Psych Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
i) How we learn observable responses.
ii) “How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations?”
iii) “What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say, to lose weight or stop smoking?”
With respect to the criteria that might be used to label behavior as “abnormal,” an individual who “sees” things that do not exist in objective reality would be meeting the criterion of
b. irrationality.
You are a clinician using the DSM-IV-TR classification system. If one of your clients were mentally retarded, you would code that on
b. Axis II.
If you’d like to increase the probability of persuading a friend based on cognitive-based arguments, then you should avoid topics
c. that are affect-based.
Explicit Memories

-Are consciously recalled
-Processed mostly by hippocampus
Constellation of schizophrenic symptoms including repetitive, peculiar, complex gestures, and in some cases, an almost manic increase in overall activity level.
Meaning provides..
predictability and support
Timid, sensitive to rejection, feelings of inadequacy
(1596-1650)Promoted the idea that human behaviour was not dominated by outside forces but from within.We can see this in his early explanations in which he proposes some mechanisms in the brain (innacurate).
What is a frequency polygon?
generalized conceptual knowledge used in understanding
- meaningfully organizes concepts
- tells us what to expect and what unstated information we can infer
*Individual attributes don't inertially make you a good leader; more-so, the mediator: competencies/skills, which effects the leadership outcome
Skills Model
Chemicals secreted by animal species that influence the behavior of other animals of the same species
*Multifactorial Inheritance*
Environmental factors interact with genetic factors to produce traits
Olfaction (olfactory sense)
the sensation of smell
Parenting beyond infancy

-attachment classifications appear to be 
fairly stable across early childhood
-other reseachers have examined the role 
of parenting in older children
-identified different types of parenting 
A cultural orientation in which independence, autonomy, & self-reliance take priority over group allegiances
Artificial Intelligence
Develops computer models that stimulate complex human cognitive processes
limbic system
system of neural structures associated with emotions and drives
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant women drinking too much.-noticeable facial misproportions
rooting reflex
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
part of the conflict. operates onr eality. id in realistic ways
a structure critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex
How to collect the data
-self reports
-behavioral/performance measures
-observation data
Direct observation
observing and recording the activity of subjects as they conduct their activities
Exciteatonry (PSP)
A positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood that the postynaptic neuron will fire action potentials
predictive validity
the assessment hinges on the correlation between the test score and some external criterion (e.g. a correlation between a scholistic aptitude test score and college grades)
humanistic psychology
an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
the larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal
Deep Explanation
Explanations that appeal to casual mechanisms, planning, well-reasoned arguments, and logic
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant women consuming large quantities of alcohol
fetal alcohol syndrome
Experimental Research
Experimental controls permit us to examine cause & effect relationships by manipulating variables to see if changing one variable produces change in the other variable.
Music perception
infants are sensitive to certain musical sounds
embryonic period
formation of body stems
sex organs develop
proceeding from or dependent on a conditioning of the individual; learned or acquired behavior patterns
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
-an abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood that lasts at least 1 week.-At least 3 manic symptoms (four if mood is irritable) are present.-Patients may exhibit psychotic features or require hospitalization to prevent harm to sel
Manic episode characterized by
dominant gene
one that will produce its observable effects in either the homozygous or the heterozygous condition.
Manipulation check
An assessment to determine whether the independent variable was manipulated successfully
fear of peanut butter sticking to roof of the mouth
Social Learning Theory
Belief that people learn from observing others; often times imitating what they see
Yerkes-Dodson Law
level of stress or arousal
If your level is low, your degree of performance is in the sleep stage, if you are at a medium level your degree of performance is in the optimal parformance stage, and if you are at a high level of arousal you are in the disorganizational stage
what is a scatter plot?
how do you tell a positive or negative correlation?
a level of stimulation needed to make an impulse in the neuron
crystallized intelligence
the specific knowledge gained as a result of applying fluid intelligence
What does Homeostasis mean?
Balance or remaining the same
True or False:Unrealistic self-evaluations may be a product of independent individualism (common in _______ cultures)
True; western cultures' independent individualistic focus may contribute to unrealistically positive self-evaluations
the belief in one's ability to carry out specific actions that produce desired outcomes
Rorschach test
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual, using a series of inkblot designs which the subject describes in his own words
Gamophobia, Algophobia, Acrophobia, Agoraphobia
Fear of marriage, pain, heights, public
men usually attempt suicide by
more lethal means (hanging, asphyxiation, breathing vehicle exhaust gas, and firearms)
female hypoactive sexual desire
the persistent or recurrent deficiency (or absence) of sexual fantasies/thoughts, and/or desire for an receptivity to sexual activity, which causes personal distress
long-term potentiation
a form of cellular plasticity in which a post synaptic neuron becomes more sensitive to the signal received from the presynaptic neuron. this potentiation is usually produced by a rapid and sustained burst of firing by the presynaptic neuron. the potentiation can then spread to other presynaptic neurons provided that they have fired in the past at the same time as the presynaptic dell that produced the potentiation in the first place
Broca's Area
A language area related to grammar and pronunciation.
Predictive validation study
A study in which predictor information is used to forecast a criterion that is assessed at a later time.
Wernicke's Area
A region in the left hemisphere of the brain that is involved in the comprehension of language.
Alternate States of Consciousness
– mental states other than ordinary waking consciousness found during sleep,dreaming, psychoactive drug use, hypnosis, etc.
The effects of breathing in smoke that other peoples smoking causes
Secondary Smoking
What are the 3 types of Prejudice?
1. Cognitive (Stereotypes)
2. Behavioral (Discrimination)
3. Affective (Prejudiced Feelings)
Repetitive, seemingly aimless behaviors performed in a relatively invariant manner
Focused sterotypies - seen in rats given increasing doses of cocaine
biological psycology
a branch of psycology that has to do with the links between psycology and behavior
what are the two types of nerve cells
glia, and neurons
blocking of an attempt to reach a goal creates anger which can generate aggression
frustration-aggression principle
how does enhanced understanding by theories guide future research?
they generate new predictions and suggests new lines of inquiry
Give examples of physcial stress reactions?
lose sleephives sweat increase heart rate blood pressue spikes secrete more stomach acid - ulcers
What's the difference between Major Depressive Disorder w/ Psychosis and Schizoaffective Disorder?
MDD w/Psychosis = Depression always present, psychosis comes and goes. Schizoaffective = Psychosis always present, depression comes and goes
What is the psychometric approach?
focuses on how well people perfom on standardized apitude tests which are designed to measure the ability to acquire skills or knowleadge.
ben franklin effect
if we do a favor for someone, we will like them more after doing the favor
we are more likely to comply...
if it is seen as "okay" from society
(societal validation) 
What is the avoiding loss barrier to Reflective Judgement?
People try to minimize risks and losses when making decisions.
Why are the emotional emotions the hardest for the family of a person with Schizophrenia?
it is hard to remember that it is the illness that it is making them act this way (if you tell them that their mom just died, they might not even have a reaction)
REM Vivid Recall!
1st person, subjective disorders
Focuses light onto retina
Relatively stable personality pattern, including temperaments, traits, and personality types
Concrete Operational Stage
(7-11 y.o.)
conservation, classification, seriation, spatial reasoning
thinking-->logically, organized, flexible (w concrete things, not abstractly). affected by cultural variation- (Brazilian street children)=culture, experience, schooling
conservation-decentration, reversibility
classification- more precise w "class inclusion problem"- collies= subcategory of dog
seriation- ability to mentally order items by their quantative charac (length, weight)
transitive inference- mental seriation
spatial reasoning- kids have more accurate understanding of space
cognitive mapping- more accurate und. of large-scale space (landmarks (preschool)-->landmarks on traveled route (8-10 y.o.)-->accurate view of large-scale space (end of mid. school))
Survey research
questionnaires (like paperandpencil and internet surveys) and interviews (such as on the phone)
Unconditioned stimulusA stimulus that automatically elicits a response
inappropriate conscious or unconscious restraint or suppression of behavior, often due to guilt or fear produced by past punishment
The most frequently occuring score(s) in a group
mild forms of psychopathology. patient does not lose contact with reality. anxiety
physical-attractiveness stereotype
The presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well: what is beautiful is good.
Side Effects of methamphetamines
clenchingfaintnesschills sweating spikes in body temp (can lead to brain damage)water intoxications (drink too much water and it causes your brain to swell)
the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn
(front part of corpus callosum) connects frontal lobes -Production of speech
Somatoform Disorders
problems characterized by unusual physical symptoms that occur in the absence of a known illness.
a procedure designed to change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior
Clinical Psychologists
Help people with psychological disorders adjust to the demands of life
little man
the common or ordinary person.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
A non-invasive brain-scanning technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce clear, three-dimensional images
This D/O has recurring obsessions or compulsions that are severely time consuming and cause significant stress or impairment.
Frontal Lobe
contains motor cortex, responsible for making plans, initiative, creativity, contains "Broca's Area" which is involved in speech production.
longitudinal research
observe one group of participants repeatedly over a given period of time (usually years).
Difference b/w parasympathomimetic agents and parasympatholytic agents
Parasympathomimetic agents are muscarinic receptor agonists and over-excite actions of the parasympathetic systemParasympatholytic agents are muscarinic receptor antagonists and inhibit actions of the parasympathetic system
classical conditioning
a neutral stimulus becomes associated with emotions
(ie mothballs elicit warm feelings,kind of like being at grandmas house...) 
a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study observable behavior
Prejudice & discrimination based on a person's racial background
a short extension emaning from the cell that receives contacts from other neurons. are not myelinatedare considered receiving end of the neuron (input side)
a positive or negative evaluation of an object
the tendency to see relationships or correlations between events that are actually unrelated
case study
thorough documentation of a specific individual, group, problem, or event
Operant conditioning
learned assciation betwee behavior and result
a feeling of happiness, confidence, or well-being sometimes exaggerated in pathological states as mania
social-cognitive perspective
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context
fear conditioning 
people are anxious, and afraid in their conditioned places of fear. no matter the place
binge eating disorder
Categorized in DSM-IV-TR as a diagnosis in need of further study; includes recurrent episodes of unrestrained eating.
group polarization
the tendency for a group's initial learning to get stronger over time
tend and befriend
stress response, seeking and giving support
analytic intelligence
the sort of intelligence measrued by intelligence testing, crucial for success in academic pursuits
more average face is seen as more attractive, this is true across cultures. A physical factor of attraction 
Contrast effect
we often think about something not just about their objective state but about what we are comparing it to. Ex) Seeing an outlet mall. We have perception of a major bargain. We see a sweater that has a price tag of 200 dollars which is crossed out and it’s now for 60. You think it’s a great deal! Had that sweater just said 60 dollars, you’d be like “eh” .
Bystander effect
The likelihood of a prosocial response to an emergency is affected by the number of bystanders who are present
social comparison
process of defining and evaluating the self by comparing oneself with other people
Developmental Psychology
-study of changes that occur in people's abilities and dispositions as they get older
embryotic period
2 weeks after conception which last from week two to eight. The embryo grows 10,000 times larger at 4 weeks attaining a length of 1/5 of an inch. It has developed a beating heart, brain, intestinal tract, and other organs. By week 8, embryo is an inch long and has discernible arms, legs, and a face
social cognitive theory
based on reqard, punishment, and imitation, (observational learning)

ex: bobo doll experiment
the mind or the mental faculties as characterized by thought, feelings, and volition
Dysthymic disorder
-Depressed mood for most of the day, more days than not, for at least 2 years (at least 1 yr in children/adolescent)-Never been w/o symptoms for >2 months at a time-No major depressive episode during the first 2 yrs-At least 2 of the following conditions noted: poor concentration or indecisiveness, hopelessness, poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, lack of self-esteem-Tx w/ antidepressant...psychotherapist for insight psychotherapy
Identification and confidentiality
subject numbers cannot be linked to names 
1st erikson stage of psychosocial development
trust v mistrustbirth-18mogain: hope
visual perspective
distance cue that takes adv of the fact that parallel lines appear to converge as they recede into the distance and objects cast smaller images if they are further away from the viewer
Positive vs. negative symptoms of schizophrenia
-Positive symptoms: delusions, auditory and visual hallucinations, disorganized speech, poor integration of perception.-Negative symptoms: non-responsiveness, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, flattened affect
spinal cord
it is not a single structure but rather a set of segmented switching stations. each segement receives information from a discrete part of the body and send out command to that area.
texture gradient
binocular cues: how to tell how far away somin’ is
primary variance
variability in the DV that is the result of changed in the IV
Affective Functions
the family is supposed to provide its members with love, nurturance and affection above all else
cannon-bard theory of emotion
emotion occurs when the thalamus sends signals to the cortex and the autonomic nervous system at the same time
characteristic 4 of stigma
people with the label are unfairly discriminated against
Contextual Influences in Evolutionary Psychology
Histrionic (share history with other species); Ontogenetic (development); Situational (input activates response)
Supplification - GoalBehaviors Risks
to be seen as helplessBehaviors - exaggerate weaknesses, CONAN! SELF-DEPRECATE Risks - Seen as manipulative or demanding
What are the common presenting symptoms of conversion disorder?
- paralysis
- abnormal movements
- aphonia
- blindness
- deafness
- pseudoseizures

the symptoms conform to the patient's concept of the disease. (ie will not follow dermatomal patterning)
what are the 3 benefits to polyandry for females?
fertility, good genes, material
Which of these is NOT a feature of highly creative individuals?
c. mental illness
Example of context-dependent memory
if you are in the quad and someone tells you juicy gossip and then you are retelling the story and can't remember part of it, go back to the quad. The physical envrioment cna act as a cue
Gender-stereotypes are less likely to undermine the achievement expectancies and academic performances of girls in math when girls
have parents who are nontraditional in their gender-role attitudes and behaviors.
Impact of Emotion on Physical Health- Stress
The Impact of Emotion on Physical Health: The Case of Stress• Cannon’s fight or flight response- when an organism notices a threat, the person experiences a desire to either escape or fight it off. This desire leads to physiological reactions in the body. Heart rate increases, muscles tense. Lead to more complex model:• Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome- it’s not as straight forward as fight or flight. There is a distinction over time in terms of your reaction.o Alarm reaction- immediately, your body has an alarm reaction when it senses the stressor. Body resistance weakens and becomes more susceptible to minor infections o Resistance- how we deal with the stressor- our body mobilizes its resources to fight off the stressor. We don’t ovulate, we don’t use our immune systemo Exhaustion- our body can’t keep going any more. Our body has not been giving priority to immune system and less essential mechanisms and then it leaves itself at big risk of acquiring a minor or major infection Ex) going home after exams! • Stress and immune competence- it takes a lot of energy and resources to fight off stress and they get diverted from focusing on your immune system. You end up with fewer immune cells in your blood after stress has been prolonged for a long time.o In animals- advantage of making them stressed and using random assignment. Make rats swim, crowded in a cage, bright lights – do the stressed rats show less immune response? Tumor cells grow much faster for tumor size. o In people- evidence it is true for people too. • Cohen et al.- Inject a cold virus into your nose. Quarantine people over the next 2-3 weeks. Sees who develops the cold. Those who are feeling more stress are more likely to get sick. • Psychological factors that reduce stress and improve health o Social support- can be a marriage, or a best friend, or a social network – even having a dog can be effective. Not true with cats or fish. o Disclosure – talking about something. Hiding the truth is stressful. Lack of disclosure can be very stressful.
NOTE:You can get across the same deep structure by using different surface strctures)Give an example of this.
The ocean is unusually calm tonight The ocean is calmer tonight than it is on most nights








the mental activities associated with thinking,
knowing, remembering and communicating

Geographical nearness. Prozimity(more precisely, "functional distance") powerfully predicts liking.
3 stage model
p 252
Psychosexual Stages
Successive, instinctive developmental phases in which pleasure is associated with stimulation of different bodily areas at different times of life
Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment
very inconsistant
"stilling"- stops in tracks in state of heightened alert
the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by with people define male and female
knowledge about who we are
obscuring, partially or completely, one sensory process by another, as the dulling of the sense of taste by smoking
Sensory neurons
Nerurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
Disorganized schizophrenia
Severe deterioration of adaptive behavior is seen.
How many Americans are alcoholics?
8 million
latent content
a dream's true underlying meaning
an uncontrollable outburst of emotion or fear
absorbing new info into existing cognitive structures
19th Century Contributions
Gustav Theodore GechnerWilhelm Wundt
observation or examination of one's own mental and emotional state, mental processes, etc.; the act of looking within oneself.
Which cluster consists of mood disorders?
Cluster B
The ability to reasonably apply the results to other similar populations.
characteristics of effective models
-competence- understand others thoughts and why they don't understand something-high status- someone important to you-gender-relevance- some importance to you
-Sensorimotor (birth to 2): coordination of sensory input and motor responses, object permenance -Preoperational (2 to 7): development of symbolic thought, egocentrism, centration, irreversibility-Concrete Operational(7-11): mental operations applied to concrete events; mastery of conservation, hierarchical classification-Formal Operations (11-on): mental operations applied to abstract ideas, logical and systematic thinking
any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again
Self-discrepancy Theory
People become bistressed when a discrepancy between "actual self" and
ideal self (depression-related)
ought self (anxiety related)
Discrepancies motivate an attempt to reduce them
the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation
Circadian Rhythms
"Sleep clock" Biological changes that occur on a 24 hour cycle. Our sleep-wake cycle, alertness, moods, learning efficiency, blood pressure, metabolism, pulse rate, and other responses alll follow circadian rhythms.
brain stem
the brain stem receives afferent nerves from all the bodies senses and it send efferent nerves to the spinal cord and to control all the bodies movement except the most complex movements.
the process of integrating various sources of information about a person into an overall judgement
blocking a wish or desire from conscious experience
sample bias
samples that do not accurately represent the parent population
sensory neuron
carry incoming info from sensory receptors to brain and spinal cord
a person concerned primarily with the physical and social environment, a person whose attention is directed outward, not towards inner feelings
night terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified
social psychology
scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
telegraphic speech
consists mainly of content words: many are omitted. (ex, "give doll")
social influence
the control of one person's behavior by another
Unipolar Disorders
no mania, just depression. Two types: 1. Major depression: episodic 2. Disthymia: low-grade depression most of the time.
heredity ratio
refers to the relative importance of heredity and environment in determining the observed narration of a particular trait. more specifically, the heredity ratio is teh proportion of the variance of teh trait in a given population that is attributabel to genetic factors
characteristics of imagined memory
imagination, fuzzy and schematic, fantastic
Updating Pavlov's findings:
o Cognitive processes -tends to be less effective with human adults. In some cases, we don’t form an association because we are able to think and reason about it, and the thinking interrupts the conditioning. With animals and small children, cognitive processes don’t interfere. EX) drug antibuse- if you drink while on antibuse, it makes you sick. It’s given to alcoholics. It is meant to help alcoholics form the association that drinking makes you feel sick so they stop drinking. However, it doesn’t work that well- instead, they associate it with the pill, not the drinking. o Biological predispositions- Pavlov assumed that you can create any association you want, but that’s not true. Biological predispositions make it much easier for some people to make associations so we’re not equally apt to make associations. Ex) We have a disposition to make reactions based on food, more so the other senses – we went out to dinner, ate clam chowder, and got sick, we’d blame it on the clam chowder, not the smell of candles or the music you heard playing Ex) People become phobic about some objects more than others like snakes, dogs, rats, etc. o Contributions-• He showed that organisms adapt to their environment. We learn and get better! • We can study an internal process like learning.
General Aggression Model
Suggests that aggression is triggered by a wide range of input variables which influence arousal, affective stages, and cognitions
learning goal
state of affairs in which one\'s primary objective in an achievement context is to increase one\'s skills or abilities
-the \"spacing effect\"
-if we review material repeatedly over time, we're more likely to remember it later than if we review material the same number of times crammed into a short period of time
-representation of facts, images, actions, and skills that may persist over a lifetime
-involves retrieval of information
-theoretically limitless in capacity
a developed zygote that has a heart, brain, and other organs
Inhibitory PSP
decreases the likelihood of an action potential
to cause to fail or become deflected from a purpose; reduce or delay the chances for success or development of:
Somatization d/o
-occurs in females more than males and more often in Low SES group -onset is before 30 years of age, and 50% of pts have co-morbid mental disorder -pt presents with vague physical complaints involving many organ systems that cannot be explained be general medical condition or substance use. -visits to healthcare providers are numerous, although no medical disorder is found.
-the ability of a sample size to show main effects and interactions of a given size
-small effects need lots of participants, large effects need fewer participants
-the more IVs you have, the more participants you will need
MAO-A preferentially breaks down...
MAO-A preferentially breaks down 5-HT but also NE and DA
fixed-interval schedule
a pattern of rewards in which an orgnanism can earn some reinforcement only after a certain time period has elapsed. After the time period, the very next response will be rewarded.
what is amnesia and how can you get it?
Informational Social Influence
follow the options of those we believe have accurate knowledge and believe they are doing right
• What is kinesthesis?
Movement of muscles and limbs/ knowning where ur limbs are.
within subjects
subjects are in every condition in the study
What is the arousal system that activates the cerebral cortex.
The Reticular Formation.
schachters two-factory theory of emotion
depends on autonomic arousal and cognitive interpretation of that arousal.. When you experience visceral arousal you search your environment for an explanation.
"There is more to the experience of emotion than reading our body's responses"
Cannon and Bard
The drive-reduction theory also says that we are pulled by incentives, which are:
positive or negative enviromental stimuli that also serve to motivate our behavior
Neuron (Nerve cell)
the basic unit of the nervous system, each composed:
1. cell body
2. receptive extension(s) - dendrite
3. Transmitting extension (axon)
Eating disorder NOS
criteria met for some but not all requirements for AN and BN
- accounts for >50% of eating disorder dx
A friend says to you, “I wonder how many number one hits the Beatles had. Do you suppose it was more than 100?” The ________ provides one reason why your answer to your friend’s question may not be accurate.
d. anchoring heuristic
Movement founded by John Watson in early 1900s.
Focused only on observable behaviors.
What remedies are avalible to people with ireversible hearing damage?
hearing aids (amplify sound, enhance speech, perception and reduce background noisesurgery and implants
The finding that minority preschoolers often display a pro-White bias and associate more positive characteristics with Whites than with their own ethnic group most likely implies that:
minority children have learned some of the negative social stereotypes about minority groups
Is intelligence stable or does it change?
Birth weight, head size, speed of toilet training, NO. But, boredom in infancy tends to be a sign of IQ. Performance at age 3 is highly correlated to adult hood. SAT scores correlate highly with other aptitude tests- so there must be some stability across intelligence (of course in these cases, environment is staying the same as well).
Overconfidence is also senn in the planning fallacy, which is ....
our tendency to believe thatwe can get more done in a given amount of time that we actually can
decreases serotonin,influences utilization of dopamine, increases brain activity inhibiting an inhibitor
William James
founder of Functionalism
one male, one female
neurotransmitter that enables muscle action, leaning and memory - lack of it can result in alzheimer's
procedural memories
longest lasting
habitual thought patterns and actions
the last to go in patients with many brain diseases

Why do infants become 

Evolutionarily adaptive
-beneficial for the child’s safety (and survival) 
to maintain proximity to the caregiver
-behaviorism suggests that infants go to 
mother to get relief from hunger
-positive associations from drive reduction lead 
to attachment
Research design characterized by random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable.
Produces withdrawal symptoms that appear later and are less severe than those from heroin
Biomedical therapy
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system(Lobotomy?)
visual agnosia
can't determine visual orientation (i.e. card in slot)
Social Exchange
“Social Economics” → maximize rewards, minimize costs, egoism
a conceptual framework or approach within which a scientist works
A characteristic of experimentation in which the researcher artificially creates a pattern of variation in an independent variable in order to determine its causal powers.
A clinically based approach to understanding and treating psychological disorders; assumes that the unconscious is the most powerful force behind thought and behavior.
Between-Participants Design
-Looks for differences between different people
Andrew Weil
Humans are suppose to experiment
Antisocial Personality Disorder
--possible VIOLENCE
--Disregard for others’ rights
--Begins in childhood, adolescence
--3.6% population
--High rate in prisoners
--Low Amygdala function
Neutral Stimulus + Unconditioned stimulus = Unconditioned response. or Tone/Bell + Meat = Salivation. Conditioned stimuls = Conditioned Responce. or Tone = salivation. The above formula is an exaple of what teory_________________ ______________________
classical conditioning
glial cells
neural nannies, support, nourish and protect nerve cells
Secondary reinforcement
money; something associated with a primary reinforcement
deficiency motivation
motivation at lower levels of development
hostile aggression
Aggression driven by anger ad performed as an end in itself.(Also called affective aggression.)
is a nerve impulse electrical or chemical?
Feeling of discomfort when one knows one has caused someone else pain or distress
Piaget is to cognitive development as Kohlberg is to ________ development.
Facial expressions...
provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed which causes and intensifies the emotion
Cisis Phase 2
Usual defense mechanism fails, continued threat causes increased anxiety and extreme discomfort.Functioning becomes disorganized, trial and error kicks in to attempt to solve
Gestalt psychology
Another reaction to structuralism. An approach to psychology that focuses on the organization of perception and thinking in a "whole" sense rather than on the individual elements of perception. How people consider individual elements together as units or wholes.
Which of the following regions contains the motor cortex, which issues orders to the 600 muscles of the body that produce voluntary movement?
Occipital lobe
Measures the VSSP with Blocks tests
Knox Test
Intermittent Reinforcement
An operant conditioning principle in which only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement.
law of effect
thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that bahviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
The most iimportant of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
an area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord
Aspects of conventional level (Kohlberg)
-Older children-Gain approval/avoid disapproval-Does duty to society/avoids dishonor or guilt-Rules maintain social order-Internalizes rigid rules
DHT deficiency syndrome
a type of androgen insensitivity syndrome in which, becuase testosterone is not converted into dihydrotestosterone, boys' external genitals do not develop properly; development occurs at puberty with the rise in testosterone
What is the phenotype
An organisms observable physical characteristic (associated with the gene)
Primacy Effect
Remembering things at the beginning of a list
relying on someone who is of high power, not accurate
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
has been around the longest since 1920’s. Sensitive electrodes are placed on a person’s scalp. Each electrode records the electrical firing of cells in a certain region of the cerebral cortex. 100
coping that occurs before the onset of a future stressor
anticipatory coping
what is the "hot" perspective in which people are motivated to maintain high self-esteem?
Germinal Period
- First 2 weeks after conception
- Zygote created
- Zygote takes 4 days to emerge from fallopian tube into uterus
- After many cell divisions, a mass of 100 to 150 cells has attached to the uterine wall
- Morula ("mulberry") = 58 cells
- More than 50% of conceptions are not accepted by body as such
Social Psychologists
Concerned with the nature and causes of individuals' thoughts, feelings and behavior in social situations
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of 2 variables. THe slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the 2 variables. The amt of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.
self-fulfilling prophecy
an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.
Resting Potential
A neuron at its stable negative charge when it is inactive
Frequency Distribution
Displays the scores of a variable to show how frequently each value was obtained
dr.smith believes people who are very aggresive have become so because of their life experiences. dr jones believes people are more or less agressive from birth because of genetic factors. what issue in devlopmental psychology is heightened by their disag
nature and nurture
storage decay
even after we learn something well, we will sometimes later forget it
two-word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
Caffeine Effects on Prenatal Development
- Teratogenic & decreases fertility
- Crosses the placenta
- Concentrates in fetal brain
- Concentrations in fetus may exceed maternal blood concentration
- Diffuses into breast milk
- Lowers placental weight and blood flow
- Lowers prenatal brain weight
- Lowers dopamine
--> Prenatal exposure impairs developing dopaminergic neurons
--> (Questionably) affects feeling pleasure, altered moods, altered sleep-wake cycle (movement, hyperactivity, etc.)
- Half-life in adult = 3.1-6 hrs
- Pregnant woman = 4.7-10.5 hrs
- Half-life increases throughout pregnancy
- Half-life in Infants
- 1.5 mo. old = 41 hrs
- 4 mo. Old = 14 hrs
- Interaction with nutrition
1. Contributes to iron deficiency in mother & infant
- Inhibits iron absorption
- Iron is required for DNA & protein synthesis
2. Nutritional deprivation
- Protein-calorie malnutrition affects brain dev.
- Zinc in brain is decreased
- Delayed nipple attachment
3. Low income/low ed.
- Higher caffeine intake AND
- Higher rates of malnutrition
experimenter expectancy effect
expectation of a particular effect or outcome on the part of the experimenter
may cause biased results
Social Loafing
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
dissociative identity disorder DID
the presence within an individual of two or more distinct identities that at different times take control of the individual's behavior
What are morphemes
The smallest units in a language that carry meaning.
cognitive ability test
an intelligence or IQ test of general cognitive ability, also mathematical and verbal 
ex – Are you always late or are you late only today.
three measures of central tendency
1. mode: most frequently occurring 2. mean: arithmetic average, most commonly reported3. median: in the middle
the critical period hypothesis
the brain of the younch child is particularly well suited to the task of leanguage learning - as brain matures and critcal period draws to close later learning of first language and other languages becomes difficult
What are the stages of grieving/dying?
Denial- trying to avoid the inevitableAnger- tense emotion, this is unjustBargaining- prayer, promising something to god that this is not happeningDepression- intense sadness, giving upAcceptance- finally finding a way to move forwardTesting- seeking ways to feel better, testing ways to feel better or copingbelieved that u would go through these stages in order and would move on to the next when you were done with the first, now people have found that y can get stuck in a certain stage or repeat
Law of association by contiguity
Idea of the empiricists that if a person experiences two environmental events at the same time or close to ech other, the mind will associate those things with each other. i.e ice cream, great taste
Evidence that suggests that visual imagery was spatial
- Brooks task disrupted by blindfolded subjects pointing to moving sound source
- Brooks task not disrupted by judging brightness
Bystander intervention (the bystander effect): conditions when it is most likely
As the number of people known to be aware of an emergency increases, any given person becomes less likely to help. For the victim, there is no safety in numbers. (ex. study done in office where woman is heard in another room falling off chair and is heard moaning in pain. 70% alone offered to help. Among pairs of strangers, only 40% offered to help).
What is the prognosis for bulimia?
- 3 mo post tx: 60-80% achieve remission
Some say there is a type c personality, which is:
inward type A, outward type B these people die of cancer
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