-defense mechanisms- what unconscious fears
-Freudian slips: appear to be accidental, but are connected
-Free association: say whatever comes to mind
-Projective assessment: rorschach, etc.
• Psychology is post-positivist and its methods are empirical
postpositivists believe that human knowledge is not based on unchallengeable, rock-solid foundations; it is conjectural. But they think we do have real grounds, or warrants, for asserting these beliefs or conjectures, although these warrants can be modified or withdrawn in the light of further investigation.
-lower impulse control--lower SAT scores and GPA
-temper tantrums as a child -- more consistent issues in life- downward in socioeconomic status
-Lower Education--lower rank in military
-Tantrums--1/2 divorced by age 40
-frequent job changes
-happiness--circumstance or belief?
-william chang--accomplish plans in life
-history; philosophers addressed mental processes, freud insight is important, unconscious more, -not very influential during behaviorism
agreement on some characteristic between a twin and a co-twin
Male: exhibitionistic, competitive, striving for success, emphasis on being macho/masculine
Female: naive, seductive, exhibitionistic flirtatious
|Is creativity a mental abillity?||
Earliest & widely applicable theory.
Genetic, Biochemical, & hormonal.
Electrochemical signals & processes.
Doesn't take the interaction with others into consideration
a manipulative strategy of social interaction referring to the tendency to use other people as tools for personal gain. "high mach" persons tend to tell people what they want to hear, use flattery to get what they want, and rely heavily on lying and deception to achieve their own ends
in collectivist societies, people are interdependent with others in the group, giving priority to the goals of their in-groups. people in collectivist societies tend to be especially concerned about social relationships. they focus more on context, features external to their own wishes and goals. in collectivist societies, people tend to be more self effacing, less likely to boast or brag about their own personal accomplishments
the predisposition to experience negative feelings frequently
the study of the entire person
the regulation and sometimes restraint of one's own activities
the evolution of characteristics because of their mating benefits rather than because of their survival benefits. according to darwin sexual selection takes 2 forms - intrasexual competition and intersexual selection
Kurt Lewin's formula that proposes that Behavior is a function of Personality and Environment
conflict between desire and fear
|what are modal attributes?||
most common features
|defense mechanism that occurs when people refuse to face the obvious reality||
A motive assessed indirectly by fantasy or other narrative.
erikson's term refers to the desperation, anxiety, and confusion a person feels when he or she has not developed a strong sense of identity. a period of identity crisis is a common experience during adolescence, but for some people it lasts longer. baumeister proposes 2 kinds of identity crises- identity deficit and identity conflict
|Acquisition of Behavior||
-both normal and abnormal skills-normal: social skills-abnormal: aggression, substance use, eating disorders
A mental representation used to interpret events
programs in which reinforcement is increased for a desired behaviors and withheld after undesired behaviors
the idea that situations are the primary determinants of behavior
occurring too fast to be consciously recognized
Evolution in which intermediate values of a dimension are most adaptive
a statistic that refers to the proportion of observed variance in a group of individuals that can be explained or accounted for by genetic variance
a general term referring to awareness and thinking as well as to specific mental acts such as perceiving, interpreting, remembering, believing and anticipating
Lower level traits make up higher level ones and the Type
Karen Horney+Moving Toward others - approach, closeness, support, love-moving against others - competition, aggression, anger=moving away from other - withdrawal, distance, fear/suspicion
The variable manipulated in an experiment, tested as the cause in a cause-effect relation.
|According to Murray, recognition is what kind of need?||
|In bandura's theory, standards that people develop to rate the adequacy of their own behavior in a variety of situations||
-How we adjust/adapt to environment and flow of life and how we respond
-individual choices is focus
-50% of deaths are behavioral choices
The process of keeping an idea or impulse in the unconscious.
a form of interactionism that refers to the tendency to choose or select the situations in which one finds oneself. in other words, people typically do not find themselves in random situations in their natural lives. instead they select or choose the situations in which they will spend their time.
a sense of self as autonomous and independent, with priority given to personal goals
|Unconditional Positive Regard||
Acceptance and affection with "no strings attached"
the id process that creates an unconscious image of a desired object
the response to inability to impose a construct adequately on an event one is experiencing
a dimension that underlies a set of interrelated measures, such as items on a self-report inventory
the projection of a motive onto an ambiguous external stimulus via imagery
the process of putting people randomly into groups of experiment so their characteristics balance out across groups
An association large enough to have practical importance
|types of stability||
*mean level stability-traits stay at same level over time; consistency of level in population.*rank order stability-maintenance of an individuals position within a group. if you are in the bottom of a trait even when everyone in cohort increases you are still at bottom although you increase.*personality coherence-maintaining rank order relative to others but charging in the maifestations of trait ex: at 20 extrovert parties and at 70 its going to bingo night.
the complete set of genes an organism possesses, the human genome contains somewhere between 20,000 and 30,000 genes
second to lowest level of Maslow's hierarchy, needs have to do with shelter, and security.
Gardner's theory includes many kinds - interpersonal, intrapersonal, kinesthetic, and musical. in contrast to the "g" theory
|4 kinds of personality information||
s-data, i-data, l-data, b-data
A dimension along which two or more variations exist.
|Describe a convergent report.||
A convergent report involves constructing a response that meets a criterion. Convergent reports are also called criterion reports.examples are mental ability tests like IQ tests and achievement tests.
|Describe personal intelligence.||
Personal intelligence is insight. It is your understanding of your ability to form your own separate self.
|Freud's term for the part of the personality that mediates between enviromental demands(reality), conscience(superego), and instinctual need(Id); now often used as a synonym for self||
You have to designate what your research design will be in advance. (how you will arrange your groups of subjects)
|need for affiliation||
The need to form and maintain relationships and to be with people.
the self that a person wants to be
|Organismic Valuing Process||
The internal signal that tells whether self-actualization is occuring
a test used to identify a person's major constructs
|schizoid personality disorder||
the schizoid personality is split off from normal social relations. appears to have no need or desire for intimate relationships or even friendships. family life doesnt mean much and they dont join groups. have few or no close friends and would rather spend time by themselves than with others
a gene located on the short arm of chromosome 11 that codes for a protein called a dopamine receptor
|cognitive social learning approach||
a number of modern personality theories have expanded on the notion that personality is expressed in goals and in how people think about themselves relative to their goals. Collectively these theories form an approach that emphasizes the cognitive and social processes whereby people learn to value and strive for certain goals over others
|Birth Order Effects on PERSONALITY TRAITS||
Sulloway First-borns: conscientious (responsible, achievers, organized), extraverted (assertive, bossy), neurotic (jealous, anxious, fearful)Later-borns: open to experience (less likely to conform/be traditional/align with parents), agreeable (easygoing, cooperative, popular)
|striving for superiority||
according to Adler, the major drive behind all behavior, whereby humans naturally strive to overcome their physical and psychological deficiencies
|List the types of selves||
1. actual 2. possible(including feared and desired selves)3. ideal self4. ought self
|stress diathesis model||
When we're born we have this predisposition (biologically limited, directed) applying to medical illnesses and physical problems
Triggers when you encounter the recipitating factors
|What things does a person with hPwr seek to control or influence?||
People and situations.
the period in which the crises of the phallic stage give way to a temporary calm
|3 ways to analyze personality change-inidividual changes||
individual changes-development of an individual. using idividual differences to predict personality development of life outcomes. ie: if you score high on SAT & low impulsivity you have high gpa
|aptitude view of intelligence||
sees intelligence less as the product of education and more as an ability to become educated, as the ability or aptitude to learn
|Data sources of personality psychology||
Life Data - marriage records, speeding tickets - based on accessible objective data
+very objective, easily accessible
-data very limited (can't discern reasons behind things)
Observer Data- observational data - coding from face, info from friends, parents, teachers
+allow you to get information from real-life setting, less biased than self-report
-coding can be biased, observer can be subjective (parents rate children highly)
Test Data - from standardized tests (IQ, SAT, etc)
-can't guarantee test is showing what you want / that participant takes it seriously
-participant may predict what test is trying to find, then cater to it
Self Data -
+ can be biased (subject may be biased, trying to please experimenter)
-easy to obtain
|Describe the time dimension assoicated with the study of personality||
personality develops and matures over time
|Describe the BIS.||
BIS tells us to stop, look, and listen. It's evaluative. It reduces behavior and increases attention. It's associated with negative emotions.It anticipates fear-provoking stimuli.
"Whenever 2 people meet it is really 6 people meeting"
|Optimal Level of Arousal||
level that is "just right", not over or under aroused
|what often results from reaction formation?||
exaggerated or compulsive feelings or behavior
|How do you determine rate IQ?||
by comparing mental age and chronological age in the following manner:MA/CA * 100
|Stability and change over life||
little; amount depended on what you're talking about
-extroversion and neuroticism show a gradual decline after the age of 30
|What is primary process and an example of it||
Unlogical thought from the unconscious. no distinction from reality and fantasy>> why little kids can't formulate locigal arguments... or us being scared of nightmares
|What are adient needs?Abient needs?||
Adient = a need that drives you toward other people/objectsAbient = a need that drives you away from other people/objects
|rational (theoretical) approach(to scale development)||
The use of a theory to decide what you want to measure and then deciding how to measure it.
|Describe the shadow. What are the pieces that make up the shadow?||
The shadow is not an entirely negative term. The shadow refers to material that you are unfamiliar with with and that makes you feel uncomfortable. The two parts of the shadow:1. anima (female energy)2. animus (male energy)
|What is a fully functioning person (Rodgers)?||
Someone who is on the path to self-actualization. One who pays attention to their inner experiences and focuses upon personal growth.
|What are the 4 types of mental models?||
1. prototype = list of modal attributes (most common features)2. script= schema that gives you a prototypical sequence of actions in an event3. life story=narrative description of your life4. relationship structure=styles of relating to others and the roles that we play
|Types of Constructs||
-Core/peripheal-Superordinate/Subordinate-Permeable/Impermeable-Preemptive/Constellatory/propositional-Verbal, Preverbal, Submerged
The measuring of personality.
|Year Freud was Born||
dangerousness & inappropriateness
MRI & CAT Scan
a nurturant procolivity, having empathy for others, and being sympathetic with those who are down trodden
1.construct validity-does the measure accurately respresent our concept?2.convergent validity-is our assessment tool related to things it should be related to.3.discriminant validity-is it unrelated(or weakly related) to stuff it shouldnt be related to?
innate, universal prototypes or symbols for ideas1. Shadow - represents weakness, shortcomings, instincts we posess but don't want to addressAnima - femininity (feminine part of a male?)Animus - masculinity (masculine part of a female?)Androgyny - healthiest when anima and animus are in balance
|defense mechanism when finding socially acceptable outlets for feelings or needs||
A personality test measuring several aspects of personality on distinct subscales.
-sociobiology: evolution of social behaviors, thru adaptive-interesting but speculative results--physical attractiveness; yout, fertility, symetrical average facial features--newborns more than older kids resemble fathers--evolutionary explanations of alturis, homo, attraction to outsiders
deciding for oneself what to do
the perception of an impending reorganization of one's construct system
characteristics that describe ways in which people are different from each other. describe average tendencies.
life experiences that provide opportunities to learn to behave responsibly. moderates the gender difference in impulsive behaviors
|The Trait Approach||
•Focus: individual differences: Anxious/sociable/dominant in a relative rather than absolute sense
•Goals: Measure Traits
Predict and Explain Behavior
–Do personalit traits exist
–What are the most important personality traits
–How well do traits predict behavior
unpredictable reward and punishment leads to depression, “why bother?”
|dimensions or characteristics on which people differ in distinctive ways||
Desire for warm, fulfilling, and communicative relations
An ego-protective strategy to hide threats from yourself and thereby reduce anxiety.
the way a person sees, understands, and defines himself or herself
includes components such as anger, sadness, difficulty and amount of distress
the sensing of a discrepancy between one's acts and another's role expectations for oneself
A therapeutic technique that attempts to change behaviors by changing thought patterns
an ego-protective strategy to hide threats from yourself and thereby reduce anxiety
binding psychic energy in an ego-guided activity
the first stage of psychosexual development, in which oral needs create a crisis over weaning
the study of mental disorders that combines statistical, social and psychological approaches to diagnosing individual abnormality
a nt involved in activating the sympathetic nervous system for flight or fight
earlier theory of intelligence, viewed as a property of the individual, individuals differed in amounts of intelligence they possessed.. but now viewed in discrete categories
Release and Freeing of emotions by talking about one's problems "get something off your chest"
The worst will likely happen Become pleasantly surprised
A relationship such that variation in one dimension produces variation in another.
|Urination is what kind of need?||
|in Freud's theory of personality, the collection of unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression||
Read through head
No loss of Consciousness
Frontal Cortex (neo cortex) damaged - changed personality/behavior
An assessment in which you project from the unconscious onto ambiguous stimuli.
|cognitive complexity (RCRT)||
-stable in adults over time-increases from 8 to 16 years-related to accuracy of predictions about others behaviors-schizos have complex, yet unstable (consturcts change)
a neutral stimulus that's paired with a US to become conditioned
a sexually responsive area of the body
stimuli presented too quickly to be consciously recognized
A correlation between a single measure and the factor to which it is being related
Statistics used to judge whether a relationship exsists between variables
|person by situation interaction||
personality, environment and behavior all shape each other.*strong situation: situations in which most people react similarly *weak/ambiguous situation: personality has more influence
provides useful info about patterns of activation in different regions of the brain that may be associated with different types of information processing tasks
one focus of self regulation whereby the person is concerned with protection, safety, and the prevention of negative outcomes, and failures. characterized by vigilance, caution, and attempts to prevent negative outcomes
Constant Thought in one's mind at any given moment
|Identity as Life Story||
attempt to construct meaningful integration of me typically in form of an evolving narrative personal myth, understood in terms of plot, theme setting, character
The likelihood of an obtained effect occurring when there is no true effect.
|what is a system?||
any set of interrelated parts
|Discuss Russel's 2 factor solution for mood.||
1. pleasant-unpleasant2. activated-deactivated (aroused vs. calm)
|any personality theory that asserts the fundemental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning||
humanistic personality theories
People have feelings & a mind that has rational thoughts. Radical behaviorism is hostile
|Rorschach inkblot test||
A projective test that uses inkblots as ambiguous stimuli.
|CBT - Self-instruction||
self talk, instruct in dealing with problems-prepare to cope-cope with physiological arousal-cope with psychological arousal-review performance-effective with;-pain management-impulsivity, aggression
the passing on of genes through the survival of relatives
he may have left out important traits. is 3 really enough.
designed to assess motives, it uses 14 pictures representing achievement power or intimacy and a series of questions about important motivational states to elicit answers from test subjects. in theory the motives elicited from the photographs would influence how the subject answers the questions
6 to puberty.. no feelings of sexual desire
|Frustration aggression hypothesis||
blocked from a goal leads to frustration and the need to lash out (aggression).
|What are projective tests?||
Projective tests examine THEMES in responses to understand a person.There are no direct questions - you just mmeasure what a person projects onto stimuli.
|Describe ought self.||
Our perception of how we should behave. Involves standards of behavior expected by others.
|Problems with projective assessments||
too complex. reliability and validity are absent. repeated experiments show that the best researchers do not commonly agree on these. hard to administrate. you are measuring something you can't prove exists
|What is self esteem?||
How one feels about ones self concept.
An index of the importance of a trait from the number of words that refers to it
|5 theories of evaluation for personality||
1.is theory comprehensive?2.does it have heuristic(problem solving) value?3.is it testable?4.is it parsimonious(simple)?5.is it compatible with other information?
|Penis Envy to Horney||
Male bias in Psychology.. womb envy... women envious of power that comes from having a penis
operate on the world to change it to your advantage
|Definition of Self efficacy.||
Your judged ability to perform a certain task.
|What are some interesting attributes of people with an internal locus of control?||
Generally report fewer health problems & have greater academic success in all grade levels.
|How were Adler and Jung similar?||
They were both early important followers of Freud. Both presidents of Pschy Societies (Jung-pres of International Psychoanalytic Society//Adler- pres of Vienna Psychoanalytic Society) both split with Freud on what they felt was an over emphasis on the sexual instincts
|Describe the questions posed by McAdam's levels of knowing.||
What is personality?What are a person's traits?What are a person's current concerns?What is a person's life story?
|What are personality types?||
ideas that we form about others and how they operate.
|What are the components of a pessimistic explanatory style?||
internal, stable, global. --> feelings of helplessness.
|levels of consciousness||
Primary process thinking - the id unconscious, driven by gut intuition rarely emerges from unconscious - bottom part of the iceberg useful because it frees our conscious brain by attending to things so we don't have to focus on them Secondary process thinking - the Ego rational, conscious thought secondary because it must develop over time
|Describe the possible self.||
A Possible self is the self that you feel that you might become or might have become if things had been different.
|What are the 4 cognitive levels of interest to personality psychologists?||
1) Perception 2) Interpretation 3) Beliefs and desires 4) Intelligence
|Describe the methods associated with the Marcus study of future well being.||
Examined people after the death of a spouse. People who perceived themselves as adjusting well to loss predicted themselves as desired selves in the future.Poor adjusters predicted feared selves.
|What are the three disadvantages of case studies?||
1. There is no RANDOM SELECTION, so the results are not GENERALIZABLE2. No control3. Subject to a lg amt of observer bias (where the observer looks for things that confirm their hypotheses).
|What were the 3 broad groups of needs that Murray believed that the TAT measured||
need for achievement, need for power, and need for affiliation