Psyc2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
visual processing
study of cardiovascular
What is cognitive dissonance?
Heading: "Stages of Development"

Cells of the neural tube repeatedly divide

FIRST stage of development
Melissa suffers from auditory hallucinations and falsely believes that her former high school teachers are trying to kill her. Melissa's symptoms are most likely to be relieved by _____ drugs.
types of declarative memory
semantic, episodic
Split-brain Studies

Divided visual-field presentation
- Visual info. sent to one hemisphere only
- Object detected by L visual field arrives in R hemisphere

Patients can select object with L hand but cannot correctly select object with R hand or verbally identify object
depressant; reduces anxiety and induces sleep; impairs memory and judgment; can be lethal if paired with alcohol
a consistent, long-lasting tendency in behavior
Implicit Memory (LTM)
Procedural; without conscious recallProcessed, in part, by cerebellumlearning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows (riding a bike)
practice of using extremely small doses of medicines and herbs to cause the same symptoms the disease causes. ________ acknowledges no diseases, only symptoms.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
contact electrodes detect massed activity of neurons at the surface of the cortex (brain wave activity)
___________therapy is aimed at insight, which requires a good deal of ego and strength.
Expressive therapy

Conversion of a stimulus from one form of energy to another

- Neural
tripartite experience
Greek philosopher Plato: thought, feeling, action
The target or objective of motivated behavior.
unconditioned response
An automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus.
Pre-Natal development
Physical and psychological changes in the womb. When biologists and psychologists refer to pre-natal development, they divide pregnancy into three stages: Germinal stage, Embryonic stage, and Fetal stage.
naturalistic observation
researcher observes in a natural setting as unobstructively as possible
an instrument used to measure the amount of air exchanged in breathing; assists with the diagnosis of COPD or asthma
what type of psychologist diagnosis' and treats psychological problems but doesn't have a medical degree?
clinical psychologist
Identical twins share __% while fraternal twins share __% of their genes in common:
100, 50
responsible for information about the self
episodic buffer
Action Potentials
Information is encoded as the frequency of the electrical signals

Information arises from: which neurons are active and the frequency of action potentials in those neurons
Important philosophical influences
Aristotle; Plato (experience life through thoughts, feelings, actions)
structures of eye (5)
cornea, pupil, iris, lens, retina
bipolar disorder
a disorder in which the mood alternates between two extreme poles (elation and depression). Also referred to as manic-depression.
Anxiety disorders
Most common of all mental illnesses. Phobias, panic related disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, general anxiety disorder.
extinction (in operant conditioning)
The weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response as a result of the withholding of reinforcement.
Decay Theory
Decay Theory Memories not used will fade with time and ultimately disappear
Schizoaffective Disorders
• At some point, there is either:
1) a Major Depressive Episode
2) a Major Manic Episode
3) Mixed Episode, with symptoms of schizophrenia"
- delusions
- halluciations
- disorganized speech
- disorganized behaviour
- negative symptoms
• at least 2 weeks where dilusions and halluciations have been present without mood symptoms
• mood symptoms are present for a substantial proportion of the total illness time
What does recall mean?
finding information and remembering it from your brain.
cells of the inner cell mass that develop into the outer surface of the skin, the nails, parts of the teeth the lens of the eye, the inner ear, and the central nervous system
Excitatory Synapses
Types of synapses

Between 1 & 4 and between 3 & 4
confirmation bias
tend to remember things that you expect to happen or that match your beliefs
induced movement
A perception that an object is moving and the background is stationary when in fact the object is stationary and the background is moving.
Sleep cycles
The processes that occur while you are sleeping; stages of sleep. For each stage, there are different brain waves. You can tell which stage of sleep a person is in by looking at his or her brain waves.
hypnogogic sleep paralysis
in addition to paralysis when waking up, experience hallucinations
what is general adaptation syndrome?
-Selye's description of the body's responses to a stressor, which includes successive phases of alarm reaction, resistance and exhaustion
Qualities of a good theory
Clear and parsimonious (simple, logical), supported by available data, helps explain occurences, testable and falsifiable (ex. psychoanly could not). Test pieces of theories, research can also be building block of theory; revise theory based on ideas about world. Research <-> thoery. Theories evolve as society changes.
cross-generational problem
the fact that long-term changes in the environment may limit conclusions of a longitudinal project to that generation (the one being studied) of children who were growing up while the study was in progress.
homology vs. analogy
- similarity that exists because of different species' common ancestry
- similarity that stems from convergent evolution
The memory of your new phone number is being interfered with by your old phone number
proactive interference
Level of aspiration
Their desire to want more and do better
what is self-efficacy?
the conviction that we can perform the behaviours necessary to produce a desired outcome
What is in the Central Nerovus System?
brain and spinal cord.
Ionotropic ("Classical neurotransmission")
NT binds to this kind of receptor

Ion channels open / ions move in or out of cell

Membrane potential is excited / inhibited
fovea, rods or cones here?
center of retina, where light hits coming from object you're looking at/being fixated, only concentrated cones here,
what does 'becoming electric' pertain to/mean?
-combining treatments and making use of whatever orientations and therapeutic techniques seem appropriate to the particular client they are treating
1) Substance that insulates most axons from one another: 2) Glial cell that provides support for neurons of the CNS 3) Molecule that controls a chemical reaction
1) myelin 2) astrocyte 3) enzyme
genes affect the body's development by
influencing the production of protein molecules
if parents tell child "you should feel ashamed for biting your sister"
child will experience self-conscious emotion
What is Simonton's model of the relationship between age and creativity?
4 Factors:
a. Creative potential (m): number of works in unlimited lifespan
b. Ideation (a): production of new ideas for new products
c. Elaboration (e): transforming ideas into products
d. Creative products (p)

Calculated on basis of Career Age
What is the "recessive gene"?
Def. A gene that shows its effect onle when both alleles are the same.
What did McCrae and Costa's study of Five Factor personality traits and midlife crisis find?
1. Midlife crisis scores should predict peak in neuroticism, openness to experience, or extraversion at age 40-45, but this pattern does not occur
2. Midlife crisis are higher for men with consistently high neuroticism scores
1) A gland that liberates its secretions into the extracellular fluid around capillaries and hence the bloodstream. 2) Target cell
1) Endocrine gland 2) The type of cell that contains receptor for a particular hormone and is affected by that hormone.
What is the age of onset for schizophrenia?
1. Majority under 40
2. Women 5 years later average onset than men
3. Late onset (over 60-65) is controversial
drug dependence
the cell's transmitter
Describe Solomon Asch's study
coordination of rapid movements
The process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory.
(Butcher, p
• (methamphetamine) ("speed")
• CNS stimulant
used in larged amounts > dealth

Recognition of an emotional state in others may trigger activation of brain regions which modulate that emotional state

- Watching a partner going through pain activates the parts of the pain pathway that coordinate the affective response to pain (ACC) but not those which localize tissue damage (somatosensory cortex)
Analysis of Variance; statistical procedure used to analyze data from designs that involve more than two conditions
Mental Set
Tendency to rely on old strategies to solve new problems.
The early, close relationship formed between infant and caregiver.
alternating slow and rapid cardiac rates that may represent any rhythmic disturbances
Community treatment order; signed by physician to have community based treatment instead of hospitalization
knowledge of facts independent knowledge of when you learned them
semantic memory
Semantic Memory [definition]
Conceptual information containing data, facts and other information such as vocabulary
a condition characterized by frequent and uncontrollable periods of deep sleep.
Psychoactive Drugs
Drugs that have mind altering abilities. similar to psychotropic drugs
Wernicke's Area
Provides the practical knowledge used to comprehend the intentions of a speaker and produce an effective response.
Prozac is an antidepressant drug that blocks the reabsorption and removal of:
sensory adaptation
tendency of sensory receptors to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging
bottom-up processing
processing that's controlled by the physical message delivered to the senses
Illusory correlation
An overestimate of the association between variables that are only slightly or not at all correlated
Evolutionary psychology
Study of genetic contributions to species typical behaviorFocus on shared motivations and behaviorPeople share 98% of genes with chimpanzees

Is pain of physical origin data-driven or concept-driven?

- Tissue damage evokes pain perception
Phase of an action potential when:

At highest membrane potential the cell will reach
Internal Attribution
behavioral, attributing it to their own personalities (crazy drivers)
Archival research
Research in which existing data, such as census documents, college records, and newspaper clippings, are examined to test a hypothesis.
successive approximations
in operant conditioning, a series of behaviors that gradually become more similar to a target behavior
Unual movemnts
both positive and negative symptoms of schizorphreniacs. Catatonic immobility (negative) do not move for long periods of time. Catatonic excitablity (positive) wild excitable movements. Waxy flexibility (positive) When they are being still you can pose them in any way and they will stay that way, like sttatue.
A literature review is conduced at what phase of reseach data?
Problem-definition phase
State Dependent Memory
The tendency to recall information better if one is in the same pharmacological or psychological state as when the information was encoded
Resource dilemmas
Social dilemmas concerning how two or more people share a limited resource
Dependent Personality Disorder
Personality disorder marked by a pattern of submissive and clingy behvior related to excessive need to be taken care of. They have difficulty making everyday decisions such as what clothing to wear, whether or not to take an umbrella, or what to have for breakfast
Intrafusal Muscle Fiber

Type of muscle fiber

- Sensory neurons detect stretch via stretch receptors

- Gamma motor neurons adjust contraction of these muscles to match extrafusal muscle fibers
'Fight or flight'Stress ArousalMood
4) behavioral effects of Norepinephrine
Order effects
effects that may occur in a within-subjects experiment when participants' are affected by the order in which they receive various levels of the IV
Psychological dependence on substance
dependence that does not have biological need to function. no physical withdrawal symptoms 'all in head'
You have to create a brand new schema for something. Have to create a new idea of thinking about something.
cerebrospinal fluid
clear fluid similar to plasma (in the ventricles and central canal of spinal cord)
Freud divided personality into 3 separate structures, what are they?
1. id
2. ego
3. superego
Identity foreclosure (Marcia's theory)
commitment, no ideas of alternatives. Passed down to adolescents from parents.
The outer layer of the colls of the blastocyst that develop into the membranes that protect and support the developing organism
welfare of child takes precedence over patria potestas (father's "automatic" power/custody) >>> interest in the child's welfare was 1st enunciated
Chapsky (1881, Kansas)
What determines what information is worthy of our attention?
What is the prefrontal cortex?
Retrieval Cues
memories are held in a storage by a web or associations. these associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory
what is the dopamine hypothesis?
view that the symptoms of schizophrenia are produced by overactivity of the dopamine system in areas of the brain that regulate emotional expression, motivated behaviour and cognitive functioning
Politics and Defining Mental DisordersIllness or Moral Failing??
Insanity – John Hinckley; Andrea YatesAlcoholism (Eating disorder etc?)HomosexualityConduct disorderCongressman Mark Foley…AlcoholismChildhood abuse by priest??
Terminal Button
Exist at the ends of the many branches that divide out from the axon

They receive the message transferred down the axon, store them in their synaptic vesicles and are responsible for then secreting these transmitter substances.
What is the “ideal self”?
the way you think you should be
what is learned helplessness theory?
a theory of depression that states that if people are unable to control life events, they develop a state of helplessness that leads to depressive symptoms
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7 elements of child abuse reporting laws
- definition of abuse/neglect
- mandated reporters: initially just physicians &gt;&gt;&gt; now anybody who suspects abuse must report
- degree of certainty
- what happens to people who fail to report? &gt;&gt;&gt; misdemeanor?
- immunity for good faith reporters: want to encourage reporting
- abrogation of communication: spouses do not have right not to report each other
- reporting procedures
what is social skill training?
a technique in which a client learns more effective social behaviours by observing and imitating a skilful model
Random selection and assignment - how are they rel
Random selection - greater external validityRandom
What does ethology teach us about imprinting?
Ethology, or the study of animals, teaches us that animals rapidly learn from their initial caregiver after birth. We call this imprinting.
social learning believes in ___ which is defined as ___
self-efficacy - the belief that people can change themselves and alter the social context
Why does the gender distribution of marriage change over time?
More young women than men are married, but opposite in older adults because husbands die earlier
Why is the ability to learn dependent on inborn knowledge? In Kant's nativist philosophy, what is the distinction between a priori knowledge & a posteriori knowledge?
the mind must come w/ some initial furnishings in order for it to be furnished further through experience; a priori (does not have to be learned bc built into the human brain) vs. posteriori (gains from experience in the environment)
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