Psyc Final Exam Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What is self-concept?
What makes a science?

Coordinates MOTIVATIONAL significance in olfactory pathway
individual's unique collection of consistent behavioral traits
Purposely repeating information to maintain it in short-term memory
Brain Stem

Includes these structures
- P. Pons
- M. Medulla
- S. Substantia nigra
- P. PAG
- R. Red nucleus
the decline in the magnitude/likelihood of a reflexive response that occurs when the stimulus is repeated many times in succession
part of consciousness that comprises information that could become conscious readily but that is not continuously available in awareness.
The desirable subject feeling that results from being involved in a challenging activity that matches ones skills
prefrontal lobotomy
surgical disconection of prefrontal cortex from the rest of the brain
ethnic identity
identification with racial or religious group
systematic continuities and changes in the individual over the life course
'Grandmother' Cell

Theory to understand perception and recognition of particular visual stimuli

One neuron corresponds with one object
- Grandmother cell --> Grandma
- Ramses cell --> Ramses

Based on hierarchical processing of visual information
criminalizing the usage of contraceptives by unmarried couples violates the Equal Protection Clause
Eisenstadt (1972)
Discuss how twin and adoption studies are used to evaluate the heritability of personality
paranoid schizophrenia
a type of schizophrenia characterized primarily by delusions — commonly of persecution — and by vivid hallucinations
Part of the forebrain that processes emotions.
catatonic schizophrenia
A type of schizophrenia characterized by complete stillness or stupor or excitement and agitation; patients may assume an unusual posture and remain in it for long periods of time.
Non-Reportable STIs
• HPV • herpes simplex virus
Self-awareness theory
The theory that self-focused attention lends peple to notice self-discrepancies, thereby motivation either an escape from self-awareness or a change in behavior.
What are 2 ways to encode?
Automatic---little effortEffortful---rehersal
According to the Freudian theory, at birth we are all_________. Concerned with needs to survive. Governed by the pleasure principle.
Retroactive interference
Occurs when a previously learned information disrupts the ability to remember older information
giving something that decreases the likelihood of that behavior happening again
positive punishment
parietal lobe
structure in the cerebral cortex that is involved with "when" and hearing
person perception
the process of forming impressions of others
Old technique in which people used to "read" the lumps on a person's skull to tell what that person was good at, what they were like, and wheter they were a murderer or not. People used to think that if you used one part of your brain a lot, your skull would bulge out over that part. It is true that when you use one part of your brain a lot , it gets bigger and denser, but your skull does not bulge.
action potential
The sudden reversal of the resting potential, which initiates the firing of a neuron.
Potassium, fish oil
dietary supplements that may lower blood pressure
Controversies concerning
childhood sexual abuse
degree to which children's accusations can be trusts: doubtful
validity of these "recovered memories": mixed (believers and non-believers) > "even normal, unrepressed memories can be highly inaccurate and that false memories can be induced experimentally"
endoplasmic reticulum
network of thin tubes to transport newly formed proteins; part of cell structure eg.mitochondria, ribosomes...
______________believe that we have an innate drive to form relationships, and that this is the fundamental human need.
object relations theorist
Cut of brain that splits lips half (one lip on top, one on bottom)
Correspondence Bias
giving too much weight to internal factors rather than external
What is "descriptive design"?
Def. The researcher makes no prediction and does not control or manipulate any variables.
What is personality? four approaches????
individual's characteristic style of behaving, thinking and feeling:::traitbiological, psychodynamic, humanistic-existential, social cognitive
What are neuro transmitters?
chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that, when released, has an effect on the next cell
what is bipolar disorder?
mood disorder in which intermittent mania appears against a background of depression
Consequences of Supreme Court Rulings
Criminalization of mentally ill because they do not receive treatmentDeinstitutionalizationTransinstitutionalization
epigenetic theory
the view that genes interact with the environment to allow development
Autonomic Nervous System
Pat of the CNS that is involuntary

-Internal world (smooth muscles)
unconditioned reflex              
original, unlearned association
Andrew, a 19-year-old college freshman, is very talkative, intelligent, assertive, and politically conservative. Research suggests that he would be most likely to develop a close friendship with:
Toren, who is talkative and assertive.
5 Factor Model
-the 'big five' are thought to be universal
1. openness
2. conscientiousness
3. extraversion
4. agreeableness
5. neuroticism
*variations on 5 factors create diversity in personalities
HypothesisFour types of questions science tries to address
Build studies around hypoth. 1) describing beh: observing; building theory phase.2) Predicting beh: when/what form to occur or not; leading to related beh? Ex. career happiness test (not nec causal). 3) Understanding the causes of behavior: need true experiments with no other causes. 4) Explaining beh: most complex phase, final after prev three. Why (are the above observ true) What process?
1. Comparing which action potentials fire first- Feature Detection2. Comparing differences in intensity

Heading : "Encoding specific aspects of Sound"

How direction is determined
Mary Ainsworth discusses four types of attachments which were developed after she used the "Stranger Situation" experiment, what are they_________________, _______________, ________________________, ____________________
Ambivolent, avoidance, secure, disorganized/ disoreinted
late maturing maleslate maturing females
feels inferior and out of placethey fit american ideal of thin and taller
what was carol gilligan\'s theory?
that the care perspective is involved with the development of morality. it is prominent in females and kohlberg failed to use many females in his studies.
Amygdala, Hippocampus and Mammillary body
Three main components of the Limbic System
3 conditions for causation
A preceded B
A and B covary (B must occur when A does)
A must be most plausable cause for B
How do gay parents differ from straight parents?
1. Mostly, no differences in adjustment or sexual identity of children
2. Gay men more concerned about being nurturing
3. Lesbian mothers have greater parenting awareness
w the infant and cross-cultural research that supports Darwin’s theory of innate basic facial expressions of emotion
that they can be used thought time people understand what is being ask
What is the link between depression and stroke?
1. After ischemic stroke, 40% show symptoms of depression due to disruption in left prefrontosubcortical circuits
2. All stroke patients recommended to take antidepressants
susan ___ and 3 separate self-esteems develop by the age of ___
harter; 7 yrs old1 - academic - scholastic2 - social - peers3 - physical(appearance and physical ability) usually more important for the kid; sports and attractiveness
It seems that almost every time little Bobby goes to the doctor's office he gets a shot. Now, upon entering the doctor's office he cries. This is an example of classical conditioning in which the conditioned response is:
crying at the sight of the doctor's office
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