Psych Test 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
OUtgroup
"Them"
Howard Gardner
Multiple Intelligences 
 
 
-Linguistic -Bodily-kinesthetic
 
-Logico-mathematical -Naturalist
 
-Musical -Interpersonal
 
-Spatial -Intrapersonal
 


 
 
 
 

 
cognition
mental processes or thinking.
Ego demands what?
moral perfection
Hallucination
Perception of absent external stimuli
Carl Wernicke
(1848-1904)Discovered taht damage behind the section that Broca found could cause another kind of aphasia. These individuals can speak fluently and follow rules of grammar, but they can neither understand language nor speak in a way that is comprehendible to others.
what is the superego?
the id?
Cues provide..
Relations and Distinctions
- Relations: more possible cues to get to cue
- Distinctiveness: help distinguish correct item from competitors
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites
frontal lobe
reasoning, emotions, judgement, and voluntary movement
Clinical Psychology
Diagnose and treat emotional problems
SCHZOPHRENIA VIDEO 3
REHABILITATINO THERAPY
FAMILY THERPY SENSE OF PRODUCTIVITY
CBT
COPING MECHANISMS TO ALLEVIATE SYMPTOMS AND PREVENT RELAPSE
SUBSTNACE ABUSE TREATMENT
ESCAPE FROM VOICES
NEARLY 50% OF SCHIZO ABUSE DRUGS
SOCIAL AND VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION
CAREER TRAINING
SOCIAL AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS
FAMILY EDUCATION THERAPY
FAMILY SUPPORT SERVES AS AN ANCHOR
insight
the sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly
Social Inhibition
 
–perform worse in the presence of others
 
-tasks that are complex or difficult
 
discrimination
Behavior directed against persons b/c of their membership in a particular group
Organization :Applied Psychology
American Psychological Association (APA)
endocrine system
body's slow chemical communication system
9 weeks after conception to birth
tetragens
LSD
a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide)
cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
scapegoating
prejudice may express anger, to boost our sense of status it helps to have other denigrate
template
a mental representation that can be directly compared to a viewed shape in the retinal image
Sociobiographical Memory
in which individuals remember events that happened to their groups as if they had happened to themselves. Think of the motto of Holocaust survivors: 'Never forget!". Such social phenomena make clear Zerubavel's essential point: that the past is socially constructed, and that memories of the past are not merely a property of individual minds and brains.
Case Study
an in-depth study of an individual
Axon
a long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons of to the muscles or glans
operations
these allow child to manipulate ideas according to stable set of rules - in preoperational period, operations very slowly emerging
genetic dysphasia
a syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure of language despite having otherwise normal intelligence
permissive parenting
lots of freedom, no rules, warm
 
kids-immature, dependent, unhappy
Maintenance Rehearsal
Might keep material available but won't enhance long term learning
- also, pts with brain damage have poor STM, but LTM is unimpaired
a psychological state where you take yourself as an object of attention
self-awareness
Practical Significance
Real-World Importance (Possible to get result that's statistically significant but not practically significant)
Pattern perception
The ability to percieve subjective contours
client-centered therapy
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, i which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (also called person-centered therapy)
behaviorism
the theory that human psychology can only be accurately studied through the analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events
weber's law
principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage, not just a constant amount. Two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion
MAOI's
require a tyramine free diet (no wine, beer, almost all cheese, aged foods, smoked meats) to avoid side effects, such as hypertensive crisisPrecautions: Use w/ SSRIs can cause Serotonin Syndrome (causes acute mental status changes, restlessness, diaphoresis, tremor, hyperthermia, seizures, occasionally coma & death Use w/ TCAs can cause delirium and hypertension
Life Tasks (3)
1. Surviving Infancy2. Finding a mate/reproducing3. Parenting Offspring
Applied research
Research that is designed to solve real-world problems
Personal Unconsciousness
material which one has repressed or forgotten from personal experiences
Personality disorders--classified into 3 categories
Cluster A, B & C
stress
process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges
who is Elizabeth Loftus and what did she do?
The tendency to perceive an outcome that has occurred as being obvious and predictable is called the _?__?_. This phenomenon is _?_ (rare/common) in _?_ (children/adults/both).
hindsight bias
common
both
sexual response cycle
the pattern of physiological arousal during and after sexual activity
What is the Id?
innate urges seeks instant gratificationHedonistic
Self-Evaluation Maintenance Theory
this theory holds that one's self-concept can be threatened by another individual's behavior
Modern prejudice
prejudice today is more subtle, less overt than "old fashioned" racism or sexism
mass hysteria
a condition affecting a group of persons, characterized by excitement or anxiety, irrational behavior or beliefs, or inexplicable symptoms of illness
Mneumonic for mature ego defenses
Mature women where a SASH
Sublimation
Altruism
Suppression
Humor
In dissociative identity disorder who tends to have more identies males or females?
females (15), males (8)
benign coital cephalalgia
severe headaches that start during or slightly after orgasm, usually in men
null hypothesis
the hypothesis that there really is no systematic difference between the particular observation we are interested in and other observations we have made on other occasions and with other individuals; hypothesis that obtained difference is a chance fluctuation from a population in which teh true mean difference is zero
Threshold
The point at which a nerve impulse is triggered.
Work sample
A test that inlcudes task from a job.
Plasticity
A capacity to change as a result of experience
EriksonCompetence vs. Inferiority
6 years to puberty-basic social and intelligence skills; acceptance by peers; can lead to lack of self-confidence
Possible causes of a hangover
alcohol withdrawal, exposter to congeners, cellular dehydration, gastic irritation, reduced blood sugar, accumulation of acetaldehyde
Describe PTSD
(Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
-severe anxiety disorder that arises following a traumatic life event (reliving the trauma in dreams, flashbacks, and fantasies)
-caused by rape, war, torture,etc...
-women have PTSD 2x as much as men do
Expression of sensitization of cocaine/amphetamine is dependent at least partly on the enhanced reactivity of...
dopaminergic nerve terminals in the NAc.
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
what are the two main functions that the right side of the brain controls
music, spatial abilities
fast mapping
the fact that children can map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure
in order to apply the scientific theory, what must it be able to do?
it much be subject to testing
Both the liver and the hypothalamus contain glucoreceptors -
cells that monitor glucose levels
Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning
the basis for ethical behavior, has six identifiable developmental stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than its predecessor
In 2001 an Unknown person sent anthrax through the US post office. Many people become afraid to open their mail, although the actual risk for any given individual was extremly small. What heuristics help to explain this recation?
The affect and Avalibility Heuristic.
explain axis III what mental health professional should see
current medical condition from which the person is currently suffering. (diabetes, cancer, etc)
why does paying attention to meaning help?
isn't about noting meaning, it's about understanding; when we understand how things are related we make connections, these connections might be the retrieval paths used
What are 3 ways to justify post decision dissonance?
1. Justify someone else made the choice or decision2. Justify behavior that conflicts with your view of yourself by saying everyone is doing it.3. Justify that you put effort into the decision or choice. The more you suffer the more value to goal.
Martha tells you that she is trying to study stimulus categorization using Donders’s logic. You would expect her to try to create two experimental tasks
c. that differ by only one mental process.
Rx
medication
Maslow's Hierarchy
Self Actualization
 Esteem
Love
Safety
Physiological
NARCOTIC WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS
AGONIZING
-SWEATING
-TEARING EYES
-RESTLESSNESS
-RUNNY NOSE
-INCREASED BREATHING
-VOMITING
-DIARRHEA
-CRAMPING
-BACK AND HEADACHES
-TREMORS
prosopagnosia
inability to recognize faces
Adjustment d/o
• Maladaptive behavioral or emotional symptoms that develop within 3 months after a stressful live event and end within 6 months of the event• Symptoms cause significant impairment in functioning• Symptoms not caused by bereavement• No history of prior mania or hypomania
Reuptake
sending neuron reabsorbs excess neurotransmitters
dendrites
Branching neuron structures that receive neural impulses from other neurons and convey impulses toward the cell body.
Psychoanalytic Theory

Psychoanalytic Theory- not physical problems, but the mental issues going on that we are unaware of
 Unconscious: we don’t know about it, but if something comes up we become aware
 Preconscious: Things we can do to fit into society better, have to work at to get it out, don’t think about sitting on a chair until you are aware Conscious:
informational
knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact or circumstance; news:
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
HPA axis
The neuroendocrine connections among hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex, central to the body's response to stress.
Overlap
How precisely does the classification partition the domain of interest (PP)?
Like many other biological functions, sleep and waking follow a daily, or _______ cycle
circadian
Chromosome
A double-stranded and tightly coiled molecule of DNA whose strands coil around one another
NOREPINEPHRINE
INVOLVED IN SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ACTIVITY; INFLUENCES AROUSAL, MOOD, AND REWARD CENTERS
what do medulla do?
breathing, heartbeat, etc.
Transference
Feelings of strong positive or negative emotions toward your analysis
if you’re talking to a therapist and you call them mom
Psychoses
marked disturbances of contact with reality
interneurons
neurons that connect sensory, motory and other interneurons
sympathetic nervous system
autonomic, arouses for defensive action
inappropriate emotions and actions (part of schizophrenia)
-flat effect
-catatonia
-senseless, compulsive acts
-disrupt social relationships
Prefrontal Lobe (Cortex)
Involved in personality, decision making, social judgement, goal setting, sequencing.-Damage results in flattening of emotion and feelings.
biological aging/senescence
genetically influenced declines in the functioning of organs and systems that are universal in all members of our species. begins when body structures reach maximum capacity and efficiency.
ludus
a self-centered type of love; ludic lovers avoid commitment and treat love as a game, often viewing the chase as more pleasurable than the prize
behavior modificaiton
the use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior
Phonological Loop
controls the temporary storage of acoustic and verbal information • structure we use to temporarily store verbal information and engage in repetitive rehearsal • plays a critical role in language
evolutionary psychology
examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations
Communication impairments/deficits
-inability to use protodeclarative and protoimperative gestures-lacks development of useful language (50%)-does not use qualitatively appropriate forms of communication-lacks understanding of language pragmaticsinability to communicate emotion and engage in narrative discourseex: tell you about their day
agonists
drugs that increase the effects of neurotransmitters cocaine - dopamine
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
transactional leaders
leaders who set clear, short-term goals and reward people who meet them
Group Polarization
Group's movement toward either riskier or more conservative behavior, depending on the members' initial dominant tendency
Conversion disorder
one or more deficits affecting sensorimotor functioning (NOT pain. ie: paralysis of a limb)
- medical evidence does not support or account for the full presence of the symptoms
- NOT intentionally produced
- significant impairment in functioning.
behavior modification
the direct changing of unwanted behavior by means of biofeedback or conditioning
hypothalmus
brain structure that acts as a control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger and body temperature
Basic Anxiety
An emotion, proposed by Karen Horney, that gives a sense of uncertainty and loneliness in a hostile world and can lead to maladjustment
Short Term Memory
limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 10 to 20 seconds
dimensions that peole use in making sense of their experiences
personal constructs
ganglion cells
cells in the retina that generate action potentials
Procedural Memory
long-term memory for how to do things
operant conditioning punishment
any stimulus that decreases the likelihood of a response.
what's attitude?
belief & feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people & events
Your uncle, recently arrived from South America, finds it difficult to distinguish the difference in sound between the word man and the word men. As far as he is concerned, the words sound the same, although you can detect a difference. The judgments that
a. difference thresholds.
characterized by a persistent pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others
antisocial personality disorder
John Gagliardi (4)

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 




o Small
college in Minnesota

o Been
there 57 years

o Highest
winning percentage of any coach in football (won 78% of games)

o Unique
style of coaching (see book for details)


humanistic perspective
emphasizes the role of the internal personality processes. Focus on unconscious determinants of behaviour
cons of self report measures
accuracy is skewed (narcissists)
potential for dishonesty
Three methods of conducting interviews:
face-to-face, telephone, focus group
This PD has social anxiety that does not lessen with familiarity that tends to be due to paranoid thinking.
Schizotypal PD
Secure attachment style (caregivers; as adults; beliefs about self, others, relationships)
• Caregivers: very responsive to your needs, warm, showed positive emotions when interacting, encouraged autonomy• As adults: trusting, continues to provide love and support when needed• Beliefs about self, others, relationships:• Self: I’m likeable• Others: others are generally good people• Relationships: relationships last
What is formication?
Feeling of ants crawling all over you
distal stimulus
the real objects in the world outside of us, typically at some distance from the perceiver, no direct knowledge of the distal stimulus
What is a correlation coefficient?
numerical value (statistic) ranging from -1 to +1; typically denoted by "r"
schwann cells
wrap around the axons of a single neuron therby insualting the axons and increasing the spead of the axonsrestirticed to a single segment of a axon.
What did Freud define as the 3 features of personality?
Id EgoSuperego
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
Impulsivity and instability in mood, relationships, and self-image
Taste-aversion research showed that animals develop aversions to certain tastes but not to sights or sounds. This finding supports:
Darwin's principal that natural selection favors traits that aid survival.
Dreaming: Sexual & Gender Dreams
contrary to our thinking, sexual dreams are sparse
men: 1 in 10
women: 1 in 30
women dream of men & women equally whereas men dream of men more than women
Primary Auditory cortex
the area in the brain's temporal lobe that is first to receive informaton about sounds from the thalamus
Psychologists are most likely to study ________ in ________.
b. mental processes; individuals
DID (dissociative identity disorder)
a rare dissociative disorder in which a perosn exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder.
3 reflex behaviors new borns are born with
sucking
grasping
rooting (turning head & opening mouth in direction of touch on cheek)
the assumption that if a treatment is effective, it must address the cause of the problem
the intervention causation fallacy
DSM criteria 3: Restricted, repetitive behaviors, interests & activites
-preoccupation w/ one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal in intensity & focus-apparently inflexible adherence to specific nonfunctional routines & rituals-stereotyped & repetitive motor mannerisms-persistent preoccupation w/ parts or objects
Aggression as a Social Judgment
-Bandura: aggression is a social label we apply to various acts, guided by our own judgements about the meaning of those acts to us. (we can interpret it as aggression depending on what we are seeing). -our interpretation: depends on social, personal, situational factors -if you have a steady flow of aggression you may be desensitized.
which of these is the best analogy for the process of chunking?
memorizing a telephone number
True or False:Positive moods increase the tendency to use detailed info when making decisions
False; people tend to use heuristics (with little thought processing) when they are in a positive mood; example: manic-depressive (bipolar) individuals struggle to make good decisions when in a manic state.
Nonverbal cues are irrepressible, meaning they are hard to control. Give an example of this.
if you are trying to figure out if someone is lying, dont pay attention to what they are saying, rather pay attention to their non-verbal communication. Because the nonverbal cues are so hard to hide, they are very useful in gauging another persons moods and intentions
how do we reduce dissonance that we create when a discrepancy threatens our self-image?
Change our behavior
change one of our cognitions
adding new cognitions
(Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance Theory)

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


general
adaptation system

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to
stress in three phases, alarm, resistance, exhaustion
lexicons
mental dictionaries 
Pancreas
Controls sugar levels
Cattel
fluid vs crystalized intelligence
syntax
organization into sentances
ambiguous syntax and garden path
Skinner
skinner's rats; reinforcement and punishment
Carl Jung
Collective unconscious- memories shared by all members of the human species.- Archetypes
split brain
cutting the corpus callosum
see table 1.2 ch 1
(blank)
HOUNDs
homely, old, unattractive, non-verbal, disadvantaged
physosexual stages
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genitalOAPLG. phallic is key
Overconfidence
Too much faith in own estimate
heterosexual
an individual with a sexual orientation primarily to members of the opposite sex
Proactive Aggression
Deliberate aggression against another as a means of obtaining a desired goal
variable-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredicatable number of responses.
independent variable
experimental factor that is manipulated; effect is being studied
synaptic cleft
microscopic gap between terminal button of the sending neuron and cell membrane of another neuron
Forgetting
1. Decay of memory trace2. interfering
Opioid receptor located in the amygdala, hippocampus, and limbic system, responsible for anxiety and hallucinations
Sigma
self-actualization
the achievement of one's full potential through creativity, independence, spontaneity, and a grasp of the real world
psychoactive drug
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
counterconditioning
a new response is conditioned to replace a bad response
Cognitive approach
The cognitive approach emphasizes the importance of thoughts and other mentalprocesses. It also focuses on how people take in, mentally represent, and storeinformation; how they perceive and process that information; and how cognitiveprocesses are related to observable behavior
Autism
A mental condition defined by an inability to relate normally to other people and low scores on intelligence tests
genital stage
puberty- until later lifelibido is focused on genitalstheme: creation, life enhancementthis stage is only reached after resolving previous conflicts
The act of acquiring information and putting it into memory
encoding
Circadian Rhythm
Natural body cycle for humans generally lasting 24 hrs
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a random sample of representatives
Learning
process result in permanent change in behavior due to experience/ process of new knowledge.
Positive symptoms
symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations that are excesses in behavior
sensation
the process of detecting and encoding stimulus energy in the world
Top-down processing?
info processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations (reading the title of the painting directs our attention to hidden aspects)
trait
a stable predisposition to act or behave in a certain way
Melatonin
-used to treat SAD and bipolar disorder
-important in the regulation of the "human clock"
reaction time
the interval between stimulation and response
imagery
Mental pictures - a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
Describe the Superego
- ideals, goals, and "conscience"
- aims for perfection and socially accepted behaviors
- develops by the age of 4 or 5
- no specific region in the brain
fraternal twins
twins that are not identical. they share as many traits as normal siblings
bimodal
two scores that tie for occuring most frequently
what produces condition?
some say temporal contiguity (mere fact that CS and US occured tog in time) but this is wrong - many things are occurring at same time as presentation of US, is only effective if CS is informative about things to come (US)
sick order
a socially recognized set of rights and obligations linked with illness
ETHNIC GROUP
group of persons who are descendants from a common group of ancestors, usually from a particular country of area.
goal orientation
whether they focus their efforts on learning (learning orientation) or on achieving certain levels of job performance (performance orientation)
the belief that physically attractive individuals possess socially desirable personality traits and lead happier, more fulfilling lives than less attractive persons do
PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS STEROTYPE
psychological realism
the extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similiar to the processes that occcur in everyday life
sampling bias
a sample that does not accurately represent the larger population
Statistics
use of math to org., summarize, and interpret numerical data
relection of feeling
verbal and nonverbal expression - stating perceived feelings by behaviour and or words
late maturing girls
don't like their bodies in early adolescence, like bodies in late adolescence
-end up taller and slimmer than early maturers
behavior-outcome expectancy
expectancy about what will happen if a person behaves in a particular way
Achievement Motivation
The urge to attain optimal levels of performance on valued tasks.
Cocktail Party Effect
You're unable to hear another nearby conversation but if somebody says your name then you immediately divert your attention
Brain and Spinal cord
brain - interprets and stores information and sends orders to muscles, glands, and organs-spinal cord - pathway connecting the brain and the peripheral nervous system
Plays a practical role in arousal or alertness
Reticular Formation
Flynn Effect, Why?
People are getting smarter over time because of health improvements and  heterosis
intradimensional discriminative training
both discrim. stimulus and discrim stim for extinction from the same dimension
mental age
the level of native mental ability or capacity of an individual, usually as determined by an intelligence test, in relation to chronological age
Jung's Neo-Freudian Theory
Jung viewed the libido as a general life force that included a productive blending of basic impulses and real-world demands, of creativity, and growth-oriented resolution of conflicts.a) Personality develops as the person tends toward introversion (reflection on one’s own experiences) or extraversion (focus on the social world) and toward relianceon specific psychological functions (such as thinking versus feeling or viceversa).b) He claimed that there is a collective unconscious, which contains the memorieswe have inherited from our ancestors. We are not aware of these memories butthey are responsible for our innate tendencies to react in certain ways to certain things.
Law of Effect
law stating that in an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend to not be repeated.
Difference between American and European teens sexual behavior
US less sex than Europe
More pregnancy in US due to less contraceptives
Sex education is more comprehensive in Europe
Parents accept teen sex in Eu.
What is the median?
the score that cuts the distribution of scores in half
Ibuprophen belongs to a class of drugs known as
nonsteroidal anti-nflammatory drugs
4 functions of the muscarinic ACh receptors, M1, M3, and M5
Increase activity of PLC-BetaIncrease [Ca2+]Increase activity of MAP kinasesDecrease M current
As you read this question, the words stand out against a backdrop. This illustrates the concept of
a. figure and ground.
Interpersonal relationships of MADISON
pain patients may respond to names of individuals who are indirectly or symbolically related to their pain by grimacing or spontaneously reporting pain. when attention is drawn to this relationship, the connection will be discounted.
we are more likely to perform when:
situation is ambiguous
situation is a crisis
the others are experts
What is the clinical presentation of schizotypal PD?
- oddballs
- socially isolated with weird beliefs and mild paranoia
- often speak in metaphor
- may seek tx around feelings of alienation or paranoia.
What happens when a pregnant hippy gets down with the herb?
low birth weight, disturbed sleep in newborns, reduced attention to environment
How do older adults differ from young adults on the Big Five?
d.    Older adults score lower in neuroticism, extraversion, and openness and higher in agreeableness and conscientiousness than adolescents and young adults
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