PSY2012 Final Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
 
 
 
 
 
lateralization
Hallucinogen
Hallucinogens: Psychedelic (“mind-manifesting”) drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.  
 
 
 
 
 
Brain and Memory
Amygdala
a)      memories for emotions, emotional events.
unintended concequences of punishment
                                                               i.      A child may learn to fear, not only the undesirable behavior, but also the person administering the punishment                                                              ii.      Punishment increases humans’ tendency to be aggressive (most abusive parents and aggressive children come from families with abusive backgrounds.                                                             iii.      Punishment may not actually suppress the undesired behavior; child may learn not to swear at home but swear with friends (child has learned stimulus discrimination).                                                            iv.      If punishment is unpredictable and inescapable, humans and animals may develop sense that events are beyond their control (“Learned Helplessness”) As a result, they may become helpless and depressed                                                              v.      Even though punishment suppresses unwanted behavior, it does not guide one to a desirable behavior. (Punishment tells you what NOT TO do, reinforcement tells you what TO do)  
 
 
 
 
 
 Hypothesis
 
 
 
 
 
 
A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. 
a)      Stress hormones boost memory; increase glucose available for brain activity; amygdala (emotion site) boosts brain activity in memory areas; stronger the emotion the better the memory for the event.
Latent learning
 (Tolman)
Learning that becomes apparent only after                                         reinforcements are introduced but that occurred without reinforcements.
neuro adaptation
(neuroadaptation: The brain’s counteracting the disruption to its normal functioning). 
relearning
a)      memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material a second time
Retreival
a)      process of getting information out of memory
Operant Behavior
a.       behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences (positive or negative) (Example: kick the dog, the dog bites you (consequence), chances of kicking the dog again decreases). Idea here is that your behavior produces the consequence by OPERATING on the environment; if you hadn’t kicked the dog, it wouldn’t have bitten you!)
Parent-Child Attatchment Style:
 
 
 
 
Insecure:
 
 
 
Inattentive or inconsistent parenting
Low self esteem, distrust others
 
 
 
 
 
Experiment
 
 
 
 
 A research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result.
 
birthdate of modern psychology
1879 wilhelm wundt
forgetting
information never enters long term memory
Mental age
B.      A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet, determines chron. age that typically corresponds to a level of performance
Pavlov's accidental discovery
a.      Pavlov’s Accidental Discovery                                                                i.      Pavlov was originally interested in studying the digestive system. To do this he began studying the saliva secretions of dogs. He noticed that when putting food in the dog’s mouth it would immediately begin salivating. After repeatedly working with the same dog, the dog began salivating to stimuli associated with the food (the mere sight of the food, food dish or the presence of the person who usually brought the food. Pavlov considered these “psychic secretions” an annoyance because this interfered with his study. They then began pairing neutral stimuli with the presence of food. After repeated pairings, the dog would begin salivating to the previously neutral stimuli (such as a tone).  
Monism
Monism: presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing; near death experience parallel hallucinations and is a product of a stressed brain.
Insomnia
Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.  Sleeping pills and alcohol reduce REM time; insomniacs tend to “fret” over sleep – underestimate time slept and overestimate time to get to sleep (10-15%).
Emotional Intelligence
The ability to perceive, understand, and regulate emotion
 
 
recurring things
 
 
-examiners look for ______ ______ in responses ,as well as, who the person is identifying with (hero/heroine), mood, interpersonal relations, and feeling about the future.
 
1. id-most primitive,exists at birth-works   on the "pleasure" principle

2. ego-emerges during 1st yr of life,protects person & copes with the  real world- works on the "reality" principle,  tries to meet the id's needs safely.
3.superego-
 
 
Three Personality Forces:
 
 
 
 
 
Independent Variable
 
 
 
 
 In an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable.
 
 

Generalizing from the textbook: it could be concluded that in comparison with older people who have been married, “never marrieds” are more likely to be what?
 
 
 
independent

Unit 6
O10-A
(a) What is the reinforcer establishing effect of pain as the MO? (b) What is the evocative effect of pain as the MO? (c) What is the SD evocative effect of the MO? (d) What is the conditioned reinforcer establishing effect of pain as the
a.
 
b.
 
c.
 
d.
Practical intelligence
often required for everyday tasks, which are frequently ill-defined, with multiple solutions.
Artificial intelligence
The science of designing and programming computer systems          to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes, such as intuitive    reasoning, learning, and understanding language (e.g., robots, expert systems, voice    recognition software)
Mnemonics
memory aids or techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Near Death Experience
Near-death experience: An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations Many parallels with Ronald Siegel’s (1977) descriptions of the typical hallucinogenic (replay of old memories, out-of-body sensations, and visions of tunnels or funnels and bright lights or beings of light; floating).  
 
 
Humanistic Psychology
 
 
- positive qualities and need for personal growth and fulfillment; developed by Maslow and Rogers--uses reflective listening.
 
 
 
Competence/ Efficacy
 
 
 
- feeling that comes from interacting effectively with the environment.
 
 
 
Which coping method's success depends on having goals to guide development and resources to make the goals potentially achievable?
 
 
 
 
selective optimization and compensation
 
 
 
What is the single most important factor that enables older adults to live in their own homes instead of in institutions?
 
 
 
 
being married
 
 
Sisters tend to be more _______ than brothers in late adulthood.
 
 
 
nurturant
Continuous reinforcement schedules
reinforce the desired response every time it occurs; learning occurs rapidly, but so does extinction
Flashbulb memory
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
state dependant memory
a)      what is learned in one state (while one is high, drunk, or depressed) can more easily be remembered when in same state
 
 
 
Being (growth) Needs
 
- 1. intellectual achievement
2. aesthetic appreciation
3. self-actualization
4. transcendence
 
 
 
 
According to Atchley’s continuity theory, the most desirable pattern of development in later life is for older people to welcome some change but also do what?
 
 
 
 
maintain links with the past
 
 
The following features are desirable in a nursing home:
A. privacy for social activity
B. opportunities for socialization
C. a full range of what?
 
 
 
social and therapeutic services
 
 
What does research suggest that elderly childless people regret?
 
 
not having children


·      Why is John Watson important to psychology? B.F. Skinner?


o   Watson: Challenged psychology’s focus on conscious and unconscious mental processes as inherently unscientific.
o   Skinner: Took up the mantle of behaviorism. Denied mental states’ existence.
applications for operant conditioning at home
a.       Economic rule of thumb: “Whatever we tax, we tend to get less of; whatever we subsidize, we tend to get more of.” Hmm…we tax paychecks and subsidize depletion of natural resources. Other examples, give children attention or other reinforcers when they are behaving well; ignore whining; when children misbehave, do not hit, explain the misbehavior and give them a “time-out” which removes them from any reinforcing surroundings.
framing
The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly                                     affect decisions and judgments.
Psychological dependance
a psychological need to use the drug such as to releive negative emotions
 
 
Grandparenting offers what 3 benefits to the family?
 
sense of renewal,
 
source of diversion,
 
mark of longevity
Unit 6
SO 9

How/why taking medication is shaped up.
 



Learn the diagram, including the relevant technical behavioral terms


 

 




Medication on demand:
MO Response-->Sr+/SD Response------>Consequence

 


 
 
Pain Get meds 1. Sight of medication Take medication 1. Decrease in pain

                                                                                    (SR-)


                       2. Sight of others/care giver             2. Social reinforcement from

 

                                                                               others-Oh poor baby!


                                                                                                          (Sr+)
 
 
Psychosexual Stages of Development:
 
oral: occurs during 1st yr of life, emphasis on feeding.
anal: 2nd yr, emphasis on elimination
phallic: 3-6 yrs, most controversial- feelings for opposite-sex parent (Oedipus/Electra).
latency: 6-11 yrs, sexual feelings are repressed, emphasis on social/intellectual development functioning.
genital: 11 or 12 yrs, emphasis on identification with one's own sex 7 capacity for love.
 
 
 
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1986) protects most workers age 40 and older from what?
 
 
 
 
being denied a job, fired, paid less, or forced to retire because of age
Unit 6
SO 2
 

What was maintaining the coughing behavior of the girl described in the article?
 
 
A. Attention from staff & parents were maintaining coughing
 
B. Coughing terminated aversive situations
 
 
What person is most likely to show a strong correlation between religious activity and well being?
 
 
 
 
an African American  woman, age 85
Unit 6
O10-B

if I give one of the four effects on the exam, be able to choose/select the name of the effect from a list of MO effects

A. Reinforcer establishing effect
B. Evocative effect
C. Conditioned reinforcer establishing effect
D. SD evocative effect
E. None of the above
 

Families seem to make the assumption that when older adults live alone they  are lonely, but what 3 other factors also play a significant role in whether or not a loved one will be vulnerable to loneliness?

A. personality traits of the older adult.
 B. the physical health of the person that is living alone.
C. the depletion of a person’s social network.  
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