Psych Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
stages of AD
early
middle
late
terminal
Antidepressant types
MAO-Is
TCAs
SSRIs
2nd Gen. SSRIs
FEAR
response to specific threat
suicide attempt/completions in the schizophrenic are usually very ___________
dramatic
Major Irreversible Dementias
Alzheimer's dementia
Vascular dementia
Parkinson's disease
Lewy Body disease
Pick's disease
Huntington's disease
echolalia
keep repeating what you say
Five Factor model
Neuroticism
 Extraversion
Openness to Experience
Agreeableness
Conscientousness
STRESS
Physiologic or psyological tension that threatens total equilibrum; preceptions of stress and coping mechanisms are highly individualized.
Thought Blocking
patient's speech stops in mid-thought
Most common obsessional sxs pattern is...
contamination
categories of psych signs and sxs
cognitive
affective
behavioral
Hallmarks of AD
beta-amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain
Treatment options for schizophrenia
behavior therapy
family-oriented therapy
case management
group therapy
individual therapy
 
antipsychotic meds
 
most feared objects and situations
animals
storms
heights
illness
injury
death
1/3 of BDD pts become _________
housebound
Denial
refuse to acknowledge a real situation
 
Ex. Find beast lump and not keep appointment
 
 
 
Undoing
actually or symbolically attempting to cancel out an action that is unacceptable.
 
Ex. Sprinkle salt over left shoulder to prevent bad luck after spilling salt om table.
Suppression
Conscious or voluntary inhibition of unacceptable ideas.
 
Ex. Child fails Algebra class and puts the event out of his/her mind.
Maladaptive
Helplessness
repeated exposure to events perceived as being uncontrollable, decrease motivation, feeling of despair, anxiety, cognitive impairment, anger.
 
 
_________ behavior is common among untreated schizos
violent
 
excludes homocide
what is probably the disorder that most coexists with another mental disorder?
GAD
are specific or social phobias more common?
specific
___% of the clinical population and ___% of the general population has considered suicide at one time
31
 
24
A trait is...
a relatively permanent predisposition or tendency to respond in a particular way in a variety of situations or contexts
An individual's ability to formulate thoughts, process information, and solve problems is the
Cognitive Dimension----Piaget
Goal of antianxiety meds
increase CNS threshold for excitation/activation.
increase gabaminergic transmission
 
BDZ
barbs
phobia definition
an irrational fear that produces a conscious avoidance of the feared object
with OCD patients tend to ________ if drugs are stopped
relapse
If both parents have Bipolar I, there is a _________% chance that their child will have a mood disorder
50-75
Risk factors for AD
Age
FH
Gender: Female > male
Head trauma
down's syndrome
ed level/mental activity
cardiovascular disease
which gender is more likely to be impaired with the negative sxs of schizo?
men
Agreeableness
this factor refers to the dimension of cooperation vs hostility with extremes being trusting vs cynical
Conscientiousness
this factor refers to tendencies to be either methodical, controlled and responsible, vs lazy and careless
Compensation
attempt to make up for real or imagined weakness
 
Ex.  Perceived unattractive teen becomes outstanding athlete.
 
 
 
____________ is a good sign in a psych patient w/ a disorder of thought content
doubt
Other antidepressant drugs
buproprion (claim to fame no sexual dysfunction)
also smoke cessation, lower seizure threshold
 
Trazadone: highly anticholinergic
 
venlaflazine: for atypical depression
suicidal gesture
usually refers to an attempt of low lethality, implemented manipulatively
schizoaffective disorder
has features of both schizo and mood disorders
 
must have hallucinations and delusions for at least 2 wks in the absence of prominent mood sxs
Common single predictors of suicide
Major Depressive Illness, affective d/o
alcoholism, drug abuse
suicide ideation, talk, prep
 
 
Modeling, h/o suicide in the family
Rationalization or Intellectualization
use of logic, reasoning and analysis to avoid unacceptable feelings
 
Ex. Student failing subject and complains about teacher's expectations of the subject.
When patient feels that his illness is caused by God's betrayal he is experiencing
Spititual Distress
conversion disorders are commonly assc with...
comorbid depression, anxiety and schizophrenia
how does suicide rank in terms of cause of death in the US
11th
 
3rd for younger folks
the environmental stressor most often associated with the onset of depression is:
the loss of a spouse
Depression correlates with...
older age, lower SES, loss of spouse, physical illness and social isolation
Physical Illnesses assc with suicide risk
HIV/AIDs
Malignant cancers (esp those that are painful or disfiguring)
 
Chronic, painful, debilitating diseases
Feeling of helplessness typically occur when
Individuals have had repeated exposure to events percived as uncontrollable.
AD Top 10 warning signs
1. recent memory loss affecting job
2. diff performing familar tasks
3. probs with language
4. disorientation to time and place
5. poor or dec judgement
6. probs with abstract thinking
7. misplacing things
8. changes in mood or behavior
9. changes in personality
10. loss of initiative
Benefits of drug therapy for AD
family benefits -- report fewer behavioral problems
 
social benefits -- can delay nursing home placement btwn 16-24 mths
 
clinical benefits -- minimal improvement in MMSE
DSM IV - Personality Disorder Cluster A
Odd and Eccentric
 
patient may strike us as strange, maybe a little scary
 
may be quite dysfunctional
Dx of a hypomanic episode
very similar to manic but doesn't have to last as long
 
not severe enough to cause marked impairment, to necessitate hosp and there are no psychotic features present
DSM IV criteria for panic disorder
discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which 4+ of the following sxs dev abruptly peak within 10 mins
 
palpitations, sweating, trembling, sensation of SOB, feeling of choking, CP, N, feeling dizzy, derealization or depersonalization, fear of loss of control, fear of dying, paresthisias, chills or hot flashes
Only social factor contributing to dev of panic disorder is...
a recent history of separation or divorce
A person fears public situations because they are afraid of being judged. This is known as _________ phobia.
b. social
i) How the body and brain enable emotions
ii) “How are messages transmitter in the body?”
iii) “How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?”
Neuroscience
You are a clinician using the DSM-IV-TR classification system. If one of your clients was experiencing a high level of environmental stressors, you would note them on
c. Axis IV.
“Mental illness is a myth. In fact, the symptoms used as evidence for mental illness are nothing more than labels used in an attempt to justify and sanction professional intervention.” The individual most likely to have made this statement is
b. Thomas Szasz.
After attempting to assassinate U.S. president Ronald Reagan, John Hinckley was found “not guilty by virtue of insanity.” The jury believed that Hinckley
b. did not know that what he was doing was wrong.
sympathetic
arousing
Thomas Szasz
Abnormal behavior
zazen
meditation; sitting meditation; practiced in zen buddhism
Basic personality dispositions heavily influenced by genes
temperament
criteria reference
test with absolute score
Schizophrenia
psychosis or condition involving distorted perceptions of reality and an inability to function in most aspects of life. 17-25
Babbling
-Uttering meaningless confusion of words or sounds
sensory neurons
carry info to CNS
positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
incentive
plasticity
the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development
Circadian Cycles
-Individuals have different internal clocks-Must run on a 24 hour cycle-Almost all are set for sleep at night-Night time sleepiness peaks from 2am-6am-Siesta Zone: 1-4 pm-Programmed for naps
MORE TREATMENTS FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA
PSYCHOSOCIAL APPROACHES
-CASE MANAGEMENT (PATIENTS REPRESENTATIVE)
-SOCIAL-SKILLS/VOCATIONAL TRAINING (TEACH BASIC SOCIAL SKILLS)
-COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPY (FOCUS ON TEACHCING PATIENT TO THINK CIRITICALLY ABOUT THEIR POSITIVE SYMPTOMS)
-PERSONAL THERAPY (TEACHES COPING SKILLS)
-FAMILY THERAPY (PROVIDES FAMILIES WITH COMMUNICATION SKILLS, REDUCES HIGH LEVELS OF EXPRESSED EMOTION)
the personal sense of belonging, belief of having influence on anothers conduct or emotional state and a conviction that your very prescence affects the outcomes of the lives of others whether in a family, community or organization in scientitifically bei
connectedness 
Concrete Operational Period


Achieved:
–ability to classify based on multiple dimensions
–success in conservation tasks
 
• Elimination of egocentrism
 
• Can apply mental operations only to concrete objects or events
Sample Bias
systematic differences among the groups being studied-exists, experimental results may not truly reflect the influence of the independent variable.
Directs sensory information to the appropriate areas of the cortex
Thalamus
Who were two instict theorists?
Darwin, Freud
In a _____ researchers use questionnaires r interviews to gather information about specific aspects of participants' background and behavior.
Survey
THC
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
deja vu
eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." cues from current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
peripheral route
people respond to incidential cues.. such as attractiveness
Psychiatrists
A physician (M.D.) who has taken specialized postdoctoral training, called a residency, in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
Results section
-discuss the data gathered
-start by describing tests and criteria you used, any data clean up techniques used, and basic descriptive statistics
-next describe analytical statistics; state main effects of the t and F statements
-describe in everyday terms what the main effect means
-state any interactions
-never include your opinion
Bulbocavernosus Muscle
ring of sphincter muscles that surrounds the vaginal opening in women or the root of the penis in men
Limbic system
A loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortext and deeper subcortical areas. -pleasure center
object permanence
the understanding that objects exist independent of our momentary sensory or motoric interactions with them, absent in sensorimotor stage; at 8 months child starts to look for hidden toy but if you hide new toy in old way child will look for old toy
childhood
the stage of development that begins at about 18 to 24 months and lasts until adolescence
projective personality tests
-individual projects him/herself onto the test-interpretation of an ambiguous image-used to determine unconscious motives, conflicts, and psychological traits
Actual Self
-How people believe they really are
the idea that animals are biologically programmed to learn to fear specific objects
biological preparedness
Placebo Effect
Improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement. Subjects must be blind. It is REAL improvement.
dream symbolism
every dream has wish fulfillment sexually
central nervous system
consists ofr brain, spinal cord
racial memory
feelings, patterns of thought, and experience that have been transmitted from generation to generation and that deeply influence the mind and behavior
Homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
Taste receptors
chemical receptors on the tongue that decode molecules of food or drink to identify them
display rules
learned norms or rules, often taught very early, about when it is appropriate to express certain emotions and to whom one should show them
Psychology experiment
A controlled procedure in which at least two different treatment conditions are applied to subjects whose behaviors are then measured and compared to test a hypothesis about the effects of the treatments on behavior
Stranger Anxiety
develops in infants around 6-7 months ending around 18 months
Internalizing Behavior
Symptom of an emotional or behavioral disorder that primarily affects the student with the disorder but has little or no direct effect on others
A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of:
Reaction Formation
style of life
Alder: each person's distinctive way of achieving superiority
association areas
not involved with feeling or moving; complex thinking, learning, remembering, speaking
obesity
a condition in which a person is severly overweight as mesured by a body-mass index greater that 30
cognitive nitch
our brains separate us from other species
Long-Term Memory
Third stage of memory that stores information for long periods of time; its capacity is virtually limitless, and its duration is relatively permanent
What is aggression?
aggression is an intentional behavior aimed at doing harm or causing pain to another person
attention
concentration of the mind on a single object or thought selected with a view to limiting or clarifying receptivity by narrowing the range of stimuli
rirschach inkblot test
10 inkblots that seek to identify peoples innfer feelings. most famous, ambiguous
Operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
conditional love
feelings of love that depend on the loved one satisfying needs and fulfilling desires
bipolar cells
info from rods and cones goes to these, intermediate neural cells in teh eye that are stimulaed by receptors and stimulate the ganglion cells
Joe is participating in an experiment that requires him to lift his left hand when he is touched on the right side of his body, and vice versa. Joe feels a gentle tap on his left shoulder, so he lifts his right hand. The “gentle tap” was sensed in the
d. right; left
programmed instruction
divides material to be covered into a series of individual chunks or frames, each containing a piece of information where trainees work at their own pace
Crystallized intelligence consists of
specific information learned over a lifetime
operational definition
defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to prodcue or measure it
The active ingredients of OTC drugs are reviewed individually and three standards are considered
GRAS
GRAE
GRAHL: honestly labeled
basic vs. applied research
basic research reflects the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake; applied research is designed to solve specific, practical problems
What is the effect of para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) on rodents?
PCPA irreversibly inhibits tryptophan hydroxylase...5-HT reduced by 80-90% for up to 2 weeks
res extensa (descartes)
the body is extended into space and subject to the laws of physics
the process by which the id seeks to immediately satisfy whatever desire in currently active
pleasure principle
Law of Large Numbers
A statistical law stating that as sample size increases, the attributes of a sample will more closely reflect the attributes of the population from which it was drawn.
Objective Self Awareness
When we look at ourselves as a social object. We are likely to treat ourselves like an other.
Describe stage 3: stage of exhaustion
body's resistance to stress may gradually be reduced, or may collpase quickly
how do eastern and western cultures differ in regards to interdependence and independence?
WESTERN --> emphasize individuality, freedom, and independenceEASTERN --> emphasize harmony, obedience, and interdependence within their social system
What is Gardners Theory? List the 8 types of intelligence
The Multiple intelligence theory1. Musical Intelligence2. Kinesthetic Bodily Intelligence- sports3. Logical/Mathematical Intelligence4. Linguistic Intelligence - writers5. Spatial Intelligence - navigator6. Interpersonal Intelligence- Knowing other peoples emotional state Psychologists7. Intrapersonal Intelligence- knowing your emotion Self aware8. Emotional Intelligence-Inter/Intra personal intelligence
Schizophrenia, Depression and ADHD
schizo is when one is unable to tell between real and unreal situations happening in ones life/ feeling very down, suicidal, loss of interest/hyperactivity, unable to focus
Evidence of non humans and grammatical rules and audience design
Primates have shown to have some understanding capabilities, but less so when it comes to audience design
Identical twins that are reared apart tend to...
have IQs that are more similar than fraternal twins reared together.
Which is better: Picture + written text, or picture + spoken/auditory info? Why?
Picture + auditory info. This way you have cooperating information coming in two streams, rather than the picture and words competing with each other for the same processing resources.
CR (classical)
Conditioned Response
CASTRATION
CHEMICALLY OR SURGICALLY
DRASTICALLY REDUCES RECIDIVISM RATES
In a normal distribution
Mean=median=mode
 Avoid excessive familiarity Schedule regular visits Provide clear, nontechnical explanations Tolerate angry outbursts; But set limits Maintain awareness of personal feelings Consult psychiatrist
Management of BPD
are neurotransmitter & synapse electrical or chemical?
chemical
Chunking
-organizing familiar terms into fmailiar manageable units, often occurs automatically
Environment
Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
psychotropic
affecting mental activity, behavior, or perception, as a mood-altering drug.
Shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
multiaxial classification system
classification having several dimensions, all of which are employed in categorizing; DSM-IV-TR is an example
Diathesis‐Stress Model:
psychopathology requires two things:1) Predisposition to develop disorder (diathesis)2) A stress: predisposition→disorder
Memory codes
mental representations of physical stimuli
illusions
errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality
adoption studies
siblings raised apart vs. together
flashback
sudden memories during which the trauma is replayed in images or tho
Tuskegee Study
-US Public Health Study (1932-1972)-399 Poor African American men diagnosed with syphilis-\"Subjects\" not even aware that they were in study or that they had syphilis-Not Informed antibiotics were even available.
Rods
Special light-sensitive cells that are more sensitive to light than cones; enable sight in dim light; less detail and color
wernicke's area
responsible for language comprehention and production
resting potential
Electrical charge across the cell membrane of a resting neuron; state at which the positive ions outside are blocked and the negative ions are inside the axon
psychotherapy integration
-uses eclectic approach to combine many therapy techniques into a single system
Humanistic Perspective
-Rejects psychoanalysis- it is too pessimistic -Stresses freewill, and the human condition is set and designed by our own efforts and motivations -stresses freewill and goal to reach the human potential
Factors that Determine Helping
1)Noticing something is wrong2)Deciding it's an emergency3)Deciding one is personally responsible
missionary position
a face-to-face position of sexual intercourse in which the woman lies on her back and the man lies on top with his legs between hers; it was called this because Christian missionaries people that other positions were unnatural
hypnosis
state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion
Flashbulb Memories
Rich memory records of the circumstances surrounding emotionally significant and surprising events
humanistic perspectives
Maslow's theory of self-actualization
hierarchy of needs
the healthy personality
anagrams
effortful, create a word or sentence from 1st letter of each item
threshold potential
the membrane charge undergoies a remarkable further change in with no additional stimulation. the relative voltage of a membrane drops to zero and then continues to deporliize unitl the charage on the inside o the membrane is as great s 30 millivoltos and then the ptoneial reverse again.
reciprocal determination
the interacting of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.
accessibility
the extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of peoples minds and are therefore likely to be used when making judgments about the social world
Antipsychotic Drugs
Medications used to diminish or eliminate hallucinations, delusions, withdrawal, adn other symptoms of psychosis; also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers
Avoidant PD
- social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation.
- must have 4 of the following:
> avoids occupations that involve interpersonal contact bc of fear of criticism, disapproval or rejection.
> unwilling to have relationships unless certain of being liked
> preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations
> inhibited in new situations bc they feel inadequate
> views self as socially inept, unappealing and inferior
> reluctant to take personal risks due to fears of embarrassment.
extrovert
a person concerned primarily with the physical and social environment, a person whose attention is directed outward, not towards inner feelings
Fundemental attribution Error
others mistakes - InternalOurs - External
Transfer-Appropriate Processing
occurs when the initial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention. (semantic to semantic is better than visual to semantic)
agoraphobia often develops in a person who suffers from
panic disorders
Brightness
the overall intentsity of all of the wavelengths that make up light
Belief perseverance
the tendency to hold onto beliefs, even in the face of contradictory evidence
Change Blindness


when you get gradual small changes we don’t know it.
Perceiving more than we can sense
what is perception?
process of organizing & interpreting sensory info, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects & events
The students in the psychology class have decided to get the teacher to lecture from a corner of the classroom. They smile and make eye contact with him only when he moves closer and closer to the corner. If he moves in the wrong direction, they avert th
c. shaping.
placebo group
a control group of participants who believe they are recieving treatment, but who are only recieving a placebo
preparedness - not every behavior is learned etcnoam chomsky
proximate explanation
Fetal Period
The third, and final, stage of prenatal development (eight weeks to birth) characterized by rapid weight gain in the fetus and the fine detailing of body organs and systems
self report measures
questionnaires assessing a variety of characteristics(traits)
quota sampling
to choose sample that reflects some sort of numerical composition of subgroups of a population. similar to stratified sampling except that random sampling does no occur the problem is that there are no restrictions as to how individuals are chosen
Which D/O has the same positive and negative sx of schizophrenia, but duration is more than 1 mos and less than 6 mos?
Schizophreniform D/O
Kinesthetic
feel or sensation of the body as it moves in different positions
The striatum gets excitatory (glutamate) input from...and receives are more diffuse modulatory input from...
The striatum gets excitatory (glutamate) input from all over the cortex, and receives more diffuse modulatory input from midbrain DA cells
middle ear
an antechamber to the inner ear which amplifies the sound produced vibrations of the eardrum and transfers them into the cochlea
___ have been late for work because of sleep problems
22%
terminal button
a tip of the axon that conveys information to other neurons
What is Incentive Theory?
External factors move the individual to act.
Reference Groups
People we conform to, or go along with, becaue we like and admire them and want to be like them
A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
Psychological Dependence
Sleep & REM
5 stages of sleep
REM = rapid eye movement
REM sleep linked to dreamingcharacterized by twitching, eye mvmnt & brain wave patterns that resemble those for an awake state
What is included in this definition besides overt behavior?
Mental processes:
-Thoughts (beliefs and attitudes) and feelings (anger, jealousy, etc.)
Scientific
If a driver is given a ticket for speeding, he or she will be less likely to exceed the speed limit in the future. This statement is an example of a(n)
a. hypothesis.
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
aims to alter the way people think and behave
Opponent Process Theory
Each type of cone responds to two different wavelengths
brain activation in high pain vs low
high: increased anterior cigulate cortex, somatosensory cortex and prefrontal cortex
How much sleep is needed?
-newborns = 18/20 hours
•1 yr= 12 hr at night
•1+ =naps and 10-12 hrs/night
-school age = 10-12 hours/night and no nap
-average adult = 9 hours/night
-PEOPLE UNDERGOING PUBERTY NEED MROE SLEEP
-elderly need less
Genetic influences of sex differences
may contribute to sex differences in personality, cognitive abilities, and social behavior.-Hurt believed boys had sex linked traits (aka x-linked recessive trait) where boys have developmental probs usually from the mother carrier.
Example of relative clarity
When you are driving on flat land and you look at things that are far away they are fuzzy (lets us know they are far away)
The Overjustification Effect is an example of the ________ ________.
The ___________ ______ is an example of the discounting principle.
Give an example of planned fallacy
In a study by Buehler, 37 students were asked to predict completion times for their senior theses; the average estimate was 33.9 daysonly 29.7% completed the task in the time predicted the average was 55.5 days
Neurons
what three things do they do


one of two types of cells in the nervous system; are the nerve cells that handle the information-processing function.
·      Detect information
·      Transmit information
·      Affect muscles and glands

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


Down
syndrome

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


A condition of intellectual disability and associated
physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21


menarche
1st menstrual period
amnesia
The loss of memory
Frontal lobe
Higher-order functions:-Executive functioning (planning, decision making, problem solving)-Emotional functioning-Movement-Language & speech-Broca’s area Damage to frontal lobe (Broca’s area) Inability to produce speech; “non-fluent” Can understand language Motor difficulties
rehearsal
conscious repetition of information, either to encode it for storage or maintain it in consciousness
Box Plots
5 number graphical displays.MIN25thMedian75thMax
Object Permanence
(Sensorimotor)
 
-the understanding that an 
object exists even when it is out of sight
 
-piaget thought that infants younger than 8 months did NOT have object permanence 
 
adrenal glands
secrets adrenaline and hormones
A small, spineless, carrot-shaped cactus
Peyote
elaboration
linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
childhood amnesia
difficulty adults have remembering experiences from their first two years of life
expectancies
subjective beliefs about what will happen in a particular situation (including behavior outcomes, stimulus outcomes, and self-efficacies)
5 axis of dsm-iv: tr
the axis
Syllogistic Reasoning
Determining whether a conclusion follows from two statements that are assumed to be true
scaffolding 
Vygotskian learning mechanism in which parents provide initial assistance in children's learning but gradually remove structure as children become more competent
Overjustification Effect
-Our preference towards something that is already intrinsically rewarding can be reduced by adding an extrinsic reward-Adding a good grade to the best picture colored by kids can make it less fun
ANTIPSYCHOTIC MEDICATIONS
SCHIZOPHRENIAalters dopamine levels - reserpine, chlorpromazine
consolidates new memories - maybe helps with learning
REM
Disorganized Speech
-Severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently from one to another unrelated topic
-Reflects difficulty in organizing thoughts and attention
-Responses to questions are irrelevant, may use made up words or strangely patterned speech (word salad)
The maintaining of encoded information in the memory over time is
storage
occipital lobes
includes visual cortex, receives and makes sense of visual information
Overjustification
The process by which extrinsic rewards can sometimes displace internal motivation, as when a child receives money for playing video games.
conversion disorder
A disorder characterized by apparently debilitating physical symptoms that appear to be voluntary - but that the person experiences as involuntary.
ethnocentric
believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups.
antagonist
a substance that works on a neurotransmitter's receptors to dampen the activity of the neurotransmitter
Learner-Centered Instruction
Approach to teaching in which instructional strategies are chosen largely on the basis of students' existing abilities, predespositions, and needs
One-year-old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held by her mother than by anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates:
Secure Attachment
What is equilibrium/disequalibrium?
between internal structures and external information
 
 
 
Telegraphic Speech
 
 
Using only the most important words, children say, "Go car," not "Let's go into the car" since they are still learning the language
Thalamus
In "forebrain", acts as a relay station. Messages from senses get sent here then to higher parts of the brain.
Major depressive disorder
Disorder characterized by symptoms lasting 2+ weeks: differed routines in eating and sleeping, weight gain/loss, lessened interest in activities, difficulty making decisions, recurring thoughts of death/suicide
optic ataxia
impairment in visual guidance for movement
Reinforcer
Any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it.
connectedness
perceive two dots and line between them as a single unit
expectancy
something expected (as on the basis of a norm)
Glial cells
Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
basal ganglia
a set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movements
Reciprocity
liking those who show that they like you
postpartum depression
a deep depression experienced by about 10% of women in the first few months after giving birth
bulblike structures at end of axon that release neurotransmitters in synapse
terminal buttons
Long Term Memory
Believed to be permanent
Explicit vs implicit
Episodic vs Semantic
Priming
Classical Conditioning
 
apoptosis
weeding out process, signal is sent to some to not drop out, form connections into old age, and connections are lost
learned helplessness
a general sense of helplessness that is acquired when people repeatedly failed in their attempts to control their environment; learned helplessness may play a role in depression
cultural rules that govern how and when emotions are exhibited
display rules
A neuron whose anatomy is within a specific brain area.
Intrinsic
Identical Twins
Develop from a single, fertilized egg that splits into 2 genetically identical embryos, each of which becomes a person
Gate-control Theory
A theory that suggests the experience of pain depends partly on whether the neural message gets past a "gatekeeper" in the spinal cord
collectivism
giving priority to the goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly
educational psychology
how people learn and best ways to teach them; curriculum design, teacher training, achievement testing, student motivation, classroom diversity
Dominant Genes
Expressed when a pair of genes are different
Pearson Product Moment Correlation
Most commonly used index of correlation, appropriately used when both variables are continuous
stimulus generalization
the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response
Polygenic transmission
A process whereby a number of gene pairs combine their influences to create a single phenotypic trait.
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others mental states
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for info that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
Secular Trends
- 1/2 inch in height per generation
- Menarche --> Decline of approximately 4 months/decade
- Secular trend is "complete" in US, UK, and Japan
peripheral nervous system
includes all nerves lying outside the central nervous system
divided into somatic and autonomic
sensory cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS
a treatment that involves placing a powerful pulsed magnet over a person's scalp, which alters neuronal activity in the brain used to treat depression, fewer side effects
What is telegraphic speech, what is the language activation device
a. Telegraphic speech: grammatical two-word combinations; involves combining two words into simple sentences, such as “Daddy bad” or “Give cookie.” It’s called telegraphic speech because, as in a telegram, the child characteristically omits articles (the) and prepositions (at, in) from communications. This speech occurs around age two.b. Language activation device: equipment necessary to produce human speech (?? Double check)
Attribution Theory[Fritz Heider]
This theory states that we give casual explanations for someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
charles spearman said that intelligence consists of two kinds of factors which are:
the g factor:single general factor, and numerous specific factors s1, s2, s3, and so on
Variability due to sex, education, race, and income level
women seek more treatment than men
college educated seek more therapy than high school educated
whites seek more treatment than nonwhites
higher income seek more treatment than lower income
injuries and memory loss
what's key isn't the injury, it's when it happens - if trying to remember something that happened an hour before injury, might remember it still whereas might not remember it if something 20 minutes before injury
Define Self Esteem Need
Need to achieve, to be competent and strong, to gain approval and recognition
How does popularity affect social development?
Popular children tend to be friendly, assertive, good at communication, andhelpful to others. Especially in early adolescence athletic, arrogant, or aggressive children may also be popular if their behavior is not too extreme.
Evidence that spatial imagery can exist separate from visual:
- Subjects who have normal spatial skills (can do rotation tasks), could not form color images - could not answer the color of a banana
What is restricted range? To what does it lead?
• Restriction of Range (or Truncation): when the range of variables (X, Y, or both) becomes restricted • Leads to reduced variance and may significantly alter the strength of the correlation coefficient § If variables X and Y each have ceiling effects, they may create a scatterplot that is compacted at the high end reducing the magnitude of correlation between X and Y
What is the clinical presentation of dissociative identity disorder?
- mean # personalities is 7
- transition from one personality to another can be gradual or sudden
- personalities may not be aware of the "alters"
- switches may be brought on by stressful situations, disputes between different personalities, and psychological conflicts.
- psychoses: tend to originate in their own head.
Give an example of the James-Lange Theory of emotion
If you are walking in the woods and you see a bear, your body will respond in predictable ways: heart will beat faster, pupils will dilate, breathing will become faster and more shallow, and you will sweat. Since these changs in your body occur, you must be scared.
Premature ejaculation
cumming early
Does hypomania need hospitalization?
No
cranial; olfactory nerve
exlusvely smell
humanistic psychology
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth
electoconvulsive therapy is primarily used to treat
depression
Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic Perspective
Main Psychologist: Freud

Iceberg theory:
- Id (subconscious)
- Superego (preconscious)
- Ego (conscious mind)

Sex & Aggression drive human behavior.
5 major Perspectives
Biological, LearningCognitive, SocioculturalPsychodynamic
Cornea
Light waves come through cornea
Stanley Milgram
1933-1984; Field: social psychology; Contributions: wanted to see how the German soldiers in WWII fell to obedience, wanted to see how far individuals would go to be obedient; Studies: Shock Study
Psychoanalytic theory
Freud; Id (pleasure principle), Superego (morality/conscience),(Ego (mediate between first two)
applied research
research intended for practical use
Variable-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
Survey research
A descriptive research technique designed to gather limited amounts of information from many people, usually by administering some type of questionnaire.
Borderline personality disorder
• Borderline personality disorder- unstable identity. Not sure of who you are. Unstable emotions and relationships. May feel depressed or lonely so behaviorally react to make themselves feel better like binge eating, drinking, etc. Overwhelmingly, they have trouble making social relationships.o Due to disfunction in family. May include physical or emotional trauma. Very resistant to treatment.
Psychodynamic Therapies
Looks at unconscious conflicts, defense mechanisms and symptom resolution in a broader manner than Freud
pituitary gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
Sexual Scripts
Socially dictated descriptions of "appropriate" behaviors for sexual interactions
Discrimination
The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
Hindsight Bias
knew it all along phenomenon
anything seems commonplac, once explained
the tendency, after learning about an outcome, to be overconfident in one's ability to have predicted it"
already knew about this bias
standardization
a set of uniform procedures for treating each participant in a test, interview or experiment for recording data
Construct validation
scientific efforts to assess the construct validity of a given hypothetical construct
demand characteristics
cues inadvertently provided by the researcher, the research materials, or the research setting that supply the research participant with information about the purpose of the investigation
self-efficacy
belief that one is capable of executing certain behaviors or reaching certain goals
fovea (anatomy)
highest concentration of cones and rods in the back of the eye. more cones, as you move away from fovea ratio of rods-cones goes up.
collective unconscious
according to Jung, our shared storehouse of memories that ancestors have passed down to us across generations
Psychodynamic therapy
modern form of psychoanalysis that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces
motivation
the influences that account for the initiation direction intensity and persistence of behavior
What three indexes indicate what is normal?
MeanModeMedian
Sleeper Effect
Information from an unreliable source, which was initially discounted, later gains credibility because the source is forgotten
"Mimicking psychosis" - by producing hallucinations and some altered sense of reality, these drugs produce a state that could be described as psychotic
psychotomimetic drugs
receptors
parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and intiate a new electric signal...can only catch one at a time
Hypomania
A manic episode that is not severe enough to cause social problems
3 Structures of the hindbrain
1. Cerebellum2. Pons3. Medulla
Cross-sectional research
Comparison of two or more groups during the same, rather limited, time period
Experiments show that the hour before sleep is a good time to memorize information because this minimizes the disrupting effects of all the other new events that might claim out attention going to sleep after learning new material minimizes
retroactive interference
The tendency to percieve objects as relatively stable and unchaning despite changing sensory information
perceptual constancy
psychological dependence
mental desire or craving to achieve the ffects produced by a drug.
For three years, Samantha has worked as a psychologist in a day care center for underprivileged children. She has developed a teaching program that enhances each child’s self-esteem. This program most clearly satisfies psychology’s goal of
d. control.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-Is):
antidepressive drug that causes increase in food consumption.
Cerebral Cortex
The outermost coverint of the brain, largely responsible for higher-order mental processes.
what is hypothesis
specific prediction about how one variable relates to another
when one person's view of us influences our behavior so that we act according to that view
self-fulfilling prophesy
We process most information outside of conscious awareness. We register and react to stimuli outside of our awareness by means of BLANK processing. When we devote full conscious attention to stimuli we use BLANK processing.
Parallel; serial
bipolar disorder
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
Hindbrain-Reticular Formation
a region running through the middle of the hindbrain (and on into the midbrain). It receives sensory input (e.g., sound) from higher in the brain and passes these back up to the thalamus. The reticular formation is involved in sleep, arousal (and vomiting), attention, reflexes
Human Papillomaviruses (HPV)
viruses that cause abnormal growths in epithelial cells; there are over 100 types; a few (types 6 and 11) cause genital warts, while others (types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45) can lead to cancer of the cervix
Variable Ratio Schedule
refers to applying a reinforcers after a variable number of responses
3 processes of memory
Encoding (forming a memory code); storage (maintaining encoded info in memory); retrieval (retrieving info from memory)
The first female president of the American Psychological Association was _?_. The first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology was _?_.
Mary Calkins
Margaret Washburn
SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION
A type of behavior therapy in which phobic responses are reduced by pairing relaxation with a series of mental images or real-life situations that the person finds progressively more fear-provoking; based on the principle of counterconditioning.
****Decay theory of forgetting
based on the commonsense assumption that memory, like all biological processes, decrades with time
Trichromatic theory
human eyes has tree three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to light wave lengths
>specific receptors in the eye sensitive to red, green, & blue. (Young & Helmholtz)
Lithium is typically used with what other class of drug when treating manic episode?
atypical antipsychotics, modd stabilizing anticonvulsants or high potency benzo
What scales most frequently use the Likert format?
Multiple-point scalesPersonality and attitude
Major endocrine glands and functions
The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism, and sexual function and reproductive processes.
6th Stage of Erik Erickson's Theory
Early Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation (Shall I share my life with another or live alone?)
age of viability
the point at which the fetus can survive if born premature, at about prenatal age 22 weeks
What data transformation should you use for positively skewed data?
 
logarithmic, square root, or other root transformations
Men are attracted to..
Men are more attracted to women who are younger, and they want more variety among sexual partners. Men put more importance on physical attractiveness than women
Advantages of the Range
1 Easy to calculate2 Use with ordinal & interval/ratio data3 Emcompasses entire dist.
what are female counter strategies to infanticide
mating with multiple males and deceptive cycles(mate with new male even though not fertile)
What are some limitations of the behavioral perspective on personality?
-behaviorists have depended too much on animal research and have indiscriminately generalized from animal behavior to human behavior.-they have made little effort to integrate biological factors into their theories.-in carving personality into stimulus-response bonds, behaviorists have provided a fragmented view of personality.
6-OHDA lesions in the NAc causes... and 6-OHDA lesions in the striatum causes...
6-OHDA lesions in the NAc causes decreased locomotor response and decreased reinforcing effects following admin of psychostimulant. 6-OHDA lesions in the striatum causes decreased stereotyped behaviors following admin of psychostimulant
The GAF scale of Axis V is related with respect to what? what does it NOT include?
1. psychological 2. social functioning 3. occupational functioning . > the GAF scale does NOT include impairment in functioning due to physical or environmental limitations
2 problems with falling in love that CJ doesn't agree with
1.The experience of falling in love is a sex-linked erotic experience, 2. The experience of falling in love is temporary
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