Psych part Flashcards

Terms Definitions
alogia
aphasia.
physical dependence
physiological need
Somatosensory System
1)Exteroceptive-->senses external stimuli applied to skin2)Proprioceptive system-->monitors info about body position, joins and balance3)Interoceptive system-->general info, temperature, blood pressure
True/False:Schemas don't influence what info people notice, think about, and remember
False
Serotonin
regulates emotional state: aggression appetite, and sleep onset.
Nature
genetics and biological makeup (uncontrollable)
Action Potential
All-or-none neural impulseselectrical bursts that begin at one end of the axon of a neuron and move along the axon to the other end
Industrial/Organizational Psychologist
Industrial and organizational psychology applies psychology to organizations and workplaces. These organizations and workplaces include for-profit businesses, non-profits, government agencies, and colleges and universities.
inhibition
inappropriate conscious or unconscious restraint or suppression of behavior, often due to guilt or fear produced by past punishment
Angular Gyrus
Transforms visual representations into an auditory code.
attitudes
positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought
Chorion
the fourth membrane of the trophoblast; it develops into the lining of the placenta
Any consequence that increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
reinforcers
somatization disorder
a psychological disorder involving combinations of multiple physical complaints with no medical explanation
Neural Level
How nervous system produces experience/behaviorSome study neurons/groups of neuronsSome study hormonal/drug impact on brain to alter behavior
discrimination
learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli. (survival value)
CR
Conditioned responseA response to the conditioned stimulus, similar to the UCR.
Chemicals affected in depresison
noreperine and seretonin
ambivert
one whose personality type is intermediate between extrovert and introvert
Sexual Orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual) or the other sex (heterosexual)
Refusing to maintain a minimally normal body weight, a fear of gaining weight and binging and purging or restricting episodes?
Anorexia Nervosa
Physical Effects of Crack/Cocaine
Constricted blood vesselsDilated pupilsIncreased heart rate, temperature and blood pressureFaster absorption: more intense the highTolerance developsHigh Doses/Prolonged Use can trigger paranoiaDepression associated with stoppage
Measures of variability
Descriptive statistics indicating the extend to which the scores in a distribution tend to differ. Measures of "spread"
A reinforcer is anything presented after a respnse that increases the frequency of that respnse if you clap your hands to stop your dog from barking which you find irritating the stopping of the varking is for you the termination of an aversive stimulus o
Negative reinforcer
primary reinforcer
any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch.
Passionate Love
An experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction
Pitch
A tone's highness or lowness; depends on frequency
Psychology
– The scientific study of behavior and mind.
aristotle
heart was the center of human functioning, brain was cooling device
Four explanations of dreaming
Psychoanalytic - wishesProblem focused - concernsMental Housekeeping-conectionsActiviation Synthesis - random firing
Dependent Variable
Variable measured but not directed manipulated. It is expected to change as a result of manipulating an independent variable.
Statistic that tells us what the sample as a whole on average is like. there are three measures of central tendency.1) Mean- uses data from ratio and interval scales2) Median (uses range and standard deviation- uses data from ordinal, interval, and ratio
Chi-Squared
fixed ratio
reinforcment occurs after set number of responses
behavior modification
the direct changing of unwanted behavior by means of biofeedback or conditioning
Lewis Terman
professor at Stanford who revised the Binet test for Americans to the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test in 1916; also known for his longitudinal research on gifted kids.
Attachment Patterns
Insecure-Avoidant
-Child ignores the mother
-20% in the USA
-At home, parent rejects child's emotional needs
hallucinogen
A drug or chemical, such as LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline, whose effects include hallucinations; often called psychedelic.
personal constructs
dimensions people use in making sense of their experiencespeople think of different things when they see a clown
Hypothalamus
- part of limbic sys- directs eating, drinking, body temp.- helps govern endocrine sys- linked to emotion and REWARD
deferred imitation
a pattern in which someone recreates another person's behaviors after a delay - shows child's memory; child unable to report on things before had language ability which shows that language is key for more than talking; info about world tells child what is unusual and worth encoding
Pereception
the process by which changes in the state of the brain give rise to our experience of the world
Thinking without language:
• In some cases, people think without using language. Some people think in terms of languages and pictures. Ex) People who play sports don’t think about what they’re doing through language, but through visualization / imagery
the stages during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas
psychosexual stages
the second stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development (ages 2 to 7), marked by the full emergence of representational thought
preoperational stage
Sigmund Freud, M.D.
Took efforts to identify the psychological disorders when there wan't a physical ailment
Psychological problems were caused by unconscious processes, those of which we're unaware
priming
a phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept[called a prime] later makes it easier to recall related information, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept
Glial Cells
Th Glue that holds neurons in place.
personality test
an instrument, as a questionnaire or series of standardized tasks, used to measure personality characteristics or to discover personality disorders
Panic Attack
defined as a period of extreme anxiety that peaks that 10 min, typically declines within 30min, and rarely lasts longer than 1 hr. -may have a definable trigger or may be totally unexpected--feel like they are having a heart attack, they cannot take a deep breath, -feel numbness and tingling at lips and fingertips
State-Dependent Memory
mental or physical state may act as retrieval cue
narcotic
a type of drug that dulls the senses, relieves pain, and induces sleep; the term is usually reserved for those drugs derived from the opium poppy plant
Drive Reduction


-when a drive is present, we are motivated 
to reduce that drive


 
-that drive reduction behavior returns our 
body to equilibrium and homeostasis is maintained
penis envy
supposed desire of girls to possess a penis
centration
tendency to focus on one aspect of a problem and neglect other aspects (beaker experiment with blue water)
Condition of Causality: Antecedence
A comes before BChildhood experiences happen first to determine depression or adult personality
Factorial designs
designs with more than one IV. All levels of each IV are combined with all levels of the other IV
This is the theory that explains the sense of hearing both high and low pitches by neural cells alternately firing.
Volley Principle
peripheral nervous system
the part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the body's organs and muscles
internal validity
the extent to which the design of an experiment ensures that the independent variable, and not some other variable or variables, caused the measured difference to the dependent variable
Give examples of word fluency
rhyming words homonyms animals that start with G
results of Ainsworth's Strange Situation study
she found 3 behavioral patterns: secure attachment (the majority), insecure/resistant, and insecure/avoidant
Intoxication with benzodiazepines
must have 1 of the following:
- slurred speech
- incoordination
- unsteady gait
- nystagmus
- impaired attention or memory
- stupor or coma
According the text, Cohen’s d measure of effect size is best used for:(a) Determining statistical significance
(b) Summarizing the variance of the scores in a condition
(c) Making comparisons across studies that use different types of measures (d) Co
(c) Making comparisons across studies that use different types of measures
it is only descriptiveit cannot be used to draw conclusions about causes of behavior
drawbacks of Naturalistic Observation (2)
Fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
Schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the sameEx: For every 10 books you read you get a gift card
What are the 4 types of long term memories?
episodic semantic procedural emotional
brain's ability to chance in reponse to experiences
-gradually dec. even as connection develops-loss of plasticity apparent in language function
onset course and outcomes for MDD
-age of onset of first episode usually around 14-average episode lasts 8 mos-after recovery, recurrence is common along w/ subthreshold symptoms, health problems, chronic stress and adjustment problems-chd onset depression>outlook not good>risk factors always exist
How does Alfred Kinsey describe sexual orientation?
as a continum on a 6-point scales, with 0 meaning exclusive heterosexuality and 6 meaning exclusive homosexuality

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


antisocial
personality disorder

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


psychological disorder in which the person exhibits a
lack of conscience for wrongdoing even towards friends and family members.
Maybe aggressive and ruthless or clever con artist
DT treatment
Benzodiazapenes
Release neurotransmitter
terminal buttons
male archetype in women
animus
Conscious
currently on your mind
DSM-IV
diagnostic and statistical manual
the DSM-IV uses a multi-axial system of diagnosis
Degrees of freedom
df = n-1
generalization
learned association generalized to other similar stimuli (scared of white rat now scared of white bunny and santa)
hallucinogens
psychoactive drug that alters consciousness by producing a temporary loss of contact iwth reality and changes emotion perception and thought
Prosocial
behavior benefit to others...following rules in game, begin honest
personality factors
people with certain personality profiles, attitudes, and coping style are more likely to develop stress disorders. risk factors are preexisting high anxiety, history of psychological problems and a negative worldview.
Data Analysis
Data analysis involves mathematical (statistical) procedures used to understand what the data mean.
Withdrawal Reflex
-not monosynaptic, involves one interneuron and takes place in 1.6 milliseconds
agoraphobia
an anxiety disorder. Agoraphobia may arise by the fear of having a panic attack in a setting from which there is no perceived easy means of escape
psychosexual stage
developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality
consciousness
The subjective awareness of internal and external events
Instinct theory
Evolutionary perspective, say that someone is who they are because of how they were born
generalizability
ability to infer general principles from experiments
parents are both demanding and responsive, exert rules but explain why and allow for discussion
authoritative
cognitive dissonance
anxiety that results from simultaneously holding incompatible attitudes or beliefs, as when one likes a person but disapproves of their habits
shaping
the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response
Obsessive-compulsive personality d/o
• Pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control
Informational Social Influence
Accept others opinions about reality
Life span
the upper boundary of life
~105 for humans
Actual criterion
Actual measure of job performance obtained
your little sister picks up objects, feels every part of them, and then puts them in her mouth. what stage of jean piagets model of congnitive development does this behavior suggest?
sensorimotor
Psychotherapy
An interaction between a therapist and someone suffering from a psychological problem, with the goal of providing support of relieft from the problem
features of dreams
story-like; day residue; mostly mundane
dishabituation
focus on something thats new and interesting
Frustration
the pursuit of a goal is prevented
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
Make up exam policy
no make up exams
mood-congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
Applied Research
scientific studythat aims to solve practical problems
stratified sampling
the population is divided into subgroups and random sampling techines are used to select individuals from each stratum. It gives the assurance that the sample will reflect the numerical composition of the population
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Therapy types:
 
cognitive therapies
focuses on client's thoughts rather than his or her own feelings or behaviors
residual schizophrenia
Diagnosis given to patients who have had an episode of schizophrenia but who presently show no psychotic symptoms, though signs of the disorder do exist.
who is infanticide usually committed by
a recent immigrant
heritability
the extent to which variability in a particular behavior (or d/o) in a pop. can be acccounted for by genetic factors
categorical scale
a scale that divides responses into categories that are not numberically related
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
excessive and chronic worrying that lasts for a period of at least six months
Display rules
cultural rules for who should display emotion and when (crying at wedding, crying in a movie, men don't cry)
The Chameleon effect:Conformity
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement
latent learning
Occam's Razor
If two explanations are equally good, choose the simplest one (KISS).Ex. Crop circles, lab pranks
Categorical perception
Infants and adults can tell the difference between similar sounding letters B and P for example
Oppositional defiant disorder
- pattern of negativisitic, hostile and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 mo
- 4 of the following
> loses temper
> argues with adults
> actively lies
> deliberately annoys
> blames others
> touchy or easily annoyed by others
> angry and resentful
> spiteful and vindictive
frontal lobe
the anterior part of each cerebral hemisphere, in front of the central sulcus.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
condition marked by a lengthy history of irresponsible and/or illegal actions
John Butler
We have the current and the future self, and the self only exists as long as we are immediately attached to it. We feel removed from our past self
Neural Plasticity
describes the ability of the brain to be changed by environment and by experience
The brain is always changing (mostly at the cellular and molecular level)
Systematic Introspection
• Early technique used to study the mind• Required people to look inward and describe their own experiences
what's an embryo?
developing human organism from 2 weeks after fertilization to the 2nd month
random sample
each individ has an equal chance of being selected to participate
-Theory that there are multiple types of intelligence; each type varies in every person 
1) Linguistic Intelligence
2) Interpersonal Intelligence
3) Musical
4) Logical/Mathematical
5) Spatial
6) Intrap
Brewer Study (1981)
According to Weiner's attribution theory, the stability of an achievement attribution determines one's ________ in a given achievement domain.
Expectancy of success or failure
Optical Disk
A hole in the retina; it yields a blind spot
Emotion- James Lange theory.
changes in environment result in our emotions. = our emotions are a result of noticing changes in environment.
What is the intimacy vs. isolation stage of PSD? when does it occur?
love relationships/intimacy - willingness to commit - occurs in young adulthood ages 19 to 40
What is the sensation-seeking personality, and what is Zuckerman’s physiological explanation for it?
a.    Zuckerman -- “a trait defined by the need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and experiences, and willingness to take physical & social risks for the sake of such experience.”b.    Low level
Julien Offray de la Mettrie (1709-1751)
Mental activity are completley dependent on the body
-Correltaion b/w brain injury & mental capabilities
-Fevers can affect mental clarity
-saw no qualitative difference b/w humans and animals
- Believed aps could be taught /lang and then they would be identical to man.
Natural Component = Social Component =
Natural- "inability of some interna mechanism to perform it's natural funciton."Social= disvalued some way by society judgement.
Motor cortex
The gyrus at the top of the cortex, at the back of the frontal lobe just in front of the central fissure, extending from the top down vertically, that controls muscle movement. 92
Typical Anti-Drug Norms program involves
a film demonstrating effective ways of responding, discussion, practice
Costa and McCrae
Created the Big 5 or 5 factor model of personality
Biernat & Kobrynowicz (1997)- gender and job competence
participants review resume of male or female applicant, job is masculine "chief of staff" or feminine "executive secretary"
IV: gender of applicant
DV: perceived competence
men judged more competent for chief of staff and women judged more competent for secretary
results: gender that fits the job is judged most competent
Which of these statements was NOT true of language and evolution?
b. Chimps can produce spoken language.
Based on recent assessments of the Head Start program, it can be concluded that
a. good programs can have a positive effect on life outcomes.
what did kluver and bucy study in the monkeys
the effect of removing a piece of the lymbic system, which affects emotion, particularly fear
smoking
it's bad.
glutamate
neurotransmitter, excitatory, memory; too much - migraines; MSG,
Aggression
• The Biology of Aggressiono Genetic- nature has a role. Genetic predisposition to aggression. Identical twins are more similar even if reared apart. o Evolutionary factors- peoples and animals needed a base level of aggression in order to surviveo Biochemical- hormones (testosterone) are associated with levels of aggression- men have higher testosterone and more aggression- men with higher levels of testosterone are more aggressive than those with lower levels. If you increase testosterone in someone, their aggression increases. (These three can all be connected and interrelated)• The Psychology of Aggressiono Learning- modeling learning! Bobo Dolls and bandura- watching aggressive models and imitating that model. Violent television. o Frustration-aggression theory- we aggress when we are frustrated and are inhibited from completing a desired goal. Ex) losing sports teams act more aggressively than winning sports teams. o Arousal-affect model (transferred excitation)- when you feel arousal, if you are in a situation that cues aggression, you can transfer your own arousal and interpret it as aggression because of the situation you are in and you will feel aggression. Similar to Schachter Two Factor theory. o Aggressive stimulus (“weapon focus effect”)- increases the feelings of aggression. Play off of Milgram except you get to choose the level of shocks- in some conditions you were in a room with a tennis racket and in another, there was a rifle- Presence of gun lead you to give higher shock levels. o Deindividuation – loss of individuality. You do not have a keen sense of self as a distinct person. You are a part of an anonymous group so then major acts of aggression occur with groups acting anonymously. People in groups behave much worse than people individually.
occipital lobe
associated with visual processing
Iconic Memory
short term visual memory
Episodic memory
episodic memories preserve individually, the specific events that you have personally experienced e.g. happiest birthday
Kinds of memory:
Personal autobiographical (recollection)Autobiographical fact (Familiarity)Generic personal memory (self-schema)
Recently dieting and preoccupation with food, along with rates of eating disorders, are _____ in all groups of race
increasing
reticular formation
netlike formation of neurons, arousal
nature-nurture
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions the gens and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
Phrase Structure
-phrases organize words into meaningful units
-issue:
*sometimes words alone aren't enough to unambiguously convey meaning
 
 
 
Timbre
the mixture of frequencies and amplitudes that make up the quality of sound
Psychoanalytic
o Analyzing personality and treating psychological disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior. Also contends that childhood experiences play an important role in shaping adult behavior
NOTE:Every tests must have norms (average scores to compare the indivdual to)
overlearning
giving the trainees practice beyond what is necessary to reach a criterion for success in training 
the peripheral nervous system consists of the ____ and the ____ nervous system
somatic; autonatic
Confirmation Bias
Preferring information that confirms preexisting positions or beliefs, while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidence
Research methods
general strategies for conducting studies
countertransferance
counsellor's projected emotions to or behaviour toward the client
associative learning
Learning that certain events occur together - the events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequence
sensory adaptation
the diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus, occurs in all senses
dementia praecox
An older term for schizophrenia, believed then to be an incurable and progressive deterioration of mental functioning beginning in adolescence.
what mating system does medium food density favor?
monogamy
person-situation controversy
looking for genuine personality traits that exist across time and situations
Project-based Learning
Classroom activity in which students acquire new knowledge and skills while working on a complex, multifaceted project that yields a concrete end product
psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phalic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Involves eating massive amounts of food and then eliminating the food by self-induced vomitting, use of strong laxatives, fasting, or excessive exercise
Bulimia nervosa
TESTES
MALE ENDOCRINE GLANDS THAT SECRETE SEX RELATED HORMONES AND PRODUCE SPERM CELLS
conditioned stimulus (CS)
an originially irrelevant stimulus that, after association with a UCS comes to trigger a conditioned response; not natural, the response we made (bell causes the dog to salivate)
Ponzo illusion
An illustration in which the perceived length of a line is affected by linear perspective cues
Self reports
people's answers to questions about the topics of interest
positive correlation
tend to rise and fall together
nighmares
occur in REM sleep during the early morning hours
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
behavioral neuroscience
an approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes
When did Native Americans begin using hallucinogens?
1700's on
Bottom-up Processing
the analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception
Hedonic Principle
The notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain
negative reinforcement
a response is strengthened by the removal of an aversive stimulus
The Action Potential...Depolarization
1. Electrical event occurs2. Na+ channels open; Na+ rushes inside cell-diffusion-electrostatic pressure3. Charge inside cell temporarily begins to reverse4. If “spike” (impulse) reaches threshold (-55mV), then fires action potentialAll or none principle5. Process continues until membrane potential reaches +40mVdepolarization
Electrical state that occurs in an all-or-none matter
action potential
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in males When paired with an X sex chromosome from the mother, it produces a male
Spontaneous recovery
The reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occured
This type of alcohol contains relatively few congeners
Grain neutral spirits
recency errors
occur when raters focus only on easily remembered recent behavior
amygdala
a part of the limbic system that plays a central role in many emotional processes, particularly the formation of emotional memories.
ALZHEIMER'S VIDEO
NOW OVER 5 MILLION PEOPLE
IN 50 YEARS THERE WILL BE 14 MILLION
RISK FACTORS:
GREATEST IS AGE 65 AND UP, ONCE 85 THE RISK FACTOR RISES TO 50%
FAMILY HISTORY
HEAD INJURY
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
HIGH CHOLESTEROL
HEAR DISEASE
STROKE
4 pillars of Psychology
1. Evolution: genes make minds
2. Idealism: minds make reality
3.  Empiricism: reality is known by observation, possibly the most important

 
Nodes of Ranvier
Openings in the myelin covering and places where sodium ions can enter the cell 113
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, teh stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
encoding in short term working memory
code is usually sensory
Novelty seeking
based on low levels of dopamine. Create a state t o obtain increase dopamine.thrills
Effects of Cocaine
Stimulant - Rush of euphoria lasts 15 to 30 minutes. Depletes dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine, crash of depression occurs as the drug wears off. Increases heart/breathing rate.
Why is debriefing used?
To explain completely the purpose of the study.
 
Educate the participant.
The US Army WWI Testing Program


Two tests
 
-Army Alpha test (for literate people)
 
-Army Beta test (for illiterate people)
The value of the difference threshold is known as a
a. just noticeable difference.
divorce at mid-life
10% occur at midlife, midlife gains in practical problem solving and effective coping strategies may reduce the stressful impact of divorce
The R's about depression. Response, Remission, recovery, relapse and recurrence.
Response-to treatment: 50% improvement of symptoms. Remission: 100% symptom free.Recovery: Remission greater then 2-12 months. Relapse: return of symptoms before recovery. Recurrence: return of symptoms after recovery
What are the factors that determine whether and how a conditioned response is learned?
timing predictability signal strength attentionbiopreparedness contrapreparedness
By plotting possible trajectories of the iron rod that penetrated the head of Phineas Gage, psychologists were also to determine that the damage occurred in an area of:
the prefrontal cortex that is associated with rational decisions and emotions
What does the row factor reflect in Within subjects ANOVA?
the overall differences between subjects averaged across treatments
What occured under Pinel in the hospital for the mentally ill?
it was drastically reorgnaized - patients were unchained and allowed to move around the hospital grounds, rooms were made more comfortable, violent medical treatments were rejected
Citing works with 6 or more authors
-cite last name of first author followed by et al. each time
What is the clinical presentation of adjustment disorders?
- symptoms are consistent with anxiety and depression
which of these is the best example of premack principle?
first you complete your homework then you can play
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