PSYC 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What is punishment?
Dependent Variable
measured by researcher
Olfaction [definition]
Sense of smell
a continuing succession of interactions between two people that are affected by their shared past interactions and that also affect their future interactions
Unconditioned Response
Rise in blood sugar

Sense that evaluates approach or avoidance

- Like taste, depends on physiological state
differences in perceiving, remembering, thinking bc of differences in language
linguistic relativity
keeping the testing, scoring, and interpretation procedures similar across all administrations of a test.
When a persons resources are inadequate to meet demands
large structure between thalamus and cerebral cortex
Dementia definition
Syndrome characterized by progressive decline of cognitive abilities in multiple domains resulting in functional declineMost common cause of dementia = Alzheimer's
cohort effect
age-related difference among cohorts that is attributable to cultural/historical differences in cohorts' growing-up experiences rather than to true developmental change
'Classical' route

Heading: 'Transmission of visual Information'

Optic nerve --> Optic tract --> Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) --> Visual Cortex
the right to face-to-face confrontation was the essential element of the 6th Amendment's Confrontation Clause >>> child witness (& alleged victim of sexual abuse) does not need special protection that would require a screen- argued that the presence of th
Coy (1989)
Remember that          is not         , but         does require         .
correlation, causation, causation, correlation
the tendency to seek stimulation and to enjoy the company of other people
by the temples. Also called the auditory cortex. It is associated with out of body experiences, near death and spiritual.
The brain structure that helps the body execute smooth, skilled movements and regulates muscle tone and posture.
What is HIV?
Human Immune Deficiency Virus• retrovirus that destroys the immune system• changes DNA of host so host will produce more of the virus• destroys lymphocyte CD4 T-cells
Overjustification effect
The tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors
What is the Medulla?
controls heartbeat and breathing
During the __________stage, the ego emerges.
oral stage
Punishment [definition]
Something delivered that occurs after a behavior to decrease the change behavior will occur again
being able to explicitly recall information
declarative memory
cerebal cortex
outermost part of the brain containing the occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal loves.
learned helplessness
a model for the acquisition of depressive behavior, based on findings that organisms in aversive situations learn to show inactivity when their operants go unreinforced
The brain
Organized into different parts that do different things. Brain imaging- techniques used to observe the brain while it operates. Different parts of brain are stimulated by different things. For example, a picture of gridlines will stimulate one part of your brain, a picture of a person will stimulate another part. The brain is the source of the mind. Evidence of this from: damace, imaging, manual stimulation during open-skull surgery.
Chiropractic medicine
medicine based on the premise that most (if not all) disease is based on often subtle misalignments of the spinal vertebrae that cause undue stress on peripheral nerves.
Treatment of
Gender Identity Disorder
[DSM, p. 464]
- treat child's unhappiness with his or her biological sex
- ease strained relationship with parents and peers
• PSYCHODYNAMICALLY: treat gender dysphoria by examining inner conflicts
receivers of info for a cell; have branches with spines; bumpy
Alfred Adler argued for the need to see people ___________as opposed to breaking them down to components(drives, defenses etc)
Net Summation
Refers to: Once the membrane potential is changed enough at the axon hillock to reach threshold,
Self-discrepancy theory
when actual self discrepant with ideal self, leads you to feel bad in short term; self vs. ought, you feel guilty, anxious for not fitting what people expect.
When recalling information, what part of the brain do we use to retrieve it?
What is prefrontal cortex?
Dissociative disorders and differences between dissociative identity disorder, dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue
Dissociative disorder - normal cognitive processes are severely disjointed and fragmented creating significant disruptions in memory, awareness or personality of length of minutes or yearsDID - presence of two or more distinct identities that at different times take control of individual's behaviorD. amnesia - sudden loss of memory for significant personal informationD. fugue - sudden loss of memory for one's personal history accompanied by an abrupt departure from home and assumption of new identity
What is stress?
the term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging

levels of analysis for schizophrenia

-stressful life events typically precede breakdown
-possible but as yet unidentified family dynamics
-neg. responses from others evoked by individual's odd behaviours
-expressed emotion by family related to relapses
-low socioeconomic settings (may be cause or effect)
-similar incidence across cultures, but better recovery in developing countries
To determine clinical efficacy, need to consider the treatment in relation to...
Non-treatment, non-specific therapy, or alternative
what is the extension of behaviorism called
social learning theory
Cut of brain that splits the ears in half
discrimination training, ex, essence?
operant response can be brought under control of a more specific stimulus than the entire inside of skinner box (respond to tone by pressing lever)
essence:reinforce the animal's response when a specific stimulus is present and to extinguish the response when the object is not
When 12-year-old Jack saw an old man lying on the sidewalk in apparent discomfort, he prepared to offer help. But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help. His reaction most clearly illustrates one
the bystander effect.
what is self-verification?
the tendency to try to verify or validate one's existing self-concept (that is to satisfy congruence needs)
Life-events approach (personality theories)
adaptation to events in life shapes personality
Complex Corticl Cells

A type of cell in the primary visual cortex

- Synapse with simple cortical cells

- Respond to lines of particular orientation

- Larger receptive field than simple cortical cells (no inhibitory surround, that's why they respond to light stimulus throughout the visual field)

- Detect movement
What is generalised anxiety disorder?
Broadest threat response is to GAD, essential features are: excessive worrying about a number of everyday events or activities, worry is difficult to control, must be present for at least 6 months, problems sleeping, tension, irritability, suffers tend to believe worrying will avoid negative consequences, many report being anxious since childhood, course tends to be chronic but fluctuates.
biological perspective - sig fraud
genital period - passion, come alive again, more conflict and emotionality and genital region, psycholocial conflict and unpredictable
Justin and Lauren do not get along in their childhood. How will they get along in adulthood?
Likely not well.
Postsynaptic Neuron
what a neuron is called when it is NOT sending a message to another neuron
What is the difference between the treatment group and the control group?
treatment: variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter control: subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment
What are 2 reasons for increasing divorce rates?
1. Liberalization of divorce laws
2. People have higher expectations of marriage
a. Paradoxically lowered the quality of marriage
b. May be uniquely western phenomenon (due to women's economic power)
How is trait theory of personality different from other theories of personality?
The trait approach to personality is one of the major theoretical areas in the study of personality. The trait theory suggests that individual personalities are composed broad dispositions. Consider how you would describe the personality of a close friend. Chances are that you would list a number of traits, such as outgoing, kind and even-tempered. A trait can be thought of as a relatively stable characteristic that causes individuals to behave in certain ways.
What are the 4 main symptoms of depression?
1. Affective: depressed mood, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, recurrent thoughts of death/suicide
2. Behavioral: social withdrawal, agitation
3. Cognitive: difficulty concentrating and making decisions
4. Somatic: insomnia or hypersomnia, weight loss/gain
sense of self - ___ yrs old
1 1/2 yrs old; usually describes self in terms of physical, concrete
1) The view that mind and body are separable. 2) Reticular activating system
1) Dualism 2) Regulates sleep and waking.
study of joints
What is a phobia?
Facial Recognition
Developmental milestone

Involves visual cortex and sub-cortical regions

Infants develop this ability
Basic sounds of a language
mental state corresponding to properties of objects and events in env't; KNOWLEDGE of world

Heading: "Retina - Detection"

Sensory receptors

Lower sensitivity in response to large amounts of light
successive reinforcement of the desired behavior
paranoid disorder
a personality disorder characterized by persistent suspiciousness but not involving the disorganization for paranoid schizophrenia
The tendency to change our perceptions, opinion or behavior in ways that are consistent with group norms.
difference between middle childhood and adolescence
physicalintellectualsocial interactions
primary info recievers
look like tree branches
___________was a psychoanalyst who studied severe disturbances in children. Found that emotional disturbances often linked to problems in the childs development of self and attachment to mother. Developed theory of personality based on separation indivi
Margaret Mahler
Ganglion Cells

Cells of the retina

Receptive field corresponds with visual field
___ supported the notion of intelligence as a single trait
circadian rhythms
Cyclical changes in bodily functions and arousal levels that vary on a schedule approximating a 24-hour day.
putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships
Neurological Development
(post natal). Brain "growth spurt" Babies brains grow quickly. When the neurons in the brain are activated, the dendrites and the axons get a big thicker, so the brain actually becomes heavier as more connections are made. The neurons that don't get stimulated get weaker. If some specific neuron connections are not made in childhood, they will never be made in adulthood, such as with language.
it has always been this way
mode of accepting knowledge because one is comfortable with it and simply wants to hold onto it
fertilized egg, union of two gametes (egg and sperm)
sodium and potassium are positive or negative
The scientific study of birth defects is called:
The process by which the blastocyst becomes attached to the uterus
Garder developed a theory of __ intelligence, which states that some people can be higher in come intelligence than others
causes of mood disorders
Biological (serotonin presence in neuroreceptors as well as corozol increase), stress, cognitive (learned helplessness), and social and cultural (major events like marriage, change in job, loss of a loved one, etc.)
idiographic approach
an approach to the study of personality differences that concentrates on intensive studies of individuals
REM stage
Also known as rapid eye movement stage, the stage when dreams occur. Brainwaves look the same as the brainwabes we have when we are awake. If a person is deprived of REM sleep repeatedly, they will go psychotic. Everyone dreams every single night in every cycle of REM sleep. You may have a hundred dreams per night. You don't remember them b/c your body naturally wakes itself up when it is NOT in REM stage. If you wake up and can remember your dreams, you probably woke up during a REM stage. The way we know that dreams occur during REM is b/c when people woh are in REM sleep are awakened, they will say they were dreaming right before being awakened. A person in any other stage will say they were just sleeping before being awakened.
discriminative stimulus
A stimulus that signals whether a certain response or behavior is like to be rewarded, ignored, or punished.
phi phenonmenon
an illusion of movement that occurs when stationary lights are flashed insuccesion
a movie
standard deviation
how much individual scores vary from the mean
white matter
where axons are delivering info (right outside of CC)
One of the membranes that develops out of the trophoblast. It forms the fetal component of the placenta
Drug which mimics the effect of the NT

-Binds with receptor / receptor subtype
What is neuroplasticity?
Def. The brain's ability to change and reorganize as a function of experience.
Sleep disorders
A psychological disorder is any way of thinking, acting, or feeling that keeps you from leading a normal life. Sleep disorders are both medical and psychological.
farsightedness (hyperopia)
nearby objects are blurry; eye is too short or lens doesn't thicken enough
the 4 symptoms of Anxiety
1.Emotional - feelings of tension
2.Cognitive - worry
-thoughts about inability to cope
3.Physiological - increased heart rate
-muscle tension
-other autonomic arousal symptoms
4.Behavioural - avoidance of feared situations
-decreased task performance
-increased startle response
Link between dissociative disorders, somatoform disorders?
Previously tied to "hysterical neuroses"
Effect size
A statistical estimate of the size or magnitude of
Through what steps might sophisticated eyes like ours have evolved from primitive beginnings?
photoreceptors became concentrated into groups >>> formed eye spots on animal's skin >>> eye spots became pits >>> transparent membrane developed over pits >>> mutations that thickened the center of this membrane converted it into a crude lens >>> lens became capable of projecting an image onto the lining of photoreceptors
Stage 4 of Sleep
(waves with high peaks and deep valleys). the EEG shows over 50% delta waves. If awakened in this stage, you are groggy and confused.
Goal level
The value or valence of a goal with higher levels indicatiing higher values
what is validity?
the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to; the degree to which a diagnostic system's categories contain the core features of the behaviour disorders and permit differentiation among the disorders
What did Francis Bacon believe?
the mind desires to precieve patterns.ex: stereotypes
Short Term Memory [definition]
Immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived. Limited in terms of capacity [72 chunks] and duration [less than 20 seconds]
sensory neuron function?
take info from world, allow it to be trasmitted to the brain
carry info from sensory organs (eyes, ears, mouth, nose, tongue and skin) 
First letter technique
Take the first letter of each item to be remembered and form a word, a phrase, or a sentence with those letters
Eugenics – Right Here in Cville
“Three generations of imbeciles is enough!” Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes in Buck v Bell, 192760,000 forced sterilizations
ultimate vs. proximate explanations of personality differences
- U: focuses on function/evolutionary survival value
- P: focuses on causal mechanisms >>> differing genes & experiences
the governor of initiative is ____
conscience: they begin to hear an inner voice of self-guidance and self observation (early childhood)
Is depression more difficult to treat in older adults?
Yes. Most studies support a combination of psychotherapy and pharmacology.
What is the storage stage of memory?
Def. The retention of memvory over time.
What is the difference between active and passive euthanasia?
1. Active: deliberate action to end the life of a dying patient to avoid further suffering (illegal - can be voluntary or involuntary)
2. Passive: deliberate disconnection of life support equipment, or cessation of any life-sustaining medical procedure, permitting the natural death of the patient
The statistical formula for the variance is:
SD2 = Σ (X – M) 2 ------------- N
How do older workers respond to shift work, absentee rates, and injuries?
1. Shift work more difficult for older workers
2. Younger workers have higher voluntary absenteeism
3. Older workers have lower rates of injury, but injuries lead to longer time off work
study of kidneys
What is observational learning?
1st ant/ag of Serotonin

(positive symptom of schizophrenia) Thoughts and beliefs that are not supported by realitiy. Delusions of perscution- patients think ppl are trying to sabatage them to make them fail or make them unhappy. Delusions of paranoia- think ppl are out to physcially harm or kill them. Delusions of grandeur- think they are great/ and or somehow very important to the world.This often goes along w/ delusions of persecution or paranoia b/c they think ppl are out to get them b/c they are so great or important. Delusions of reference- believe that things that in reality have nothing to do w/ them DO have somehting to do w/ them. For example, the may think that a commercia is made specifically for them, or that the news anchor is talking directly to them.
basic, primitive mental state corresponding to energies in env't; EXPERIENCE of world

Anatomical separation of magno and parvo preserved

- Magno : detection of moving objects; oriented towards changes in visual field
- Parvo : detection of detail; sensitive to differences in wavelength
independent variable
manipulated by the experimenter
free association
in psychoanalysis, the uncensored uttering of all thoughts that come to mind
Aggressing against a substitute target because aggressive acts against the source of the frustration are inhibited by fear or lack of access.
What is lygophobia?
fear of the dark
the phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together (period of association bet. CS and US)
generally corresponds to elementary school. Libido submerges allowing cognition to flourish.
latency period
Cornea, lens

Focus light on retina
detecting stimuli from the environment and translating them to neural impulses
In Gestalt psychology the tendency to perceive objects that are close together as belonging to a group.
schizoid personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by social withdrawal
Germinal stage
Period between conception( when sperm fertilizes egg) and implantation (when fertilized egg attaches to uterine wall). In this stage, the fertilizzed egg is called a GERM. In this stage, the cell divides. (Conception and pregnancy are not the same thing. Conception is when sperm fertilizes egg, but a woman is not pregnant until that egg attaches to uterine wall.)
Interval Variables
scale indicates amount
no point of 0
carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart from the body
reflex pathways are primarily controlled by
spinal cord pathways
Negative reinforcement is the result of the ____ of an unpleasant stimulus, whereas positive reinforcement is the result of the ____ of a pleasant stimulus.
removal; presentation
proximodistal pattern
the pattern of development the procedes from the middle of the organism out the periphery
Protein that if not produced properly (caused by genetic mutation) causes PKU

-If parents both have it, offspring 21% chance
Mental activity such as thinking or representing information.
diathesis model
mental disorders are caused by biology and stress
unshared environment
the aspects of environment that differ from one individual to another, even within a family
peripheral Nervous system
Comprised of two parts: Somatic nervous system comprises nerves that are related to voluntary control.Autonomic nervous system comprises nerves that control involuntary actions, such as your heart contractions, pupil dilation, etc. The autonomic nervous system is dived into three parts: sypathetic nervous systme, parasympathetic nervous system, endocrine system.
behavior modification
A method of changing behavior through a systematic program based on the learning principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or observational learning; also called behavior therapy.
Retrograde Amnesia
Loss of memory for experiences that occurred shortly before a loss of consciousness
Residual type of schizophrenia
•Absence of prominent delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour
• continue evidence of schizophrenia:
- negative symptoms
- mild psychotic symptoms:
-- odd beliefs
-- unusual perceptual experiences
fetal alcohol syndrome
prenatal disease caused by fetus exposure to alcohol; related to attention deficits, hyperactivity, degrees of mental retardation, motor problems, heart defects, and physical facial abnormalities
The cluster of cells inside the zona pellucida
The term for the negative change in voltage that occurs at the membrane during a synapse
Edward Bradford Titchener
founder of structuralism; attempted to find structural elements of the mind using introspection
What are "reuptakes" or "enzymactic degradation"?
Def. Ways of removing excess neurotransmitters from the synapse.
Contralateral Reperesentation
Left half of cortex is connected with the right side of the body and vice versa b/c the big nerves that come up from your spine cross.
intimacy vs. isolation
occurs in young adults (20s-40s); form close relationships or face isolation
what is situation-focused intervention?
prevention efforts that focus on altering environmental conditions that are known to promote the development of psychological disorders
Autohypnotic Model
Those who are suggestible may be able to use dissociation as a defense against extreme trauma
spinal cord
the part of the central nervous system that extends from below the waist to the base of the brain.
dualism =
each person consists of 2 distinct but intimately conjoined entities (material body + immaterial soul) } maintained by church
Mental Processing Without Awareness
Research on priming indicates that man important mental operations, such as learning, can occur without awareness
Temporal Motivation Theory
The utility of an incentive depends on the value of the expected incentive and when it becomes valuable in the future
what are defence mechanisms?
unconscious processes by which the ego prevents the expression of anxiety-arousing impulses or allows them to appear in disguised forms
What are 3 types of case studies?
1) individual2) group3) event
What are the schedules of reinforcement?
Variable interval, fixed interval, variable ratio, fixed ratio
split brain: what happens when info only in L.H.?
poor spatial perception, spatial abilities in the right
still function normally, unilateral presentation is unusual 
the more deeply we process info, the better we remember it
levels of processing theory
Placebo effect; Double blind study
Placebo effectPlacebo = sugar pill; a treatment without active ingredientsNeed placebo control groups to measure real effectsWhat is a placebo psychotherapy?Double blind studyPatients’ and therapists’ expectations affect outcomesDouble blind = neither knows if treatment is realCan therapists be “blind” to their treatment?
sex differences in prevalence of specific disorders may derive from (4)
- tendency to report/suppress psych distress
- clinicians' expectations of seeing certain disorders more often in one gender than the other
- sex differences in stress associated w/ differing social roles
- sex differences in ways of responding to stress
feelings of ____ and ___ are central to the account of moral development provided by ____
anxiety and guilt: freud's psychoanalytic theory
What are the 3 psychotic defense mechanisms?
1. Delusional projection - attribution one's own bizarre ideas and feelings to others
2. Denial - disclaiming the existence of a feeling, action or event
3. Distortion - significantly exaggerating and altering the reality of feelings or events
What is the somatosensory cortex?
Def. A part of the parietal lobes. A strip of brain that has specific regions that control specific motor movements.
How has retirement changed in Canada since 1970?
1. Early (under 60) retirees have doubled - 25% of retirees 55-59, avg. age 61.7
2. Mandatory retirement age at 65
If we find a high positive correlation between event A and event B, which of the following is/are TRUE statements?
if A, then B is more likely
What is the prevalence of anxiety disorders?
1. 12% of adults
2. 2x as many women as men
3. More common under age 65
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