Psyc : Part Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pervasive developmental disorders
Freud's method of psychotherapy
___________theorized that the developing child has a poorly developed and fragmented sense of self, and that the parents support the development of the sense of self through empathy and positive feed-back
Fading of information from memory.
piaget's stages
sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations
development of neural control connections under gentic controls that occurs in any normal enviroment
Made by specialized glial cells

Speeds movement of action potentials alongthe axon
Skinner, B.F.
'ultimate behaviorist' involved in conditioning and the reward center
A personality inventory that utilizes only those items that have been shown to differentiate particular groups of people is called a(n) _____ test.
secondary sex characteristics
no essential reproductive function
• individuals seek sexual arousal from:
- non-human subjects
- hurting others or being hurt
- interacting with non-consenting partners
What is personality?
Unobservable influence on behavior
Controlled processing

Type of processing

- Activation of PCF, motor cortex, cerebellum
Refers to a feature evolved independently between species, but resulting from same evolutionary (environmental) pressures
Sleep Apnea
disorder in which people stop breathing momentarily while sleeping, up to hundreds of times per night. Apnea episodes wake the sleepers, and thus people suffering from this disorder feel unrested in the morning and tired throughout the day
persistent belief that oen is ill despite lack of medical findings
The Statistical property of most personality traits is that they are?
Normally Distributed
Cross-Cultural Research
Research designed to compare and contrast people of different cultures.
membranes that suround brain / spinal cord
what is the Rorschach?
-on three major levels
-comprehensive scoring system -> some patterns imply normal personality and some imply psychopathology
Person who represents a synthesis and integration of self understanding.
individual variations in the rate, extent, or direction of development
baby biographies

Part of Retina with low sensitivity to weak light
- classical: a stimulus that resembles a conditioned stimulus will elicit the conditioned response even tho it has never been paired w/ the unconditioned stimulus- operant: a stimulus that resembles a discriminative stimulus will increase the rate @ which
partial reinforcement extinction
extinction occurs mroe slowly after partial reinforcement than after continuous reinforcement (Vegas slot machines)
cocktail party phenomenon
the process of tracking one conversation in the face of the distraction of other conversations; a phenomenon often experienced at cocktail parties.
Paranoid personality disorder
distrust in others; thinking others have sinister motives. prone to anger/aggressive outbursts but otherwise emotionally cold. often jealous, guarded, secretive, overly serious
Arousal: Cost-Reward Model
The proposition that aggression is influence by both the intensity of arousal and the type of emotion produced by a stimulus.
conventional stage
second level (10+ years old) some internalizationprimarily related to standards set by parents and other authority figures being good and pleasing othersmotivated by maintaining affection and approval of parents and society-wants to please
what is social cognitive?
THEORY -> a cognitive-behavioural approach to personality, developed by Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel, that emphasizes the role of social learning, cognitive processes and self-regulation
HYPNOSIS -> the view that hypnotic experiences occur b.c. ppl are highly motivated to assume the role of being "hypnotized"
External Validity
the degree to which your study findings can be generalized to a variety of other contexts, situations, and populations
Within groups
Repeated measures of same subject. IV is a within
Extracellular fluid
Type of cellular fluid mostly positive (in natural state)
- Judge the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory.
Availability heuristic
why called rods? photochemical? sensitivity to light? visual acuity?
because of vylindrical shape,  ability to see in very dim light
so sensitive to light they get saturated at hgiher light levels
have poor visual acuity--> greater neural convergence 
peer victimization
ill treatment of one child by another (or by others) that can range from teasing to bullying to serious physical harm; typically, victimizing is a continuous behavior that persists over time
encoding failure
A cause of forgetting that occurs when information was never put into long-term memory.
the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
intrinsic motivation
Cocaine Functions on Physiology
Blocks the reuptake of dopamine (dopamine agonist)
context specificity
The term refers to the fact that psychological structures that are relevant to some social situations or contexts, may be irrelevant to others. 
It is a natural feature of skills.
A term pertaining to on top of or above.

Example in the body: relationship of the HEART to the stomach
repeated measures (or within-subjects) (factorial) design
requires all participants to participate in every experimental condition
Multiple-factor theory and who?
Louis Thurstone: we have abilities but no "general" ability called intelligence
Apgar test
highest score is a 10, 2 points per category: 1) heart rate 2) respiration 3) muscle tone 4) skin color 5) response to stimuli/grimace response
Psychological vs. Pharmacological Treatment for BDD
BOTH shown to reduce symptomsCBT was better than SSRI's overall though
1. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)2. Somatosensory cortex3. Prefrontal cortex (PFC)

Heading : "Ascending Pathways"

3 areas that make up the "pain matrix"
External validity
the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and people.
Examples of when to use correlational research methods
class attendence predicting final grade
Driving speed measured in miles per hour as properties of ____.
Identity, magnitude, equal intervals, and a true zero.
(a) fire action potentials themselves(b) stimulate firing of action potentials in afferent neurons

What two things do sensory receptors do upon significant detection?
What is shaping?
Ex. of def. Teaching a dog to keep a treat on his nose. Takes several steps of learning to reach target objective.
1) Relationships btwn diff members of the same species 2) The essential traits that describe human behavior. 3) Characteristic styles of relating to the world that are very stable.
1) Affiliation. 2) Personality. 3) Temperament.
learning that is not demonstrated in the subject's behavior @ the time that the learning occurs but can be inferred from its effect on the subject's behavior @ some later time
latent learning - Tolman & Honzik
What are the 5 facotrs that affect social interactions?
1) actions and characteristics of others2) cognotive process3) ecological factors4) biological5) cultural
Describe the role of culture, flavor, and appetite on the biological signals of satiety
Culture, flavor, & appetite can play a learned role in eating behavior. These learned behaviors can often override the biological signals of satiety, which leads to overeating or craving unhealthy foods.
What are the two major types of long term memory? (Hint: im, em)
What are implicit memory and explicit memory?
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