Psych Exam 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
iconic
visual
Hypochondriasis
-somatoform disorder
-long-lasting preoccupation with idea that one has a serious disease, based on misinterpretation of normal body reactions
 
treatment for Parkinsonian features
L-Dopa
hallucinogen
hallucinations, for example, LSD
cognitive constructionist
schemes, assimilation, accomodation, equilibration, downplay private speech
Transference
develop relationship with therapist based on other people in one's life
Conservation
-Despite transformation, the amount remains the same (liquid in two different containers)
motor neurons
carry info from CNS
An aspirinlike analgesic and antipyretic
Acetaminophen
frontal lobes
personality, planning and judgement-- higher level thinking (includes motor cortex, Broca's area)
Cell Body/Soma
Keeps neurons alive; contains substances for growth, determines wether or not to fire.
AUTISM CONT.
 
TJE CAUSES ARE UNKNOWN
MANY FUNDAMENTAL DISTURBANCES OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ARE INVOLVED
HIGHLY GENETIC RISK FACTOR-MORE THAN MOST OTHER DISORDERS
MANY BELIEVE IT IS RELATED TO VACCINES
which research method involves watching behaviors as they occur, without intervening or altering the behaviors in any way?
naturalistic observation
Bipolar Disorder


Alternating between manic episodes and 
depressive episodes
 
Mania-a state characterized by racing 
thoughts, pressured speech, irritability or 
euphoria, and impaired judgment.
Wilhelm Wundt
-"father" of psychology-in 1879 founded first formal laboratory for psychological research at the University of Leipzig, and the first journal for psychological research in 1881.- Structuralism
Allows for conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships
Experimental Method
autonomic nervous system
sympathetic & parasympathetic systems
Stronger
Correlations is _____ equivalent to causation.
sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
imagery
mental pics; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
frustration-aggresion principle..
part of aversion events.. frustrates creates anger, which in some people generates aggression, espesially in presence of aggressive cue (gun)
Aversive conditioning
Process believed to underlie the effectiveness of aversion therapy.
WM
Working Memory: short term memory plus the mental processes that control the rehearsal and retrieval of information from the long-term memory and interpret that information appropriately depending on the task you are doing
Simple Cells
antagonistic "on" and "off" regions thus are unresponsive to diffuse light. All are monocular
medulla
Attaches to the spinal cord -controls unconscious but essential functions.
Psychophysics
The study of relations between the physical characteristics of stimuli and sensory capabilities
posthypnotic amnesia
the failure to retrieve memories following hypnotic suggestions to forget
What is schizophrenia?
-Has Positive and Negative symptoms-well understood as a neurobiological disorder-environmental factors also influence schizophrenia
Staging Performance
-We seek opportunities to demonstrate our competance-EX: hosting a book club to impress Princeton Grad
punishment that occurs with removal of a stimulus that decreases the probability of a behaviors recurring
negative punishment
Double-blind design
Neither the researchers nor the subjects know who is in the experimental or control group. Reduces the possibility of bias.
Postconventional level
2 stages: social contract orientation, individual principles & conscience orientation
corpus callosum
division between to hemispheres of brain
carries messages between left and right hemisphere
halo effect
a potential inaccuracy in observation due to overgeneralization from a limited amount of evidence or the influence of preconceived beliefs
Set Point
the point at which an individuals "weight thermostat" is supposedly set, when the body falls below this weight, and increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
Olfactory bulbs
units that receive odor molecules and communicate their nature to the brain
cultural realtivism
the idea that behavior varies across cultures and can be understood only within the context of the culture in which they occur
Instrumentation threat
A threat to internal validity produced by changes in the measuring instrument itself
Metabolism of alcohol
alcohol -> (alcohol dehydrogenase) -> acetaldehyde -> (aldehyde dehydrogenase) -> acetic acid
Visual Imagery
Process of forming mental pictures of objects or ideas
The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by:
Erikson
phallic stage 
psychosexual stage that focuses on the genitals. desire to eliminate same sex parent as rival. discovery that genitals = sexual pleasure. 3-6 years
Mood Stabilizing Medications
used to stabilize mood swings associated with bipolar disorder
divergent thinking
the ability to think along many alternative paths to generate many fdifferent solutions to a problem
A projective personality test in which a subject views a set of inkblots and tells the tester what each inkblot resembles
Rorschach inkblot test
Prototype
A representation of the "best" or most typical example of a category
3 questions
How do we approach these traits?
Are internal drives traits that have meaning with respect to the observer?
How do you treat the issue of frequency?
Type B
a pattern of behavior characterized by an unhurried, patient, tolerant manner, an ability to relax easily, and amiability
external locus of control
rotter. perseption that chance or outside force effects fate
1. Trust Versus Mistrust (hope)
infant
Needs maximum comfort with minimal uncertainty to trust himself/herself, others, and the environment

hope- fundamental conviction in the trustworthiness of the world
Nicotine abstinence syndrome is mediated by...
nicotine abstinence syndrome is mediated by nicotinic receptors in both the central and peripheral nervous systems
differences between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning
inductive reasoning is probably true, based on frequency estimates; deductive reasoning guaranteed to be true if logical premises are true
To what domain did John Dewey apply his functionalist perspective?
c. Education
close-ended test
the test taker must choose one from several possible responses; multiple choice exams test ability and knowledge
Diurnal non-human animls have mostly _____on their retinas, and nocturnal animals have mostly ____ on their retinas
cones (color); rods (black&white)
Thanatology
The study of death and dying; the term comes from thanatos, the Greek name for a mythical personification of death, and was borrowed by Freud to represent the death instinct
Alcohol enhances the ____ effect of ____ at the ___ _ receptor
inhibitory GABA GABA-A
Evolved Adaptation model of sleep
evolutionary function based on size, sleep position, predator/prey; allows us to deal with environmental demands, RIVER DOLPHINS
Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid...
tryptophan (obtained from the diet)
Immanuel Kant
we learn from the world and our mind gives order to our sensory experiences
a fear of going out to public or open spaces
agoraphobia
Signal Detection Theory
An observation that the response to a stimulus depends both on a person's sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person's response criterion.
What is the evidence for depictive theory over propositional?
Perception and imagery can interfere.
It takes longer to image greater distances.
Similar to 2, image zooming.
Mentally rotating an object takes longer with more rotation, just as if you were physically rotating it.
Imagery and perception rely on overlapping brain regions.
What constitutes a positive correlation?
as one variable increases, the other one does too
how are representativeness heuristics and schemas inter-related?
we use our schemas as tools/guides when making judgements about something by the process of represenativeness heuristics
What is the Physical Dependence Hypothesis? What presents a problem with this theory?
Hypothesis that people take drugs to avoid unpleasant somatic withdrawal symptoms. Problems include that not all drugs are associated with substantial withdrawal symptoms and what about relapse--withdrawal symptoms are gone by then but person still goes  back to drug.
3 rd stage of Freuds, in with the focus of pleasure and conflict in on the genital area
Oedipus complex ch 14
according to Tverskey and Kahneman how do people tend to make judgments
often rely on heuristics rather than on formal methods of analysis
What is functionalism and how does it differ from structuralism?
Functionalism is the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment. Functionalists view consciousness more as a flowing stream than a bundle of separate elements.
In a classic split bain study, a picture of a chicken claw was flashed to the left hemisphere (the R eye) while a picture of a snow scene was flashed to the right hemisphere (the left eye). when asked to choose a related image from an array of pictures
the left hand pointed to a shovel and the right pointed to a chicken
Forensic Psychology
.
Classes of drugs
DepressantsStimulantsOpiatesPsychedelic
Skinner
Radical behaviorism, operant conditioning
one's sense of self
identity
Antidepressants
Medicines that treat depression, usually y their effects on the serotonin and/or norepinephrine pathways in the brain
operant
any behavior that is voluntary
 
 
Decision Making
 
 
Evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
contact hypothesis
reduction of stereotypes...prejudice results from lack of experience with outgroup members. should decrease as experience increases
Ego
Mediator between id and concious (restrains the id)
Reactivity
Behavior changes when subject realizes they are being observed.
Opponent-process Theory
-Ewald Hering.-two classes for encoding color and one for encoding brightness.-one class signalled red, and the other signalled its complementary color green
For postpartum blues symptoms that last longer than 2 weeks, it is important for the individual to seek medical attention, since approximately ___% women with postpartum blues develop postpartum major depression.
20%
biological rhythms
periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning
Conceptual Hierarchy
a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items
reflex
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
vestibular sense
proprioceptive sense that provides info about the position of the head in space and about its movements
Gestalt Psychology
A psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts.
kleptomania
an irresistible impulse to steal, stemming from emotional disturbance rather than economic need
self-actualization
according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
Schizophrenia
severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality
adoptees method
research method that studies children who were adopted and reared completely apart from their abnormal parents, thereby eliminating the influence of being raised by disordered parents.
continuos
reinforced for every time the behavior is displayed
Investigative
In additional to the event-field, any science involves an ... even-field which includes a primary observer of the psychological event-field.
Trait Theories
 
Describe personalities and try to predict behavior based on that personality
Factor Analysis
A statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying factors
fMRI
a technique for revealing blood flow and brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans
Archival Research
using existing records to describe behavior.
Watson is involved in what newer school?
behaviorism
industrial-organizaitonal (I/O) psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods optimizing human behavior in workplaces
story like sequence of images sensations and perceptions occuring mainly during rem sleep
lucid dreaming
cultural deviance
a criterion of abnormality stating that a behavior is abnormal if it violates the rules or accepted standards of society
Sigmund Freud-psychoanalysis
-Traumatic events were recalled under hypnosis
-Catharsis:relief after vocalizing about disturbing memories
-dreams are really wish fulfillment, importance of unconscious processes and motivation, pleasure principle, personality, anxiety, defense mechanisms, psychosexual development
-Therapy:Dream analysis (manifest content, latent content) free association, transference.
hallucination
a sensory experience of something that does not exist outside the mind, caused by various physical and mental disorders, or by reaction to certain toxic substances, and usually manifested as visual or auditory images.
motivation
A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
Neurosis
Before the DSM-IV, this term was used as a label for subjective distress or self-defeating behavior that did not show signs of brain abnormalities or grossly irrational thinking
growth centers
places where people come together to develop their full potential (e.g., esalen)
alpha level
a decision rule that is determined before we collect the data: the point at which we decide that our results are significant
 
The probability that our results could be due to error in our sample.  If it's very unlikely that our observed result was due to error, then we reject the null hypothesis.
Resistant Attachment
baby does NOT explore toys (stays close to CG)
does cry when CG leaves
is angry upon return (hugs mom while pushing her away)
negative afterimage
persistance of an image that posses the huge complementary to that of the stimulus resulting from the operation of opponent processes
adaptive processes
processes that promote the welfare and reproduction of organisms that engage in those processes
a. Walter Cannon termed this syndrome to describe the stress responseb. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. This response was later recogni
fight or flight
psychological test
a standardized series of problems or questions that assess a particular individual characteristic; knowledge, skill, ability, attitude, interest, and personality
 
can assess several characteristics at one time
in a controlled experiment, the group not subjected to a change in the independent variable
control group
Fixed intelligence
Intelligence you are born with and cannot be increased
Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis
Helping because of empathy for someone in need
Random Sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Type A
pertaining to a pattern of behavior characterized by competitiveness, a sense of urgency, impatience, perfectionism, and assertiveness
ABCDE's of romantic relationships:
continuation
mutual cyclical growth
-the need for one's partner produces commitment;
-commitment promotes acts that enhance the relationship;
-these acts build trust, increasing commitment
Harlow monkey study (1958)
Baby monkey raised with surrogate mothers that were artificial. One mother was wire (uncomfortable) and provided food, another had cloth over it (more comfortable) and did not provide food. Result: the monkey preferred the cloth mother.
Where are neuropeptide transmitters (enkelphalins, endorphins, CRF) synthesized?
Where are classical NTs synthesized?
Neuropeptide transmitters synthesized in the cell body.
Classical NTs are systhesized in the axon terminal.
Third-Variable Correlation
The face that two variables may be correlated only because they are both caused by a third variable.
Emotional Intelligence
Ability to use your own emotions in adaptive ways and respond to others emotions
Jacoby: process dissociation procedure
tease apart true results from contamination-study was famous and nonfamous names. first said list was famous people and then said it was a mistake and was nonfamous, could subjects remember list?
Explain why mental health professionals must always take an individual’s cultural background into consideration whenformulating a diagnostic hypothesis. Then, describe two examples of culturally-bound syndromes
Societies values differ among different cultures. What may be a cultural norm here may seem absurd to people in cultures elsewhere. When diagnosing a patient deviance or distress may not be cultural bound. Koro, for example, is a culturally bound syndrome in chinaKayak angst- eskimo hunters
Hypothesis testing
a process by which decisions are made concerning the values of parameters
stream of consciousness
thought regarded as a succession of ideas and images constantly moving forward in time
out-group homogeneity
the tendency to see all members of an out-group as the same
1st type of personality development
Trust vs. Mistrust;1st year of life
What are Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
*Sensormotor-experiencing the world through senses & actions(looking, hearing, touching, grasping, mouthing)-Birth to nearly 2 years-Object permanence, Stranger anxiety*Preoperational-representing things w/ words & images but lacking logical reasoning-about 2-6 years -pretend play,egocentrism, language development*Concrete operational-thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies & performing arithmetical operations-about 7-11 years -abstract logic, mathematical transformations*Formal operational-abstract reasoning-about 12 through adulthood-abstract logic, potential for matur moral reasoning
How do redundancy and predictability help learning?
- provide organization
- facilitated connections between what you know and new info
- reduce amount of "new" learning required because you can guess/anticipate what will come next (schemas)
-Perception that leaders are different in that they possess special traits-People "need" to view leaders as gifted
Intuitively appealing Strength of Focus of Trait Approach
What are the goals of scientific research?
Explain, predict, and control behavior.
What brain abnormalities are associated with Schizophrenia?
dopamine overactivity - 6 times the normal amount of dopamine receptors pointing to a lot of dopamine acitivityabnormal brain activity and anatomy - enlargement of ventricles and decreased sized of certain brain regions decreased metabolic activity runs in families
Describe Piaget's concrete operational stage
7-12 yo
- can conceptualize the world from and external perspective
- problem solving: early it must be physically present for them to see. later, they can conserve and classify and "do it in their heads"
secure attachment in diff pops
less likely to be securely attached in less wealthy populations
What is the clinical management for paraphilias?
- masturbatory satiation
- covert sensitization - replacing fantasies with unpleasant images
- social skills training
- relaxation therapy
- medications: lower testosterone
In one experiment, participants did not notice relatively large changes between two arrays of familiar objects. What is one explanation for this result?
d. The world itself is generally a stable source of information.
what are the 4 lobes and what do they each control?
1-temporal lobe (recieves auditory info)2-occipital lobe (recieves visual info)3-parietal lobe (processes somatic sensations)4-frontal lobe (muscle movement, thinking, planning, emotional control)
Parenting Styles
-authoritarian-authoritative-permissive-uninvolved
Physiological dependence
Withdrawal symptoms
Marcia
the four identity statues
the eye....
doesn't do perception
Etiology of Schizophrenia
Biological Factors=Heredity, structural brain abnormalities (loss of gray matter, oversized ventricals) Neurotransmitter deregulation
Chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units that are often based on meaning
somantic nervous system
controls skeletal muscles
The dream that becomes reality
Prophesy
Withdrawal
Removal of the treatment condition
stanley milgrams
shocking experiement, teacher shocks actors
Consolidation
the hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long-term memory.
homosexual
an individual with a sexual orientation primarily to members of the same sex
Knowledge Base
One's existing knowledge about specific topics and the world in general
algorithm
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
repression
the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety - thoughts, feelings, and memories
intelligence
those attributes that center around skill at information processing problem solving and adapting to new or changing situatuons
intracellular thirst
osmodetectors in hypothalamus detect high salt in blood and initiate sensations of thirst
Occasional users of heroin are called
chippers
learning
the modification of behavior through practice, training, or experience
Occipital Lobe
Visual Areas, receives visual info from opposite fields.
self-efficacy
the belief that one can perform adequately in a particular situation.
Thyroid Gland
endocrine gland that helps regulate the rate of metabolism
normal aging changes
universal
often progressive signs of physical deterioration
slide into chronic disease
afterimage
the visual sensation that occurs after the original stimulus has been removed
NOTE:Most cases of insomnia are from stress and are temporary, but for some sufferers it is a persisent disruption
REM Behavior Disorder
Paralysis associated with REM malfunctions and people act our their dream
Can be associated with Parkinson's disease
Belmont Report
1) Respect for Persons -Autonomy -Vulnerable populations -Informed consent2) Beneficence -Risk/benefit ratio3) Justice -Fairness in distribution; equal access -National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Delay of gratification
when people transcend immediate temptations to successfully achieve long term goals
Discriminative stimulus
A stimulus that signals the availability of reinforcement
KORSAKOFF’S DISEASE
Brain Damage and Cognitive Impairment Associated with-excessive and chronic alcoholism-thiamine deficiencyParts of Brain that receive input from hippocampus (i.e., mammillary bodies) are damaged.
Sample stats
statistics calculated from a sample and used primarily to describe a sample
Cognitive behavioral therapy
Focus on changing maladaptive thinking
Brief goal-directed treatment
Techniques/hallmarks:
Homework
Behavioral experiments
Cognitive restructuring
conditioned
proceeding from or dependent on a conditioning of the individual; learned or acquired behavior patterns
organizational psychology
A subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
What is Comorbidity?
Psychological disorders tend to come along with additional psychological disorders.
divergent thinking
ability to generate a variety of unusual solutions to a problem
Median Disadvantages
All points are ignored except for those on the 50th percentile
within-subjects design
a research design in which each participant receives each level of the independent variable at least once
alcohol myopia
a condition that results when alcohol hampers attention, leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations
How is SZ treated/prognosis
-long-term outcomes are poor:getting better all the time-antipsychotic meds combined w/ psychotherapy, social, and educational support--not many controlled studies
Extreme Systems view
Different kinds of memory are independent from each other and depend on different brain regions
What does Freud think compromises the bulk of our personality?
The unconscious
Abstract
Required for every papergoes on a new page. Abstract is centered and in regular type. Abstract is sort of a highly condensed version of the whole paper 120 words or less
Dependent variable
(y) thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable
advanced accurate empathy
empathy that accurately reflects not only what is stated overtly but what is stated incompletely stated or implied
Preparedness Hypothesis
The notion that we have an innate tendency, acquired through natural selection, to respond quickly and automatically to stimuli that posed a survival threat to our ancestors
Bystander effect
finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders
gender in emotion
women express more emotion but both feel the same.
What is shaping
A procedure in which reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response.
The happiness formula
happiness = what we have/what we want
Personality
- is the total pattern of enduring - characteristic ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that constitutes the individuals distinctive method of relating to their environment-is influenced by heredity AND environment
Methodical Behaviorists
Study only the events that they can observe and measure, but sometimes use use those observations to infer internal events.
Chi square test of independence
tests whether categorical variables are independent. Eg, is choice of uni major independent of sex? or is choice of major associated with sex?
response rater
the percentage of people in the sample who actually complete the survey
body mass index (BMI)
Measure of body fat calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by height in meters squared; considered a more valid estimate of body fat than many others.
joe and cara are agents for a complaney that owns apartment buildings. joe gets a commission each time he rents three aparatments. cara recieves a salary each week regardless of the number of apartments she rents. joe is on a _____ schedule and cara is on
fixed ratio, fixed-interval
all or none
referring to the fact that a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all
what do Gestalt psychologists study?
rules, strategies for perceiving the world, sees whole picture
Viruses ___ or ___ the cells they infect
damage or kill
Early Behaviorists believed that for conditioning to occur the unconditioned stimulus must immediately follow the conditioned stimulus .......... demonstrated this was not always so
Farcia And Koellings taste aversion studies
major risk factors of suicide
1. depression or other mood disorder (90% of suicides)2. prior suicide attempt3. family history of suicidal behavior4. shame, humiliation, failure or rejection5. availability of a weapon
Inclusive fitness to explain self-sacrifice (Hamilton)
An organism may contribute to passing on its genes to save others that share the same genes
What is a Skinner Box
An operant chamber into which he put the animal he wished to train by shaping.
What is the etiology of histrionic PD?
unknown.
- linked to somatization disorder in women and antisocial PD in men.
What taste and smell capabilities do infants and newborns have?
Both present at birth, preference for sweet
how long is ECT treatments usually gived?
series of 2-3 per week for several weeks*not a permanent cure
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