Psyc Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
psychophysics
(140)
pitch
(152)
fovea
(146)
wavelength
(144)
genome
(68)
perceptual constancy
(167)
monocular cues
(166)
retinal disparity
(165)
middle ear
(153)
optic nerve
(146)
gate-control theory
(157)
inner ear
(153)
plasticity
brain's capacity for modification;
evident in brain reorganization following damage (esp in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development

(58)
egocentrism
in Piaget's theory, the pre-operational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
(107)
maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
(102)
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, & traditions shared by a group of people & transmitted from one generation to the next
(82)
medulla
base of the brainstem;
controls heartbeat & breathing
(46)
persistent unwanted repeated thoughts or ideas - center on failure, sexxual acts, harm to others or self
obsession
psychosocial and environmental problems; finacial, educational, relationsship issues
axis IV
autism
disorder that appears in childhood & is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, & understanding of others' states of mind
(109)
cognition
all the mental activities associated w/ thinking, knowing, remembering, & communicating
(104)
menopause
time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
(124)
gender-typing
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
(92)
aggression
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
(88)
genes
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
(68)
cerebral cortex
intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control & information-processing center
(52)
pituitary gland
endocrine system's most influential gland;
under the influence of the hypothalamus, it regulates growth & controls other endocrine glands
(45)
threshold
level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
(36)
interneurons
CNS neurons that intensely communicate & intervene between the sensory inputs & the motor outputs (41)
aphasia
IMPAIRMENT OF LANGUAGE, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
(56)
operational definition
statement of the procedures (observations) used to define research variables

i.e. 'human intelligence' may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
(15)
biopsychosocial approach
integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
(6)
psychiatry
branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders;
practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (i.e. drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
(8)
behavior is from childhood conflicts over opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression
psychoanalytic
psychological difficulties that take on a physical form, however there is no medical cause
Somatoform Disorders
Freudian psychotherapy in which the goal is to release hidden unconscious thoughts and feelings in order to reduce their power in controlling behavior
Psychoanalyst
Medications that improve a severly depressed patient's mood and feeling of wellbeing
Antidepressants
Stimulus descrimination
Responding differently to a new stimulus than one responds to an established conditioned stimulus
developmental psychology
branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, & social change throughout the life span
(99)
imprinting
process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
(111)
primary sex characteristics
body structures (ovaries, testes, & external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
(116)
fraternal twins
twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs;
genetically no closer than brothers & sisters, but they share a fetal environment
(69)
collectivism
giving priority to goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) & defining one's identity accordingly
(85)
brainstem
oldest part & central core of brain, beginning where spinal cord swells as it enters skull;
responsible for automatic survival functions
(46)
split brain
condition in which brain's two hemispheres are isolated by cutting the fibers (mainly those of corpus callosum) connecting them
(60)
reticular formation
a finger-shaped nerve network in brainstem that plays important role in controlling arousal (being alert)
-located from spinal cord right up until thalamus

(48)
"levels of analysis"
the differing completmentary views, from biological to psychological to social-cul
(6)
behaviorism
the view that psychology:
1. should be objective science, that
2. studies behavior w/o reference to mental processes
---> today most psychologists agree with 1 but NOT 2
(4)
marked by both depression and manic periods could be hours, days years
bipolar
behavior is the problem, not a symptom
behaviroal
emotional disturbance of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social and thought process
Mood Disorders
a persistent irrational fear of an object/situation that presents no real danger. realize the irrationality but can not do anything bout it
phobic
Therapy that seeks to bring unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable inpulses from the unconscious into the conscious, where patients may deal with the problems more effectively
Psychodynamic
Condtioned Stimulus
The neutral stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus during classical conditioning
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
physical & cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking; in severe cases, symptons include noticeable facial misproportions
(101)
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable & trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences w/ responsive caregivers
(113)
identical twins
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
(68)
evolutionary psychology
study of the evolution of behavior & the mind, using principles of natural selection
(74)
fMRI (functional MRI)
technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans;
MRI scans show brain anatomy but fMRI scans show brain function

(47)
critical thinking
thinking that does NOT BLINDLY ACCEPT arguments & conclusions;
rather, it examines assumes, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, & assesses conclusions
(13)
People lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity
Dissociative Disorders
Second order conditioning
A procedure in which an established conditioned stimulus is used to condition a second neutral stimulus
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own & others' mental states (about their feelings, perceptions, & thoughts, and the behavior these might predict)

(108)
gender schema theory
theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male/female & that they adjust their behavior accordingly
(92)
sympathetic nervous system
part of autonomic nervous system that arouses & expends energy, speeds up heartbeat
(42)
parietal lobes
portion of cerebral cortex at top of the head & toward the rear;
function: receives sensory input for touch & body position

(53)
experimental group
the group in an experiment that is exposed to the treatment (that is, to one version of independent var)
(23)
Drugs that reduce the legvel of anxiety a person experiences, essentially by reducing excitability and increasing feelins of well-being
antianxiety drugs
somatic nervous system
part of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal movements
["skeletal nervous system"]
(41)
A procedure used in the treatment of sever depression in which an electic current of 70 to 150 volts is briefly administered to a patiens head
ECT Electroconvulsive Therapy
AgonistGABA
Alcohol
Neurology
study of neurons
sensation
sense organs are activated
Inactivation
Heading: "Controlling the synapse"

Enzyme breaks down NT

Reuptake brings excess NT back into the presynaptic cell
Hallucination
(positive symptom of schizophrenia) Perceptions that are not based in reality. Often these are sights, smells, tastes, or sounds. W/ drugs, visual hallucinations occur. W/ schizophrenia, patients often experience audtiory hallucinations (voices in their heads)
proactive interference
old information affects new
PFC
LECTURE 14


Primary Motor Cortex receives input from this area about self-instigated actions
Gestalt theory
People’s overall, subjective interpretations of objects are more important than the objects’ physical features
schizophrenia
a psychotic disorder characterized by loss of control of thought processes and inappropriate emotional responses
Loneliness
A feeling of deprivation about existing social relations.
moral development
encompasses development of thoughts, feelings and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with others
Secondary reinforcer
any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer such as praise, tokens or gold stars
___________, an analyst, argued that children have a grandiouse self, that can be pathologically reinforced by parental adoration
Kohut
Oculomotor muscles
LECTURE 10


Part of the retina

Innervated by oculomotor nerve
memory derived from conscious effort
explicit memory
anorexia nervosa
Active self-starvation or a sustained loss of appetite that has psychological origins.
rapid smoking
an aversive conditioning method for quitting smoking in which the smoker inhales every 6 seconds , thus rendering once-desirable cigarette smoke aversive
Phobias
Most common kind of anxiety disorder. Phobias are irrational avoidance of something. The avoidance behavior does not match the objective dangers of the situation. For example, lots of people are afraid of snakes and will run away if they see a snake on the ground in front of them. A lot of people think snakes are gross, this is normal. It becomes a phobia if the person cannot hold a toy snake or look at a picture of the snake w/o feeling fear, even though they know they toy will not hurt them. Lots of people have snake phobias but there is not reason to treat them b/c avoiding snakes does not interfere w/ most people's daily lives. Fear of flying is a phobia that usually needs treatment b/c it may interfere with jobs or relationshiops. A flying phobia is much more likely to be dysfunctional. Phobia categories: Animals/insects- these are the most common. Snakes, spiders, bees. Natural evnivorntment- fear of the dark, thunderstorms, natural enviornment acrophobia (fear of standing on mountains). These are common in childhood but many people outgrow them. Medical problems- Blood, injections, injury. People with this phobia often avoid doctors. You are moe likely to pass out from the sight of blood if you have a blood phobia than you are to pass out from sight of a snake if you have snake phobia. Situations- Driving across bridges, situational acrophobia (fear of standing on edge of buildings).
Theory
interrelated set of concepts that is used to explain a body of data and make predictions about results in the future
Turbinates
long narrow curled bone shelves which protrude into the breathing passage of the nose; divide nasal airway into three passages and force inhaled air to flow in a steady, regular pattern around the largest possible surface of cilia (also known as conchae)
what is the maximum value for correlation
1
While in the desert, Konrad Lorenz observed that rattlesnakes would not bite other snakes. He was conducting a(n) ____ study.
naturalistic
cephalocaudal pattern
The pattern of development that procedes from the head down
Oligodendrocytes
Cells that support neurons of the CNS

-Maintain nervous system

-Guide development of nervous system

-Influence neuronal signaling
How sense organs respond to external stimuli and transmit the responses to the brain.
sensation
Bipolar I
Mood disorder in which the victim alternates between depression and mania
Barnum effect
the tendency to accept and praise vague statements about our personality
Motor cortex
Controls muscle movement. The size of the cortex devoted to each body part depends on the amount of muscles in that body part, not the size of the muscle. For example , the part of the motor cortex devoted to the face is much bigger than that devoted to the hips. The face has many small muscles, the hips have only a few large muscles. Right next to the sensory cortex so messages can transfer quickly.
association areas
Areas of the cerebral cortex that house memories and are involved in thought, perception, and language.
top down processing
processing that's controlled by one's beliefs and expectations about how the world's organized
an action potential
an electrical signal that travels along the axon of a nueron
lateral geniculate nucleus
(gen- genue- knee)
thalamic nucleus that receives incoming visual info
epigenesis
The process by which a new form emerges through the inertcations of the preceding form and its current enviroment
Parietal Lobe
Lobe of the brain

Involved in sensory information related to touch, pain, temperature
Mary Calkins
was denied a degree from Harvard; distinguished memory researcher; first female APA president
What is aphasia?
Def. A disablitity to speak or comprehend language.
Visual field
For each eye, a visual field exists. The visual field is the sum of the things you see when your eyes are open, the field of vision in front of you. For each individual eye, the left half of that eye's visual field is connected to the right brain, and the right half of the field of vision is connected to the left half of the brain.
nearsightedness (myopia)
far away objects are blurry; eye is too long; focus point falls in front of retina
what are agoraphobia?
a phobia centred around open spaces and public places
Undifferentiated Somatization Disorder
Somatization disorder with less than 8 symptoms; need to consider the disorder on a continuum
synaptic pruning
The process of selective dying off of non fuctional synapses
deterministic fallacy =
genes control behavior in ways that cannot be altered by environmental experiences/conscious decisions
REM Behavior Disorder
occurs during REM sleep. The normal paralysis that accompanies REM sleep is absent, thus allowing a person to act out dreams. This can be especially dangerous when the dreams are of violent nature
Expected Utility Theory
The goal an individual pursues is the one with the highest expected utility
what is competency?
a legal decision that a defendant is mentally capable of understanding the nature of criminal charges, participating meaningfully in a trial, and consulting with an attorney
What are the three ways to encode?
1) semantic2) auoustic3) visual
Figure v. Ground
Figure is a visual stimulus that is perceived as an object and ground is the visual stimulus that is perceived as the background
Brainstem's 4 parts and functon? what function do 3 have in common? info passing through thalamus?
midbrain (simple survival skills, locomotion)
pons
medulla (simple autonomic functions)
(above thre posual refelxes and metabolic reflexes)(sleep, level of arousal)
thalamus: relay station of the brain ("hub") (almost all sensory info enters thalamus before enters rest of brain, almost all motor info goes into thalamus before going to muscles) 
ways to reduce recency effect
wait 20 seconds after reading words before initiating recall
Eugenics – Our History of Shame
Promotion of “good breeding” in the human stockDates to Frances Galton – 1883Strongly influenced by Darwin’s ideaPositive eugenicsEncourage desirables to bear childrenNegative eugenicsPrevent undesirables from having childrenGenocideNazi Germany20th Century U.S. social policy
Which diagnoses are more prevalent- in women- in men
- anxiety disorder
- antisocial personality disorder
biologic perspective - g stanley hall
saw adolescence as storm and stress, savage to civilized being, cascade instinctual passions. conflict and mood swings. evolutionary aspepcts. similar to evaluation from savage to civilized being
How prevalent are depressive symptoms in older adults?
1. 8-20% have depressive symptoms (may not be depression)
2. Rates increase in institutionalized population (17-35% - but may be institutionalized because of dementia)
3. Elderly suicide risk 2-3x higher, more lethal, less likely to report suicidal ideation
Once information is taken in and we attend to it, it is sent to temporary storage in three capacities...( Hint pl, vssp, and eb)
1) phonological loop- assists central executive in providing extra storage for a few seconds
2) Visuospatial sketch pad- briefly provides storage for visual and spacial sensations
3) Eposiodic buffer- temporary storage for information that will become long-term memories of specific events
What are the arguments for and against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia?
For:
a. Individual's right to make decision
b. Need to relieve suffering
c. Life can be extended beyond point of meaning due to modern technology

Against:
a. Promotes death as a solution to society's ills
b. Day to day variation in desire to end life
c. People who wish to end life are suicidally depressed
d. Fear that people will be convicted by doctors to commit suicide because of resource-based decisions
How do Piaget\'s theory and the social cognitive view of moral development relate to one another?
In the social cognitive theory, there are 2 criteria to be met.
1. Moral competence- ability to be moral
2. Moral performance- being moral.
Piaget\'s heteronomous morality is similar to moral competence as it doesn\'t really involve action. Autonomous morality is similar to moral performance in that it involves acting.
What factors influence the gender gap (Men $20/hr, Women $16.88/hr) in income?
1. Education - women earn 96% of men's salaries with university degree
2. Executive position - CEO glass ceiling
3. Service level occupations (higher in women)
4. Unionization (higher in men)
Negative Correlation
neuron
a nerve cell
Apnea
temporary cessation of breathing
observational learning
learniny by watching others
Independent variable
manipulated by the researcher
what is NOT a neurotransmitter
excitamine
MDvc
LECTURE 12


Heading : "Ascending Pathways"

Part of the thalamic region that projects to the _______
hippocampus
limbic structure involved in keeping track of spatial location
What is the biological theory?
brain organization
Phi coefficient test
correlational test
2 dichotomous variables
Relearning-
Retention expressed as the percentage of time saved when material is relearned
type of glia; help with myelination
oligodendrocytes
Somatosensory cortex
LECTURE 12


Heading : "Ascending Pathways"

Part of the pain matrix

Coordinates pain that tells you where it’s coming from, helps you locate/minimize pain
Dermatone
(spinal cord)

sensory surface of the body
amygdala
component of the limbic system; responsible for fear and aggression
Multiple Intelligence
Created by Garnder.
The idea of having separate, different levels of intelligence focusing on a variety of skills.
mnemonics 
A learning aid, strategy, or device that enhances recall.
Four-year-old Timmy has not wet his bed for over a year. However, he starts bed-wetting again soon after his sister is born. Timmy's behavior best illustrates:
regression.
What are the techniques of Roger's Person-centered therapy?
Elicitation effect-
 Exhibiting a behavior similar to that shown by a model in an unfamiliar situation
morphinelike chemicals that act as the brain's natural painkillers
endorphins
Stress
page 100. Response of individuals to certain events that threaten your coping abilities
Visual Agnosia
LECTURE 10


Occurs when lesion of ventral stream

Damage to occipital cortex, difficulty identifying people / shapes; can identify using other senses like audition or touch
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Heading: "Techniques for Imaging"

Structural

Magnetic properties of substances in the body are alined within a magnetic field to derive an image
William James
founder of functionalism; focused on adaptive features; wrote the first psychological textbook
Long term memory is stored and retrieved from the...
Prefrontal cortex.
Arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriend's telephone number that he finds it difficult to recall his new girlfriend's number. Arnold's difficulty best illustrates:
proactive interference.
What type of variable is rare in pschology?
ratio
Atkinson and Shiffrin's model of memory
sensory, short-term, long-term
Substance Abuse
Altering of mood or judgment related to increased intake of one or many substances; significant maladaptive change in mood or behavior
Fritsch and Hitzig; Helmholtz
Used Galvani's electric stimulation idea and applied currents to dog's brain. Found that opposite brain side and body parts were related; Primary Motor Cortex region. Helmholtz: color vision theory, studied under Mueller, mechanistic nature of physio, First to attempt to measure spped of conduc through nerves.
Lesion of Dorsal Stream
LECTURE 10


Heading : 'Double Dissociation'

- Intact perception

- Impaired action

- Optic Ataxia : damage to posterior parietal cortex, difficulty orienting towards / grasping object; can identify objects correctly
seasonal affective disorder
depressed moods occurring in extreme forms (ex. ppl who live in northern latitudes experience depression during the winter) >>> increased appetite, increased sleepiness, lethargy
- as opposed to sadness, crying, self-reproach
Hypothesis
A prediction stated in a way that allows it to be tested; more specific than a theroy.
What is learning?
Def. Enduring changes in behavior that occur with experience
The fact that human aggression varies widely from culture to culture most strongly suggests that it is not:
an instinctive behavior.
lawrence kohlberg
not as much concerned with right vs. wrong children decide whether to act in right or wrong based on whether they are punished. influence of give and take of peer relations
what are obj. relations?
the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other ppl as a result of early experience with caregivers
corpus callosum
large set of axons that connects the two hemispheres of cerebral cortex
2. Insula
LECTURE 11


ONE (2 of 3) areas where INTEGRATION of taste and smell occurs
above what percentage on the IQ test are people condiered a genius?
140 %
Physical dependance on substance
body has biological need relates to physical withdrawal symptoms
What are the branches of the nervous system?
central and peripheral

Chapter 12 - Essay Q 1
• Alcohol has complex and seemingly contradictory effects on the brain from the activation of the brain's "pleaseure areas" to the health risks and degradation that can result from heavy and long-term usage.  Discuss this: 
• PHYSIOLOGICAL:
- inhibit glutamate
• CHRONIC USE:
- chronic fatigue
- oversensitivity
- depression
• DEPENDENCE
- lower feel of adequacy / worth
• ORGANIC DAMAGE
- 26,000 annual cirrhosis deaths
• PHYSICAL AND MENTAL DECLINE
- impaired reason, judgement, deteriorated personality
Controversy surrounding the DSM-IV-TR
Focus's too much on medical model, psychology frowns upon
two genes that occupy the same locus on a pair of chromosomes are identical, individual is said to be ?
homozygous
- vs. heterozygous
Drive reduction and homeostasis
being motivated to work in order to acheive/maintain homeostasis
Two factor theory of emotion
The theory that experience of emotion is based on two factors: physiological arousal and a cognitive interpretation of that arousal
What are cognitive effects of ECT?
1. Acute effects: confusion and delirium up to 72 hours
2. Subacute effects: memory, language, psychomotor (1-4 weeks)
3. Long-term effects: autobiographical memory (6 months post)
classical vs. operant conditioning
- C pairs/conditions a stimulus w/ a response; elicited responses; learning bc of association; Pavlov

- O deals w/ stimulus & responses that operates w/ the world to produce the desired effect ~ stimulus follows the response & strengths it ~ an action that operates on the environment >>> produces some reliable effect on the environment that influences the likelihood that the individual will produce that response again; emitted responses; learning bc of consequences; Skinner
Balance Theory in relation to Cognitive Dissonance
When you have cognitive dissonance you use balance theory to eliminate dissonance.
What are the parts of a neuron?
Dentrite, soma, axon, axon terminals, terminal buttons, synapse, myelin sheath
Phobias are most likely to be characterized by:
a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation.
What does it mean to say that cortical sensory & motor areas in the cortex are topographically organized?
adjacent neurons receive singnals from/send signals to adjacent portions of the sensory/muscular tissue to which they are ultimately connected
What is the conformist stage in Loevinger's Ego Development Theory?
1. CD - conformity to rules accepted by group
2. IS - superficial need to belong
3. CP - concerned with appearance and social acceptance
4. CS - prone to stereotyping and cliches
What is sadism and is it defined in the DSM or not?
Yes it is in the DSM• psychological or physical suffering of the victim is sexually exciting to the person
Thantos
dead instinct
temporal lobe function
auditory functioning
Agnosia
Failure to recognize objects
Ivan Pavlov
studied operational conditioning --slobbering dogs
narcolepsy
extreme daytime sleepiness, and sudden, uncontrollable onselts of sleep during normal activity; go directly to REM sleep
oral pulvinar
connections with somatosensory cortical association areas
MoodAppetiteSocial DominanceAggression
Behavioral effects of Serotonin
Dopamine
initiation of movement and motor controlpleasureable emotionsParkinsons
cognitive appraisal
consists of evaluating the significance of the cognitive antecedents of the emotion, not the content of the emotion itself.
Physical Dependence
unable to function without drug
anything that strengthens behavior and makes it more likely to occur; if something is added
reinforcement
Which of the following correlations suggest the WEAKEST relationship between two variables?
+.12
Extension
LECTURE 13


Heading : "Anatomy of Movement"

Increasing the angle of a muscle causes this
HPA Axis
Includes the Hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands

Primary circuit activated by stressors
preattentive process
a procedure for extracting information automatically and simultaneously across a large portion of the visual field.
pre-moral stage
Piaget's first stage of moral development, in which the child shows little concern for rules
Intrinsic Motivation
Freely chosen; incentives that are inherent in the activity
EEG
electrodes on scalp measure waves of electrical activity from brain; waves differ in amplitude and frequency
the reappearance of an extinguished CR
spontaneous recovery
Andre Dallaire
Attempted assassination of PM in 1995Diagnosed with paranoid schizophreniaFound NGRI
types of color blindness
dichromat-2 forms of lodopsinmonochromat-1 form of lodospin
Emotional Significance
LECTURE 11


Role / coordination of the amygdala in olfactory pathway
Selective neuron death
Heading: "Stages of Development"

Some neurons are destroyed / die off

FIFTH stage of development (of 6)
Main effect
effect of a single independent variable in a factorial design
occipital lobe
the rear portion of each cerebral hemisphere, critical for vision
Incentive Value
attractiveness of an incentive and is based on objective properties like number or amount
Generativity vs. Self-absorption
occurs in middle adults (40s-60s); discover a sense of contributing to the world or become self-involved


Roots in Childhood
GENITAL STAGE

 
-11->adult
-formation of social and sexual relationships
-erogenous = back to genital
Stim substitution
original theory in which Pavlov stated that classical conditioning occurred because the conditioned stimulus was substituted 
What neurotransmitter is implicated in mania?
Increased dopamine neurotransmission
Reliability [definition]
Reliability is the likelihood that a measurement made twice will yield the same value
allowing children to participate in custody decisions that directly affect their own welfare will lessen the presumed negative experience of a divorce and custody battle
Melton study (1999)
fixed ratio schedule
reinforcer that occurs after every nth response
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other people's behavior.
Effortful Processing (2 things)
Requires attention and effort to encode.Rehearsal (maintenance or elaborate)
trichromatic theory
a theory that proposes that color info is extracted by comparing the relative activations of 3 different types of cone receptors
central tendency
provide a value around which scores in a data set tenf to cluster
What Does This Mean?
Divorce probably is geneticBut what is the mechanism?A divorce gene? No!A personality characteristic? In part (antisocial behavior and rule violation)Many factors, maybe including things like age a menarche, physical appearance, etcOur study of menarche and stepfather presence
Peripheral Nervous System [definition]
Consists of cranial and spinal nerves
First social psychological experiment
Norman Triplett, 1898 – Social facilitation: Whether the presence of an audience improves individuals’ performances.
tip of the tongue
Experience of knowing that we know something but being unable to access it.
self esteem and middle childhood
self esteem drops during middle childhood because early is more egocentric and more conscious of themselves, maybe because of school
Prisoner’s dilemma
A type of dilemma in which one party must make either a cooperative or competitive moves in relation to another party; typically designed in such a way that competitive moves are more beneficial to either side, but if both sides make competitive moves, they are both worse off than if they both cooperated
what are the two types of learning?
classical and operant conditioning
2 theories of decision-making
- Expected Utility = value of something depends on its expected "utility" >>> assumes that the value of things is always constant

- Relativism = based on how much something is worth AT THAT TIME, given the current condition of the decision maker >>> considers other factors (aside from cold facts, rationality, logic) that influence decision-making
properties of conscious, preconscious, and unconscious from psychodynamic perspective
conscious is the now. preconscious are thoughts that could become in conscious and unconscious is lifetime of hidden memories and person's deepest instincts/desires, and person's inner struggle to control these forces
Main treatment method for Somatization Disorder
Assign gatekeeper physician to reduce number of medical visits
Bowlby and Ainsworth found (thru strange situation). . .
kids get positive reinforcement from contac and show free floating anxiety when separated. anxiety= separation anxiety
Differentiate the psychosexual stages in Freud’s theory of personality development. Define the nature and function of the id, ego, and superego
the id is you your personalityego is being proud of ur selfsuperego is the way you see your self
Descartes’ Rules of Inquiry:
1. Accept nothing as true that is not self-evident2. Divide problems into their simplest parts3. Solve problems by proceeding from the simple to the complex4. Always recheck your reasoning and calculation
According to a new theory, how might stressful experiences alter the brain in a way that brings on depression?
stressful experiences release hormones from the pituitary & adrenal glands that prevent the brain from growing >>> depression
what is circular reasoning?
ex: why is the 5 yr old boy behaving oddly toward his father/b.c. he is in the Oepidal conflict/how do we know he is in the Oepidal conflict/b.c. he behaves oddly toward his father
Why is the conditioned response to a drug-related stimulus often the opposite of the direct effect of the drug?
the body protects itself w/ counteractive reflexes to all sorts of interventions that disrupt its normal functioning (ex. drugs) >>> conditioning of such reflexes allows the counteraction to begin even before the potentially harmful stimulus strikes
What are the five Human Brain Visualization Methods?
CT scans, MRI scans, EEG, PET scans and fMRI scans
Why would you use focus groups, how would you sele
Why use focus groups? They can help you develop
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