Psych quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Neuroscience
.
Define subliminal
below threshold
Survey Methods
structured and unstructured
visual-spatial system
stores visual info
Cocaine effects
Euphoria, paranoid ideations, mydriasis, hallucinations (tactile), sudden cardiac failure; withdrawal: post use crash, severe depression and suicidality, hypersomnolence, severe psychological craving; (blocks NE, 5HT, and DA reuptake)
ID
translates body needs into drivesresevior of psychic energyprimitive, chaoticillogicalinaccessible to consciousness"wants!!"primary process thinking
Habituation 


repeatedly show stimulus until infant is bored
then change the stimuli, can they detect minor differences?
if so, they have formed memory, and can perceive the difference
Hormones
Chemical messengers secreted from endocrine glands, into the bloodstream, to various organs thoughout the body.
Responsible for:storage of new information in memory,comparing sensory information with what the brain expects about the world.enabling us to form spatial memories for navigating the environment.
Hippocampus
schizophrenia
A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
Stigma
The pernicious beliefs and attitudes held by a society, ascribed to groups considered deviant in some manner, such as the mentally ill.
psychological disorders
disorders reflecting abnormalities of the mind
kohlberg
his theory focuses on moral reasoning
max werthemheimer
led german movement against structuralism
psych could only be studied in units of "gesalts"
learning disability, learning disorder, communication disorder
1.learning disability-includes learning disorder and communication disorder2.learning disorder-specific problems in reading, math and/or writing3.communication disorder-difficulty in producing speech, speech fluency, using speech to communicate, and understanding speech
structuralism
analyzed consciouness into its basic elements and investigates how these elements are related
Person who you think you are?
Ego
Residual
the difference between actual and predicted values of Y
survey
a technique for ascentaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of ppl usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
medulla
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
Fixation
Partially remaining at a more immature level (NOT REGRESSION)
Ex: Men fixating on video game
retroactive interference
situations in which later learning impairs memory for information acquired earlier
Theories for how imagery facilitates performance
Bioinformotional
Functional Equivalence
Mental Readiness
Menarche
term for a girl's first menstrual period
biopsychological- behavioral gentics
genetic inheritance passes on predispositions
adopted kids= temperment more like biological than adoptive parent
sound
bottom units which combine to form higher level categories
reinforcement
the consequences of a behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that the behavior will occur again
Gardener's theory
8 types of specific intelligences which are independent of each other
control theory 
Klein 1989 builds upon goal-setting theory by focusing on how feedback affects motivation to maintain effort toward goals. 
mastery motivation
inborn motive to explore, understand, and control one\'s environment
Strong ID & strong superego
Depressed
feel depressed, because they have all these desires that can’t get met
what types of memories are episodic,semantic,procedural
longterm memories
electroconvulsive therapy
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthesized patient
behaviorism
the theory that human psychology can only be accurately studied through the analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events
broca's area
area of frontal lobe that controls language expression
common co-morbidities are MDD, substance abuse, other anxiety disorders, and personality disorders
common co-morbidities of phobias...
Schemas
a concept that already exists at a given moment in a person's mind and that organizes and interprets informations
Experimental condition
A treatment condition in which the researcher applies a particular value of an independent variable to subjects and then measures the dependent variable; in an experimental group-control-group design, the group that receives some value of the independent variable
Thomas and Chess
Difficult; 10%, Slow-to-warm up; 15%, easy; 40%, mixture; 35%
BORDERLINE personality disorder NSG DX
Risk for self-mutilation, dysfunctional grieving, impaired social interaction.
Midbrain w/functions
the middle of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain between the forebrain and hindbrain.o General arousalo Sleep / wake cycleso Pain perception
Agoraphobia
An intense fear of being in a situation from which escape is not possible or in which help would not be available if one experienced overwhelming anxiety of a panic attack
 
 
 
Classical Conditioning
Stimulus Generalization
After a stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus for some response, other similar stimuli may produce the same reaction
 
(sudden noise in the middle of the night associated with the alarm clock)
central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord
Stimulus generalization
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to a new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. (Ex: Little Albert)
Association areas
Include most areas of the cortex; involved in interpreting, integrating, and acting on information processed by other parts of the brain
Prevention aimed at young people who have not yet tried the substance in question. Encourage abstinence.
Primary prevention
mass hysteria
a condition affecting a group of persons, characterized by excitement or anxiety, irrational behavior or beliefs, or inexplicable symptoms of illness
fight or flight response
starts in hypothalamus, then activates the ANS then the endocrine system.
culture and creativity
culture and creativity share a strong link because the culture is the media which is used by the artist to express their creativity 
umbilical cord
the cord that connects an embryo or fetus to the mother's placenta
conditioned stimulus
the stimulus which comes to elicit a new response by virtue of pairings with the unconditioned stimulus
Addiction
A false need - one thinks they need it; forms a dependency.
electra complex
girl has desires for father and wants to eliminate mother(penis envy)
Auditory localization
The ability to judge the direction a sound is coming from.
Retrograde Amnesia
Loss of memory for events before a brain injury; backward-acting amnesia
Why does the economy affect culture
Our accessibility to resources
regulated behavior
eating (if you don't do it enough, you die)
People with reduced nicotine metabolism (or less cytochrome P450 2A6) are more or less likely to become smokers?
Less nicotine metabolism= less likely to become a smoker
ignoring base rates
think bob is a librarian because of stereotypes even though there are more salesmen than librarians
Motor Area (Frontal Lobe)
MOTOR AREA. Responsible for the bodys voluntary movement. Movement is produced through the coordinated firing of a complex variety of neurons in the nervous system.
3 Steps for Operant Conditioning
a. A stimulus is presented in environmentb. Organism chooses a responsec. Environment either reinforces or punishes that response
Kitty Genovese - example of __________?
o Woman attacked by assailant, crying out for helpo When attacker realized no one was helping her, he came back and stabbed her againo attack took place over 45 minutes - estimated that 38 witnesses watched, but no one helpedExample of bystander effect
Psychologists can be characterized as “a rather optimistic group” because they believe that
a. virtually any undesired behavior can be modified with an appropriate intervention.
****What is deep level of process and example
adding meaning, developing organizations and associations or relating it to things we already know; if you thought about each name and grouped all the names accordin to the 1st initial
Endogenous opioid that works at kappa receptors and has aversive effects
Dynorphin (reduces DA signaling when DA is very high)
-memory is subject to errors and biases
-memory can be altered by emotional factors
 -study of recollection of High School grades
 -students misremembered their D's and F's, but recalled their A's
(Long Term Memory- Factors Affecting Storage) Depth of Processing
Groups at the highest risk for Drug Experimentation
teens, college students, older adults, males/females (remember metabolize differently), Ethnicity
We use the concept bird to think and talk about a variety of creatures all haveing wings and feathers a concept is
A mental grouping of similar things
Does planning fallacy occur even if one has experienced negative conseqeunces previously from doing so?
yes, we don't use our past to help us plan
warm+permissive
indulgent
depressant
reduce neural activity
Graafian follicle
a mature follicle
the persuasive general factor
g
Etiology
cause that led to disorder
What family does haldol/haloperidol pertain to
Antipsychotics
Types of learning: Operant Contintioning
Reinforcement
Fig 2-2 page 32
Operational definition
inhibition
inappropriate conscious or unconscious restraint or suppression of behavior, often due to guilt or fear produced by past punishment
Sigmund Freud
Famed personality theorist and therapist, whose controversial ideas influenced humanity's self-understanding.
psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis was developed by Freud, mainly dealing with the patient talking about their thoughts (such as dreams, free associations, etc.) and then the analyst induces the unconscious conflicts causing the patient's symptoms and character problems, and interprets them for the patient to create insight for resolution of the problems.
Ultrasound
a noninvasive technique for examining the internal organs of a fetus; it uses sound waves like a radar or sonar scan to create a picture
In advanced stages of addiction, ______ becomes primarily a painkiller to stave off withdrawal symptoms
heroin
reflexes
specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation
Nuremberg Code, 1947
•Require informed consent–Do participants understand risks and benefits of participation?•Risk/benefit ratio–Do scientific benefits of study outweigh risks to participants?•Avoid physical and mental suffering/injury–Does study minimize physical and psychological harm?•No expectation of death or disabling injury from experiment
overjustification effect
an already justifiable activity becomes overjustified by the promise of an added reward (people who are promised a reward as their motivation for an activity may lose their intrinsic interest in it)
Aquisitions
The process that establishes or strengthens a conditioned response
What psychological problem, the most, is likely to precede the onset of anorexia
perfectionism
insight
an understanding of the motivational forces behind one's actions, thoughts, or behavior; self-knowledge
Bulimia Nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxitive use, fasting, or excessive exercise
This PD has love-hate relationships and a fear of abandoment. Often have recurrent suicidal or self-mutilating behaviors.
Borderline PD
Ideas about hypnosis
Rituals surrounding hypnosis increase suggestibility and create expectations.These are more likely to be absorbed in fantasy make good hypnotic subjects.
4 types of generativity
biological: give birth
parental: nurturing children
work: skills passed on, mentoring
cultural: creative output, politics
Children learn many social behaviors by imitationg parents and other models this type of learning is called
Observational learning
Lens
finishes the focusing begun by the cornea
Reciprocal Altruism
Behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future
Sensation
The process of receiving stimuli or information.
Descriptive Research
observes and describes behavior and mental processes without manipulating variables.
hippocrates
argued that the brain was responsible for thought and behvoir.
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals that alter the activity of the receiving neuron
prisoners dilemma
partners in crime tempted to confess
Results
Discuss your findings in terms of means, SD's and t-tests and other inferential statistics. Refer to graphs tables etc. Start by giving the general and lead to the specific findings. do
conditioned
proceeding from or dependent on a conditioning of the individual; learned or acquired behavior patterns
dualism
the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interect
asch's conformity experiments
match line length with confederates giving wrong answers
trial and error
involves trying possible solutions and discarding those that are in error until one works
specific phobia
a disorder that involves an irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual's ability to function. 1 Animals, 2 nautral environments, 3 situations, 4 blood injections and injury 5 death and illness. women are more likely (-heights) 4 to 1 man. 11% of USA
PET scan
depicts brain activity by showing each brain area's consumption of glucose
validity
the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measrue
Massive Parallelism


 different parts of the brain are simultaneous extracting different aspects from the sense, ie color, motion, form, and depth
• Language influences thinking
o Language and culture- distinction of types of words that we have in different cultures. Language represented in the culture are a reflection of the cultural values. In English, there’s a lot of focus on the self. There are a number of words about self-focused emotions. Japanese put emphasis on interpersonal relations- sympathy, shame. More words in the language of Japanese that tie into interpersonal relations than self, an opposite in English. o Language and self-concept- language influences how we think about ourselves. Research done with people who have been bilingual from birth. If you interview them in different languages, they describe themselves differently as a function of the language of the interview. o Gendered language- weird demarcations of gender names- “girls” can be used through high school and college. But “boy” turns into “guy”. A some people say woman, but most people say girl and guy. So we make age distinctions for males that we don’t for women. But we take a lot of care indicating if a woman is married- all males are Mr. Females are either Miss, Ms. Or Mrs. Depending on marital status. Apparently, a woman who is ms. Is “assertive ,achievement oriented, cold, unpopular, married but unhappily” o The bilingual advantage- at one time, it was very hip in Canada to put children in a French immersion school while speaking English at home. Indicated that they did very well and became bilingual, did better on achievement tests than others. But is it helpful for them to learn English? For instance, if you speak Spanish at home, and go to an English only school, is it fair? Would it be fairer to instruct them in their native language? (French example is just a correlation- it could be about socio economic, or other factors!) There is definite evidence that bilingual children have an enormous benefit- but there is a lot of correlation and not causation
A set of personality factors based on sociality
Introverted-Extroverted
the "theory" or "story" that a person constructs about herself or himself through social interaction
self-concept
Latency Stage
5-6 years, the sexual impulses are repressed into unconscious
start trying to control impulses, start realizing that it’s not appropriate, start siding with same sex parent
elaborative rehearsal
when information is organized in some fashion which might include expanding the information to make it fit in a logical frame work or transforming it to the next level in some way
Signal Detection Theory
Various factors influence our sensory judgment, often involves a process of decisions in addition to sensation
fugue
a period during which a person suffers from loss of memory, often begins a new life, and, upon recovery, remembers nothing of the amnesic phase.
Seasonal Affective Disorder
• The predominance of fall or winter onset and is likely caused by the lessening daylight hours• Typically remits in the spring• Usually in cold, darker areas of the world (ex. Alaska)• Can be treated by light therapy (Happy Light)
Reconstruction
adding words which are not on list but belong in same group
pupil
the opening in the center of the eye that adjusts to allow light to enter
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory
Theory that states there are three types of color receptors in the retina
What type of research did Freud use most?
case studies
Variables which influenced obedience in Milgram study
o Remoteness of the victimo Closeness and legitimacy of authority figureo Cog in the wheelo Personal characteristics: differences were weak or nonexistento Cultural differences: similar results cross culturally
Social Psychology
focuses on the power of situation and on the way people are shaped through their interactions with others.
Important to sample from the full range of possible values of both variables. If the range of possible values is restricted, the magnitude of the correlation coefficient is reduced. The problem of restriction of range occurs when the individuals are homog
restriction of range
Although Sean felt terribly depressed when he began psychotherapy, he was much happier by the time he had completed the therapy. His improvement can most likely be based on...
Regression towards the mean.
encoding specific principle
the idea that a retrieval cue can serve ass an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded
What are the therapeutic effects of Risperdol/Risperidone?
Decreases psychoses
Decreases bipolar mania or autism
Unpleasent tension, anxiety, and heightened sympathetic activity resulting from a blocked goal
frustration you have something you want to accomplish, but something else is preventing you from getting it done
age at which strategies generally emerge
between 5 and 8 years
Erikson's ego integrity vs despair
65-death
- acceptance of one's life upon reflection


4 types of Generativity Table 9.6 p. 363
Parental

 
Nurturing and disciplining offspring, initiating them into a family's traditions.
Generative object: the child
Kingston is in a wonderful mood. As he walks down the street with you, he points to all the other people who seem to be having a good time. He may do this as a consequence of
a. mood-congruent processing.
Which method of research is this?
Questionnaire and interviews are used to gather information about specific aspects of participants' behavior.
NOTE:Another theory of dreaming says that dreams are an extension of the conscious concerns of daily life in altered (not disguised) form. Research shows that what people dream about is generally similar to what they do and think about hile awake
Dream about things that are important to us during our waking hours
only occurs with intradimensional training
peak moves away from Sdelta and no longer centered over discriminatory stimulus.
bipolar disorder: onset, course, outcome
-peak age of onset is bt 15-19 yrs; extremely rare prior to 10-depressive episode usually occurs first-chronic in nature and resistant to treatment-poor long-term prognosis
Give an example of when eustress is good?
you are nervous (stressed) about the test so you study to prepare, if you had no stress, you wouldn't study at all

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


 learned helplessness

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


– the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal
or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.


longterm memories
hippocampus
Freud's' Psychosexual Stages
Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latent
Genitial
Symbiotic (1-5m)
Psychic fusion (mother)
Lateralization
brain has 2 hemisperes
population
the complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured
Personality Disorders
Borderline Personality Disorder- occurs in about 2% of the population. 75% of ppl are female. Has unstable mood.
 
Antisocial Personality Disorder- tends to have no guilt towards hurting other people.
 
Most common of all disorders. 10% of population has personality disorders
formal operational
abstract thinking becomes easier
biological rhythms
periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning
operant conditioning
criticisms
-attempt to reinforce desired behaviors and to withhold punishment for bad behaviors
-step by step positive reinforcers (rewards)
token economy: people exchange token of some sort, earned for exhibiting desired behavior, for various privaledges
 
critics argue
-what hapenns when reinforcers stop?
-is it right for one human to control another?
delusions
Beliefs contrary to reality, firmly held in spite of evidence to the contrary and common in paranoid disorders: of control, belief that one is being manipulated by some external force such as radar, television, or a creature from outer space; of grandeur, belief that one is an especially important or powerful person; of persecution, belief that one is being plotted against or oppressed by others.
passion
the drive leading to physical attraction, sexual relations, and romance
Temperament
Genetic predisposition to respond in particular ways to one's physical and social environments
Embryonic period
2-8 weeks, heartbeat begins; recognizable body parts appear; sexual differentiation begins
NOREPINEPHRINE
A NEUROTRANSMITTER BELIEVED TO BE INVOLVED IN VIGALANCE AND ATTENTION ANS RELEASED BY SYMPATHATHETIC AUTONOMIC NEURONS AND THE ADRENAL GLANDS
self propogating
action potential needs outside stimulation to keep itself moving
“Nurture” in the
nature-nurture issue refers to




The influence of experience
Why the theories?
--viewed universally, understanding traits are essential to understanding personality
--most observable, consistent things for predicting and understanding personality
--theories are always going to be a part of human endeavor
introvert
a person characterized by concern primarily with his or her own thoughts and feelings
genes
the complex molecules that provide the basic blueprint for each organism
percep. Constancy
tendency to preceive objects as relatively stable despite continually changing sensory information
Range
the distance between the highest and lowest scores
Rewards
Part of the social exchange theory, rewards are all the positive things you get from being in a relationship
Explain what Inductive/Deductive reasoning is. Is this formal or informal reasoning?
Inductive: Specific to conclusionDeductive: General to specificFormal/Logic
A stimulus that usually doesn't produce the behavior being studied
neutral stimulus
Proactive Interference
Old information interferes with the retrieval of new
 
Ex: Writing the old year instead of the new year
androgens
hormones that cause boys to mature sexually.
EEG (electroencephalogram)
an amplified recording of the electrical activity of the brain that is picked up by electrodes pasted to the person's skull
Obedience
the willingness to follow an order given by an authority
Spatial layout
Overall structure of the scene (enclosed, open, rough, smooth) (global)
Meaningfulness
*Clear from recent studies of memory that meaningful materials are easier to remember.
kinesthesis(body senses)
awareness of information about body movements
correlation
mutual relation of two or more things
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Define Independent groups design/Between subjects group design
different participants in each condition - independent groups; typically involves random assignment of participants to conditions
3 examples of subcortical dementias
Parkinson's, Huntington's, AIDS dementia
outcome research
How effective is the treatment in terms of relieving symptoms, etc?
positive psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals ad communities to thrive
whorian hypothesis
the proposal that the language one speaks determines both what and also how one thinks. in its strong form, this hypothesis indicates that people cannot think in ways not allowed or included with in their new language
personality trait
durable disposition to behave in a particlar way in a variety of situations.
contact hypothesis
The theory that direct contact b/w hostile groups will reduce prejudice under certain conditions
Self Esteem
-Liking for the self=A disposition - people's judge of their own worthiness-Sources are: personal experience, reflected appraisal by others relationships, social comparison, and group comparison
theory of multiple intelligences
Gardner's theory which defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to solve problems, create products, and discoer new knowledge ina wide range of culturally valued activities
Parametric Statistics
Branch of stats dealing with interval or ratio data, often used to draw inferences about the parameters of a population distribution.
levels of processing
processing a word deeply-by its meaning-produces better recognition of it at a later time than does shallow processing by attending to its appearance or sound.
Reward-blocking medications
e.g., block DA receptors in the NA
Messages travel in _______ from within a neuron and in _____________ form between neurons?
Electrical: chemical
Nuremberg Code stressed consideration of the following ethical aspects of research:
Participants should consent to participate in research, participants should be fully informed of the nature of the research prject, risks should be avoided whenever possible, participants should be protected against risks to the greatest extent possible, projects should be conducted by scientifically qualified personnel, participants have the right to discontinue participation at any time
Accommodation
the ability of the lens to change its shape and bend light rays so that objects are in focus
Tertiary prevention
Seeks to contain an illness once it has been acquired
ALFRED BINET
took the study of the useful functions of conscious mental processes and developed a way to measure intelligence. He experimented with a large number of tests items and found a set of questions (arithmetic problems, word definitions, memory tasks, and so on) that could be answered by most children of a given age, but not by children who were younger or who had low intelligence. These questions were used to create an intelligence test that was later revised and translated in the US to become the still widely used Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Binet's work led to the modern branch of psychology that specializes in the measurement of intelligence, personality, job aptitude, and so on.
a brain-imaging technique that measure over several minutes the average amount of neural activity in different brain regions by showing each region's consumption of sugar glucose, the brain's chemical fuel
positron emission tomography (PET) scan
overconfidence barrier
the fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgments
pons
a band of nerve fibers in the brain connecting the lobes of the midbrain, medulla, and cerebrum.
4. Industry Versus Inferiority (competence/self-esteem)
School-Age Child
Tries to develop a sense of self-worth by refining skills

competence-sense of workmanship, of perfecting skills
Occurs when the skull makes a sudden collision with another object
traumatic brain injury
-passage of time (how long has it been since the crime was commited?)
-witness-suspect familiarity
-witness-suspect of same race?
-\"weapon focus\"
Memory Accuracy
what is extrinsic motivation
drive to do something not rewarding that may lead to a rewarding outcome
Do rats self-administer cocaine and amphetamine directly into the NAc?
They self-admin amphetamine but NOT cocaine directly into the NAc...not really sure why
Genetic Mutations
- A mutation may be as small as a change in a single nucleotide base. Because the average genes has more than 1200 nucleotide bases an enormous number of mutations can potentially occur on a single gene. - Can be lethal
Means that given current available information, the ingredient is considered safe
GRAS - generally recognized as safe
Personality is best defined as an individual’s:
Characteristic of thinking, feelings & acting
Why does nicotine lower your hunger levels?
The hypothalamus gets tricked because of the release of glucose. Taste buds deadened
-the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another-“the power of the situation”
social psychology and the power of the situation
Initiative vs. Guilt (Erikson 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development)
3. control impulses, may be too guilty about desires/fantasies
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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