problems.
Cognitive psychology
24 hour cycle
sleep/wake cycle and temperature changes in body
descriptive statistics
used to organize and summarize data
T/F: Approaches to cognition focus on how we process information and think about the world
What kind of delusions do schizo's get?
-persecutory -jeolousy -guiolt n -thought broadcasting-grandeur -thought insertion-religious - thought withdrawal-somatic-delusions of reference-delusions of being controlled-delusions of mind reading
sensorimotor period
-integration of motor & perceptional systems-object permanence develops
diathesis-stress model
Hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder.
secondary sex characteristics
facial hair hips boobs etc
Aversive conditioning
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
dysfunctional behavior
interferes with day to day activities
Functional Relationship
Are real relationship in which change in one variable is regularly associated with change in another variable (smt that may change)
Time Sampling
Observing whether a behavior occurs or does not occur during specified time periods
1. Moral domain
2. Social Domain
3. Matters of personal choice
4. Cultural construction approach
Moral Development: Turiel
molecular behaviors
behaviors tied to specific motor or muscular phomena
• Law of Conservation
concept that objects retain their weight, volume, and certain other properties in spite of changes in their shape or arrangement
Imaginary audience
a creation of adolescents, who are preoccupied with how others react to their appearance and behavior.
combines to or more issues in a single question
Sherif (CS)
camp study - prejudice stems from intergroup competition for limited resources
order effect
- subject's behavior affected by the timing of condition due to practice, fatigue, etc
- counterbalance the treatments!
What stage of sleep is referred to as "paradoxical sleep"
Definition of Lifespan development
Development: Stability and change over time.
Lifespan: From prenatal development to death.
What animal, in many ways, in closest to us and lives around the same age?
The elephant
a form of problem solving in which the solution seems to pop to mind all of a sudden
Explain the Incentive theory.
People are motivated to attain desirable stimuli and avoid unwanted stimuli.
striving for superiority
according to Adler, the major drive behind all behavior, whereby humans naturally strive to overcome their physical and psychological deficiencies.
Telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram (Ex. “Want juice”) using mostly nouns and verbs
...fades after 15-30 seconds if not rehearsed
The duration for STM?
Differences between bacteria and viruses:Bacteria
- living/ can reproduce/divide- good bacteria/bad bacteria- can be treated with antibiotics
NOncompliance w/ Meds causes
7% dont take their meds to compliance.negative side effects such as burred vission and motor difficulties ( akinesai-expressionless face)tardive dyskinesia- involuntary movements.
Examples of norm violations
1) feeling bad, hallucinating etc. 2) hairstyle - mow hawk - doesn’t means it is bad just different3) Olympic Athletes - do things normal people could not
role of the scape goat theory
tendency for individual, when frustrated or unhappy, to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerlessrogers and prentice-dunn 1981jews and the holocaust--insulting confederate interacts with them, target black or white, low level of shock to whites
Postconventional Level of moral development
Morality judged in terms of abstract principles, likeequality, justice and the value of life.
fundamental equation of data analysis
significance level =size of effect X size of study
What are some protective factors for stress?
Positive attachment to someoneself efficacy and self esteemtiming of eventscognitive factors (how you appraise a situation)previous experience and if you were successful
what is the corpus callosum?
bundle of fibers that connect the L and R hemispheres
Can perception occur without sensory input?
Phantom limb theory; feeling a limb after it has been amputated.
What is an intervening variable?
Something that is used to explain the relationships between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses
What can you expect from your memory?
Remembering is hard work, like any other skill it takes effort. Remembering will not be easier, but more effective.
When do adult doe begin to aggregate:
in a Matrilineal herd which will last until next spring
What parts of the brain are actively being used?
The more difficult the task the more parts of the brain you will most likely use.
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