Psych History Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Primary
unconscious
a=religious
b=atheist
Keirkegaard=a
Nietzsche=b
Skinner
Operant Conditioning
Rousseau
social critic
romantic period
ego-worship
Heidegger
ontology
being and time 
rejected it
insight: behaviorists
Schelling
World IN God
De Condillac
sentient statue
Woodworth
functionalist
at Columbia University
emphasized the role of motivation in behaviour 
Haeckel
spartans for an example
William James
Stream of Consciousness
Nietchze
no facts- only interpretations
Comte
logical positivism- empirical observation
laws of association
memory laws
Lamarck
proposed adaptive characterisics developed during lifetime are inherited by offspring (inheritance of acquired characteristics)
mechanism by which species were transformed
 
Margaret Sanger
brith control=best eugenics method
no oxygen and radiation
1st molecule
romanticism
nature viewed as a whole
Goethe's Faust
Liberty=ultimate source of happiness
St. Aquinas
1225-1274, synthesize Aristotle's works and xtian tradition, reason and faith are not incompatible, study of nature respectable
Weber
kinesthesis-muscle sense, sense of touch, just noticeable differences, two-point threshold 1/40 lifted 1/30 not liftedWeber's Law-jnds correspond to constant fraction of a standard stimulus
Spencer
followed Larmarck, then Darwin
applied Darwinian principles to society
thought society should be laissez-faire 
ablest could then prevail
social Darwinist 
Watson
founder of behaviourism
psych's goal: prediction and control of behaviour
no existence of mental events
instincts play no role in human behaviour
mind body problem: monist
thought is nothing but implicit muscle movement 
hypothesis
Tolman
expectancy that occurs along during the early stages of learning 
performance
translation of learning into behaviour
Homeopathic magic
based on principles of similarity
Molar Approach
concentrate on the phenomological experience(mental experience without further analysis, as it occurs to the naive observer)
nihilist
someone who thinks nothier means anything and everything is permissible
Darwin
mutations that are bad are discarded
Broca
clinical method used (examine prob look at brain), found speech area on cortex left hemisphere
Aristotle
384-322, essences existed but only known through studying nature, embraced rationalism and empiricism, mind must be employed for knowledge, object of rational thought info obtained by senses, first principles-examine nature directly and think about it, math useless, material cause, formal cause, efficient cause, final cause, teleology, elechy, scala natura, unmoved mover, heirarchy of souls: vegetative, sensitive soul, rational soul, motion and senses, common sense, passive reason, active reason, remembering, recall, laws of association, law of contiguity, law of similarity, law of contrast, law of frequency, associationism, imagination and dreaming, golden mean
Empedocles
490-430, four elements, love and strife causal powers of universe, roaming body parts theory of evolution, eidola-emanations, objects sent tiny copies of self into blood of body, matching occurs in heart
Bechterev
Like Pavlov
looked upon all human behaviour as reflexive
studied skeletal reflexes instead of glandular ones Pavlov did 
reflexology 
clever Hans phenomenon  
creation of apparently high-intelligence feats by animals
consciously or unconsciously furnishing them with subtle behaviour cues 
creative synthesis  
arrangement and rearrangement of mental elements
can result from apperception 
excitation
Pavlov
brain activity that leads to overt behaviour of some type 
radical behaviourism
only directly-observable events, like stimuli and responses, should be the psych's subject matter
avoid explanation of behaviour in terms of unobserved mental events
it can and should be avoided 
Ebbinghaus vs. Wundt:
EbbinghausWork is still studied todayPrecise experimentation on Learning, a topic of importance today.His ideas & work shift the study of learning & memory from speculation to science.Much of his work still relevant. WundtFounded “Psychology”
Philippe Pinel
wrote influential articles arguing for the humane treatment of those had mental disturbances. He became a director of an asylum where he gradually had inmates released from chains as people saw it lead to improvements in their mental condition. He also stopped bloodletting, improved rations, and forbade harsh treatment like spinning them in a chair
Paul Broca
also helped end phrenology by discovering the parts of the brain responsible for motor speech production and by discovering Wernicke’s area
Materialism
the doctrine that considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physcial terms by the exsistance of nature and matter
artists could paint/create what they wanted, rather than what is dictated to them by whoever is paying them.
Romantic period
"free" artists
puzzle solving
Kuhn, normal science like puzzle solving, problems worked on specified by paradigm, with guaranteed solutions, rules must be followed to arrive at conclusions
risky predictions
popper, predictions from a scientific theory that could prove theory false,
adaptive features
features an organism possess allowing it to survive and reproduce
stimulus error
letting past experience influence an introspective report
Systematic Observation (beyond just experimental)
1.Recalling the mental process2.Imagining the mental state and process
Contagion effect
those who would not respond to suggestion when alone would do so readily when in a group and seeing others respond
Kierkegaard
to know God is to know a person
law of contrast
think of thing and its opposite
law of contiguity
Guthrie
one law of learning
once a pattern of stimuli is experienced along with a response, the two become associated
1959 revised: noticed signal for done 
Mental illness
the term used to describe it have varied throughout time; today the term metal illness, psychopathology, abnormal behavior, and maladjusted behavior
Wundt (1832-1920): introspection
examination of one's own mind to inspect and report personal thoughts or feelings
stream of consciousness
James
how the mind works
it has an ever-changing stream of interrelated, purposive thoughts
rather than static elements that could be isolated from each other
opposite to what structuralists thought (they thought you could isolate thoughts from each other) 
Titchener’s three goals/problems for psychology:
Reduce conscious processes to simplest components.Determine the laws governing the association of the conscious elements.Connect the elements with their physiological conditions.
Psychological Explanation of Mental Illness
looks at how psychological events could cause physiological responses. Grief, stress, anxiety, disappointment, and frustration are the focus of this approach
Fechner (1801-1887): absolute threshold
the point of sensitivity below which no sensation can be detected and above which sensation can be experienced
regression towards the mean
tendency for extremes to become less extreme in one's offspring
tall parents...not so tall kids 
the heirachy of needs
Galton’s legacy can be seen in all of the following ideas in psychology EXCEPT:
     
     A.  Normal distribution                C.  Adoption studies    
      B.  Self questionnaires                 D.  The hierarchy of needs
John Locke (1632-1704): simple and complex ideas
simple ideas are elemental ideas that arise from sensation and flection; complex ideas are derived that are compounded of simple ideas and thus can be analysized or ruduced to their simplier components
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