PSYC - First Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
detecting threats
repeating info
maintenance rehearsal
What is free association?
Heading: "Stages of Development"

Neurons move towards their final anatomical location

SECOND stage of development
Retroactive interference involves the disruption of:
procedure in which reinforcers gradually guide organisms' actions toward desired behavior

Heading : "Chemical sensory systems: Taste, Smell"

Stimulus for taste, smell
major inhibitory neurotransmitter; too much leads to paralysis; not enough leads to seizures, tremors, and insomnia
the tendency to show self-discipline, to be dutiful, and to strive for achievement and competence
a defense mechanism that banishes anixety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. (freud) repressed memories probably don't exist
Obstetrics and gynecology
study of birth/female reporductive
repeated presentation of stim. results in gradual reduction in response
simple form of learning, but not very permanent 
__________developed the sense of the self-object, which is an experience of the functions of another object that supports us.
Retention [definition]
Favored variations are retained through heredity
a specific prediction about what should occur if the theory is valid. Eg.: manipulate mood in lab, that the happer you are, the more likely to be generous.
a chemical released by glands and conveyed by the blood to other parts of the body, where it alters activity
A thing or event in the environment that influences a behavior. 
refers to a person's degree of predisposition to show the symptons of a particular disorder. For example, some people are more prone to have the flu b/c they were very sick as children or did not build up immunities. This is a HIGH diathesis. Of course, these people will not get the flue unless exposed to the flue virus , which is the STRESS.
peer review
process in which researhers submit their research for publication or presentation to other experts in field who evalutae their research
Mucociliary escalator
covers most of bronchi, bronchioles, and nose; carries foreign particles as far as the pharynx (throat) where fluid and mucus is swallowed and eliminated by digestive system; made up of cilia and goblet cells; acts as a conveyor belt
• a wide variety of disorded porcesses of varied etiology, developlmental patter, and outcome.
The group of disorders including amnesia, fugue, and identity, in which the thoughts and feelings that generate anxiety are separated from conscious awareness, is called:
Dissociative disorders
connecting material; relating to other stuff you know. This process is the most efficient.
elaboration processes
Local Feedback
Local control of ANS

-sensory neurons near ANS target organ project info to CNS

-CNS conveys info about regulating ANS target

-involves only proximal neurons
Cognitive Psychology
Examines mental processes such as thinking, learning and memory
chain of sensation
1. physical stimulus impinges on organism
2. Physiological response to physical stimulus
3. sensory experience 
the tendency for people to yield to real or imagined social pressure
Obsessive Compulisive Disorder
(type of anxiety disorder) Combination of two disorders: Obsession and compulsion. Gets worse w/ anxiety and high stress levels. The most common: obsession about germs resulting in constant hand washing, bathing, house cleaning, etc. If people w/ OCD do not perform their compulsions, they think about it all day. Treatable w/ medication and systematic desensitization. Seems to run in families. To be diagnosed w/ OCD, it has to interfere w/, interrupt your life. Ifyou clean and bathe a lot but lead an otherwise normal life, you do not have OCD.
social desirability bias
answers in ways that reflect positively on themselves
Encoding failure
Information is not put into long-term memory
A belief that associates a group of people with certain traits
What does recognition mean?
looking at choices and remembering.
memroy derived from consious effort. it is good for complex and novel information.
explicit memory
The actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment

They can be conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.
Stage 1 sleep
first 20 minutes; alpha waves; experience hallucinations and sensations of falling or floating
reversible figure
A stimulus that you can perceive in more than one way.
The nervous system
the body's system of nerves, includes the brain
(Ages & Definition)
Birth - 2 years old
Learn to coordinate sensory and motor skills
what are vulnerability factors?
vulnerability -> a predisposition that can have a biological basis, such as out genotype, a brain malfunction or a hormonal factor
Knowledge1) Intuition2) Authority3) Tenacity
1. Not systematic, limited settings and experience. Limited by morality and religious beliefs; personal exp. Ex. colds. 2. Trusted, shorthand.3. Taken for granted; common knowledge Ex. bayer aspirin
argued that behavior was a function of complex and often contradictory internal influences, many of which were outside of a person's conscious awareness
humanistic psychology
Defense Mechanism: denial
refusal to accept reality, so you don't have to deal with it
projective personality tests
designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions
Types of first storage memory
-Iconic (visual): usually lasts less than one second-Echoic: Sensory memory for quditory sitmuli, last 3-4 seconds even if attention is else where
what is the case of 'Anna O'?
-Josef Breuer
-also influences Freud's thinking, on "catharsis"
-write a book together
What is sandwich generation?
Caring for aging parents and own children. IE my mom a few years ago
Temporal Summation
The term used for when there is rapid stimulation of the same site on the postsynaptic neuron
Similarities in the operation of the human brain and the computer
basis of information processing theories of memory.
what are randomized clinical trials?
a research design that involves the random assignment of clients having specific problems to an experimental (therapy) group or to a control condition so as to draw sound casual conclusions about the therapy's efficacy
1) Substance that acts like neurotransmitter but diffuses through extracellular fluid. 2) Organelle that extracts energy from nutrients. 3) Type of glial cell in the CNS that forms myelin sheaths.
1) neuromodulator 2) mitochondria 3) oligodendrocyte
mind is divided into... (3 things)
(1) Id (2) Ego (3) Supergo
Where is HIV most prevalent?
• US > CAN• Russia > North America• Africa is highest
What are the 5 stages of retirement?
1. Anticipatory period
2. Decision to retire
3. Retirement
4. Continual adjustment
5. Changes in activity patterns
What is the peripheral nervous system?
Def. All nerves not included in the central nervous system.
What are the two main theories regarding the stability of personality across the lifespan?
1. Stability: ex. Trait Theories (we are born with an inherited personality that remains stable)
2. Change: ex. Stage Theories (personality develops in stages)
-What are the 3 psychological qualities that are essential defining features of persons?
1. Ppl are being who can reason about the world using language
2. Ppl can reason about not only present circumstances, but events in their past & hypothetical future events
3. Involves reflection on the self-the being who is doing the reason
Name the two keys to understanding the roots of narcissism.
1. Some kind of injury2. Failure of rapprochment
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