Psych 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
capaz
capable
la formaicio(ac)n
background
el formulario
form
el dia laboral
workday
el/la entrenador(a)
personal trainer
el /la cientifico/a
scientist
repression
pushing memory out
la mujer meca(a)nico
female mechanic
Assumptions Underlying Scientific Thinking
Regularity
Discoverability
Objectivity
Data Driven
Statistical Determanism
Subject to Revision  
se les dice
they are called
androgyny
having personality characteristics of males and females
de tiempo copmpleto/parcial
full time/ part time
Sample
Part of population that actually aprticipates in study
Tomar- Formal- Usted - Ustedes
Tome, Tomen
EEG waves
measured with kinds of frequency
deep structure
the meaning of a sentence
What are the BIG FIVE traits?
OpennessConscientiousnessExtraversionAgreablenessNeuroticism
Random Sampling
representative sample of a population where all demographics have equal opportunity to be in the sample
ruminitive thinking
continually thinking about the bad aspects
what do efferent nerves do?
carry out commands
endorphins/endogenous opiates
neuratransmitters that have a similar structure to opiates and that appear to play a role i nhow the brain copes internally with pain and stress
depressants
substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system
Reasoning/Rational Logic
To develope theories, deduce testable hypotheses, evaluate merit of theory based on results of hypotheses tested
Bottom-up processing
analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information
Hindsight Bias
"I knew it all along" Folk Psychology:Thinking you knew something even though it wasn't logically predictable
adopted childrens similarity to their biological parents is generally distributed to_____________; adopted childresn similarity is to their adoptive parents is generally attributed to____________
heredity; the environment
pituitary glands
the "master gland" of the endocrine system. it releases a great amount of hormones throughout the body, stimulating actions in other endocrine glands.
hedonic principle
the notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain
conscious motivation
a motivation of which one is aware
self consciousness
a distinct level of conciousness in which the persons attention is drawn to the self as an object
The relation of two ISPS's happening close on the membrane together....
spatial summation
phallic stage
3 to 6 years- child discovers sexual feelings
directed consciousness
focuses on one thing; being "in the zone"
encouragement
use it if someone is doing poorly or on errors: such as you can do it
sleep paralysis
the experience of waking up unable to move
unconscious motivation
a motivation of which one is not aware
Subject to revision
-the current body of data always considered temporary
-never to be considered the truth  
Preconscious?
the part of the mind that contains all of the inactive but potentially accessible thoughts and memories
hans seyle (general adaptation syndrome)
alarm: body prepares us of actionresistance: prep for long durationexhaustion: body is worn out
what does the medulla do?
connected to the spinal cord, regulates functions like heart rate and breathing
syntactical rules
a set of rules that indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences
Availability Heuristic
-How true something is based on how it happens to us
-misrepersents what is true about reality
EX. - People who wear red are jerks  
What are cations and names?
Positive charged ions, Potassium and Sodium
what do the temporal lobes do?
has to do with auditory processing
What are three factors important to person perception?
Physical Appearance(what someone looks like)Social Schema( general knowledge)stereotypes (gender, race, etc)
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
scans that are used to try and pinpoint the brain areas that handle various types of mental tasks- by monitoring blood flow and oxygen consumption in the brain to identify areas of high activity.
What is the self serving bias?
tendency to attribute own failure to external causes, and others failures to internal causes(I got a D on the exam because the teacher did not do a good job, mary got a D because she doesnt study)
rebound effect of thoght suppression
the tendency of a thought to return to consciousness w/ greater frequency following suppression
Complexity
Timbre
hardiness
commitment, control, challenge
MMPI
“Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory”, a well-researched, clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems.
medulla
controls heartbeat and breathing
Delirium
Changing level of consciousness, hallucinations, disorganized thinking; (abnormal EEG, check for anticholinergics)
Abraham Maslow
Motivation theory.Hierarchy of needs.The more human type needs were at the top of the pyramid.self actualisationesteemneed for belonging and lovesafetyphysiological
what is a likert scale?
Anxiety
-Anxiety is out of control
perceived incompatibility of actions, goals or ideas
conflict
narcolepsy
sudden attack of extreme even irresistible sleepiness in the middle of the day
Marijuana active ingredient
-THC active ingredient
DEMENTIA FROM HIV
DESTRUCTION OF BRAIN CELLS
MILD MEMORY DIFFICULTIES
PSYCHOMOTOR SLOWING
DIMINISHED ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION
*20-30% OF PEOPLE WITH ADVANCED HIV HAVE AIDS-RELATED DEMENTIA
WEAKENS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM OR EFFECTS THE BRAIN DIRECTLY
drives serve to activate responses that are aimed at reducing the drive, thereby returning the body to a more normal state called
homeostasis
Attachment Across Generations


-Parents’ adult attachment classifications 
predict the quality of attachment with their 
children
-Parents who have autonomous narratives 
are more likely to have children who are 
securely attached to them
attitude
A positive, negative, or mixed reaction to a person, object, or idea.
Controls vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure
Medulla
Emotiotional-Focused Coping
lowers the level of stress
thalamus
sents messages to sensory receiving areas; receives from all sense except smell
perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change
Dual processing
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
norman triplett
observed bike riders, people are better at tasks when watched
false recognition
a feeling of familiarity with something that hasn't been encountered before
Reference section
-should have "References" centered and bold at the top of a new page
-list citation in alphabetical order by last name of first author
Sexuality
all of the sexual attitudes, feelings, and behaviors associated with being human; term does not refer specifically to a person's capacity for erotic response or to sexual acts, but rather to a dimension of one's personality
Mirror neurons
neurons that are activated by preforming an action or by seeing another money or person preform the same action
semantic features
the smallest significant unit of meaning within a word (e.g. "male," "human," "adult" are semantic features of "man")
burnout
a state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance and motivation
glial cells
gray fatty cells that:-provide support for the neurons to grow on and around-deliver nutrients to neurons-produce myelin to coat axons-clean up waste products and dead neurons
Crystallized
Can hold long term knowledge
- Enters into the Language
a stimulus following a response that increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
reinforcer
Tendency to overestimate how well we predict events, in hindsight.\"I would never have fallen for that trick...\"
Overconfidence
Source monitoring
being aware of source of info
stranger anxiety
develop concern about being around others who aren't parental figures
introversion
the state of being concerned primarily with one's own thoughts and feelings rather than with the external environment
role
a set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
Cutaneous receptors
nerve receptors in the skin that respond to pressure, temperature, or pain
interneurons
within the CNS to carry messages from one set of neurons to another.
Internal validity
The certainty that the changes in behavior observed across treatment conditions in the experiment were actually caused by the independent variable
Eysenck’s Theory
personality is determined by a large extent to one’s genes
Extrinsic Reinforcer
Reinforcer that comes from the outside environment, rather than from within the learner
theories of personality-dispositional/trait
enduring, stable traits that differ among individuals and influence behavior
incremental validity
extent to which a test contributes information beyond other, more easily collected, measures
psychoactive drug
chemical substance that alters mood or perception
instinct theory
a view that explains human behavior as motivated by automatic involuntary and unlearned responses
Define Biophysiological Need
Need to satisfy hunger/thirst, need for air, no pain, maintain body temp, satisfy sex drive and maternal drive, and satisfy the sensory stimulation.
Augmentation Principle
a rule of attribution which states that the perceived role of a cause will be augmented (increased) if other factors are present that would work against the behavior
Reconstructive memory
the process whereby memories of an event become distorted by info encountered after the event occurred
Type A
pertaining to a pattern of behavior characterized by competitiveness, a sense of urgency, impatience, perfectionism, and assertiveness
zone of proximal development
vygotsky, material that's a little more than you can do
what may be the first or only manifestation of (new) medical or neurological process
psychiatric syndrome
noncoital sexual pain disorder
recurrent or persistent genital pain caused by sexual stimulation other than intercourse
history of psychoanalysis
freud saw many women with hysteria, thought these were psychogenic (result of some unknown psychological cause), believed people needed to high and express distress in subconscious so that "compromise" was physical symptoms
Somatic Nervous System
The system of nerves linking the spinal cord with the body and sense organs.
in-basket exercise
asks assessees to pretend that it is the first day of a new job and they have found a series of items in their in-basket. 
Somatosensory cortex
The area of the cortex that receives sensory information from the touch receptors in the skin
Wilhem Wundtt (1832 -1920)
1st psych lab, coined structuralism, wanted to modify the study of the mind after physical and biological sciences.
Tea has about ____ of caffeine per cup depending on the type and strength of the brew
40-60
Describe the Oedipus Complex
During the Phallic Stage, boys develop a sexual desire for their mothers and see their fathers as the rival, but do not act on these desires for fear of castration as a punishment from the father.
True/False: Cocaine reward is not present in DAT knockout mice
FALSE...cocaine reward IS still present in DAT knockout mice (though they do not hyperactivity after treated with psychostimulants)
the lemon powder experiment
Taught to salivate which is the uncond. Stimulus when told to word that made lick lemon powder which made the mouth salivate.
numerical scores of intelligence serve to dehumanize individuals.test performance is influenced by cultural experiences.the reliability of intelligence tests is close to zero.the heritability of intelligence is 100 percent.
test performance is influenced by cultural experiences
a study in which the same person is restudied and retested over a long period
longitudinal study
Define measurement and description
researchers need to figure out a way to measure the pheomenon under study
Example of content validity
on the next psych test there should only be psych questions, no math questions
After how long can Major Depressive Disorder be diagnosed?
2 weeks w/ functional impairment
Describe each of the 3 Reflective Judgment stages.
1. Prereflective stage: assume there is a right answer and you obtain it by how you feel.2. Quasi reflective stage: there isn't absolute certain answer and judgements should use evidences. But you only use evidence that supports your belief3. Reflective stage: obtain evidence from a variety of sources
I want you to know about the history of Psychology. That Wundt introduced the specific method to the field, distinguishing Psychology from its Philosophy roots. That John Watson called for the rejection of mentalistic constructs and wanted Psychology to b
Structuralism, Behaviorism, and Psychodynamic Approaches to Psychology.
Rebound Effect of Thought Suppression
The tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression
What are the 7 barriers that keep you from critical thinking (reflective judgement)?
1. exagerating the improbable 2 avoiding loss 3 confirmation bias 4 biaes due to mental st 5 hindsight bias 6. need for cognitive consistenccy 7. overcoming our cogitive biases
You are still a novice when it comes to skiing, so when you find yourself heading for a tree, you fall to the side in order to avoid a potential collision. What mechanism allowed you to sense that the tree was getting closer and closer?
b. The rate at which your retinal image of the tree expanded.
cocaine
stimulant
Jacobs-Factors Influencing Depression
Seratonin
empirical
based on scientific observations
Organizational Psychology
Rene Descartes (rationalism)
Axis V
Global Assessment of Functioning
spirituality
stress management, attending relgious services seem to live longer, healthier lifestyles, social support, encouragement of marriage.
neurotransmitter
chemical messengers that relay information from one neuron to the next
Behavioral
Skinner: Punishment. Believed in positive reinforcement. Used to treat phobias. No free will, no control. Meaning is irrelevant, only outcome of training is.
Where are neurotransmitters relaesed from?
axons
Behavioral Perspective
Emphasizes observable behavior that can be objectively measured. Emerged from work of Pavlov, Watson, Skinner.
Schizophrenia
Split mind disorders characterized by distorted perception of reality, altered or blunted emotion, and disturbances in thoughts, motivation, and behavior.
Schizoid PD
pervasive indifference to people coupled with a diminished range of emotional expression and experience. Prefer isolation
Deciphering meaningful patterns in the jumble of sensory information is:
perception
Aversion Therapy
Behavioral Therapies- After dave smokes a cigarette, his therapist calls him a douchebag and the once pleasant taste of cigarettes now tastes like complete shit
Endorphins
the eintire family of internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates in structure and effects
steroid hormone released by the adrenal glands during a stress response, that produces many of the physical effects or stress
glucocorticoids
time outtake something away as punishment
Watson
psychoactive drugs
substances that alter thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and perception
Edward L. Thorndike argued that responses that lead to satisfying outcomes are more likely to be repeated, and that responses fallowed by unpleasant outcomes are less likely to be repeated. This became the law of
reinforcement.
semantic encoding
encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
Epidemiology of hypochondriasis:
 
who is more affected males or females?
what age?
men=women20-30 yearsmost common among blacks than white
Consciousness
The awareness of internal and external stimuli
Agraphobia
fear of going out to public places
coming out
disclosing to others one's homosexual orientation, from the expression "coming out of the closet"
Sensorimotor Period
Coordination of sensory input and motor responses;development of object permanence;birth to 2 years
Explicit Memories: Semantic Memories


-concern broader knowledge, not tied to a particular episode
 
-i.e., the rules for playing tennis
common sense
describes what has happened more easily than it predicts what will happen
SCIENTIFIC METHODS
methods of gathering information based on systematic observation. three general types of scientific methods: descriptive methods, correlational methods, and formal experiment.
contralateral
on the opposite side of the body.
the first memory process, in which information is organized and transformed so that it can be entered into memory
encoding
Attentional Blink
Brief period after perceiving a stimulus, during which it is difficult to attend to another stimulus
*Used to justify segregation of African-Americans“Imbecile” = Sterilization without knowing and/or against their will.
Intelligence Quotient
excitement stage
- foreplay
- early phase: vaginal lubrication, nipple erection and vasocongestion or vagina in females. in males = penile erection
- late phase: tightening of outer 1/3 of vagina and breast engorgement. in males, drops of seminal fluid at head of penis
behaviorism
the theory that human psychology can only be accurately studied through the analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events
biological psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavio
biomedical therapies
focus on changing the mechanisms that run the central nervous ...try to alter brain functioning with chemical or physical interventions.
operant chamber
small inclosure. animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response can be systematically controlled.
oral stage
the first psychosexual stage, in which experience centers o the pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth, sucking, and being fed.
sympathetic nervous system
controls arousal: heart rate and respiration increases,salivation decreases, digestion stops or slows, sweat, eyes dilate.
Subculture
Group that resists the ways of the dominant culture and adopts its own norms for behavior
Somatogenic Hypothesis
-early views of mental disorder based on this
 
-disorders are the result of a specific injury or 
infection to the body
what's accomodation?
process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus the image of near objects on the retina
Is there a depression gene or several genes that all contribute a small amount to the development of a mood disorder?
several
the part of our minds that includes our consciousness and that balances the demands of the id, superego, and reality
ego
who did first scientific study of memory
Ebbinghaus-early 1800's
Olfactory Bulbs
Above the nasal cavaties, where smell first registers in the brain.
dual processing stream
rod-like, not color sensitive, where objects are located and how they move
in vision
developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies changes in human behavior from early life to death.
group and family therapys
-saves therapists time and clients money
-good for those with family problems and behavior distressing to others
-helps patients see their problems are similar to others
-aims to reconstruct behavior
Reflected Appraisal Process
The process through which people come to know themselves by observing or imagining how others view them
Maslow's Need theory
Theory that proposed that all humans have a basic set of needs and that these needs express themselves over the life span of the individual as internal "pushes" or drives. Identified five basic need sets: physiological, security, love, esteem, and self-actualization
shallow processing
the encoding of a stimulus using its superficial characteristics, such as the way a word sounds or the type face in which it is printed
What other 6 areas of intelligence did Gardner add in his Theory of Multiple Intelligences?
Linguistic intelligencelogial-mathematicalspatialmusicalbody-kinestheticnaturalist interpersonalintrapersonal
Augmenting Principle
-The perceived role of a cause in producing behavior will be increased (or augmented) when other causes (that should work against the behavior) are present
skeletal nervous system
division of the PNS that controls body's skeletal muscles
3 levels of Moral development (Kohlberg)
1. Preconventional Level2. Conventional level3. Postconventional Level
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Persistent anxiety for AT LEAST 6 months. inability to specify reasons for anxiety
A 20-year old with a mental age of the average 12-year old would have an IQ of...
60.
what are some withdrawal symtoms of tranquilizers
restlessness, anxiety, irritability, muscle tension, difficulty sleeping
for a period of .001 second after firing, a neuron cannot fire again. this period is called the
absolute refractory period
Ascending Reticular Activating System
structure in the brainstem thought to control overall cortical arousal - thought responsible to determine introverts from extroverts
GENDER AND SOMATIZATION DISORDER
THREE TO TEN TIMES MORE COMMIN IN WOMEN THAN IN MEN
social referencing
Not sure how to react to a stimuli so we look around to others and copy their reactions
Statistically significant results
A significant result is one that has a very low probability of occurring if the population means are equal. Significance indicates that there is a low probability that the difference between the obtained sample means was due to random error.
strenths of theory of multiple intelligences
incorporates a wide variety of skills and activities a lto to be good or bad at
Stressful emotional experiences can alter what?
the structure of the brain because of reduction of neutral cells in the hippocampus
What did researches Allen and Gorski find that backs up biological causes for homosexuality?
the section of the anterior commissure (connecting the right and left hemispheres of the brain) is 1/3 larger in homo men than in hetero men
What is the description of At-risk drinking for men and women?
Defined by the amount and frequency of drinking:Men = more than 14 drinks a week or 4 drinks per occasion.Women = more than 7 drinks a week or 3 drinks per occasion.
What is the role of CT scan in Asperger's Syndrome?
No role in diagnosing but it can be used to exclude other treatable conditions.
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