Psychological anthropology final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Samhain
wiccan new year
Manbo
a voodoo priestess
ACM
the anti-cult movement.
Clyde Cluckhohn
wrote Navajo Witchcraft
Babalawos
a male santeria priest.
Angakok
another word for a shaman.
Genocides
Armenian genocide, Rwandan genocide, Ukraine under Stalin, where 6 to 7 million people died; Cambodia, 1975-1979, 21% of whole population died.
Priest
a religious functionary whose supernatural activity is bestowed upon her/him by a cult or organized church
Lammas
wiccan harvest celebration First apples, first wheat, first beer! August.
Role
the customary complex behavior associated with a particular status
Orishas
in Santeria, the spirits/angel/saint things.
Who dreams
we do, animals do
Ostara
wiccan celebration of the spring equinox, fertility festival, put in your gardens
Revitalization movements are
conscious, deliberate, and organized.
Midsummer
wiccan celebration on the summer solstice, on the midpoint of the year. Cull out things that are dying. Often festivals are celebrated on this day
Urban legends
Unverifiable stories about outlandish, humorous, frightening, or supernatural events that have achieved wide circulation.
Anton Levay
founder of Church of Satan
Cargo cults
revitalization movement in Melanesia. Tried to go to back to an old way, while keeping modern commodities.
Gertrude Dole
studied Kuikuru in South America
Gypsies
speak the romni language, have distinctive social customs, religion, and political institutions. Tied together by kin group. Also believe that the lower half of a woman is polluting. Purity versus pollution is very important in Gypsy life. Banishment from the community is the worst punishment a person can receive.
Astrology
a group of traditions, systems, beliefs that hold that the relative positions of the planets and the stars can provide info about personality, human affairs, and other human shit.
David Moorehouse
associated with cia remote viewing.
Hijra
an institutionalized third gender role in India.
Gro bonanj
big guardian angel, consciousness, personality. This part can wander from the body and is displaced during spirit possession.
Santeria
a syncretistic religious practice that developed in cuba. IT literally means "the way of the saints." Later in its life, it involved eleaborate systems of correspondences between their orishas and the saints.
Jung's archetypes
persona archetype (social); shadow archetype (the dark, primitive aspect); symbols
divination
the art or practice of forseeing future events or discovering hidden knowledge through supernatural means.
Victor T. Houteff
founder of the Branch Davidians.
Religion
a belief in supernatural beings and the attendant ways of behaving in consequence of such a belief.
Mau Mau terrorism
East Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, down to South Africa. Started in 19402, wanted to get white people the hell out of africa. Kikuyu tribe, pmbu and meru tribes made up the majority of this movement. They practiced guerilla warfare against british settlers and blacks who sided with the British. Was it a peasant revolt? Religious? Were they freedom fighters? The military did eventually put this down. IT did, however, cause the british to rethink their policy towards black Africans. It also involved elaborate initiation rituals, like drinking fluid from a sheep's eyeball.
Folklore journals
Folklore (1883+), journal of american folklore (1888+), western folklore (1947+)
Shamans also
play roles in rites of passage.
Witchcraft is associated with
social subversion, unacceptable practices.
George Hensley
started snake-handling churches in the south, based on a verse that said about the believers - "They shall take up serpents, and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them. He died being bitten between the eyes by a diamondback!
Haruspicy
especially popular in the Andes - practice of divining from the entrails of a sacrificed animals
Imbola
wiccan celebration of the beginning of beginning of spring
Tasks of shaman
cure diseases, find animals, predict/control weather, go between human and spirit world, heal and destroy relationships between people, protect against evil, cause evil, birthing babies, accompanying warfare and raids. IN some cultures, the shaman accompanies you to the afterlife.
Revivalism
a revitalization movement that aims to return to a former era of happiness, to restore a golden age, or to revive a previous condition of social virtue.
Nativism
a revitalization movement that aims to purge society of unwanted aliens, of cultural elements of foreign origin, or of both.
Gypsy Social organization
influenced by regional affiliation, agnatic ties, matrilineal and affinal relations, ritual friendships, and the make-up of the camp and band membership
Hwame
A two-spirit woman among the Mojave native americans.
Status
the Social Position of an individual with reference to the other members of his/her society.
Alexander Grant
wrote The Literature and Curiosities of Dreams: a commonplace book of speculations concerning the mystery of dreams and visions, records of curious and well-authenticated dreams, and notes on the various modes of interpretation.
Witchcraft fears are
usually associated with deep fears within individuals.
Pondo witchcraft beliefs
these people speak Bantu. Here, witchcraft is inherited - men inherit from fathers, women from mothers. These people believe in a particular kind of familiar that is totally evil, does all bad things, and slings their penis over their shoulder. Can accuse witches cross-village. Witchcraft accusations often happened when conflict occurred between mother and daughter-in-law.
sorcery
the illegal use of medicines to harm others
Evans Pritchard
wrote Magic and Witchcraft Among the Azande
Rock Divination
practiced by the Lakota. Sleeping with the rock! Sleep with rock from one full moon to the next. Rock must be able to lie flat on four surfaces. A third party must be brought in to confirm.
Gypsy inheritance
Inheritence is passed down through the male line. IN some groups, the youngest son gets the household property and is responsible for the elderly parents.
Female gypsy gender roles
Often participate in fortune-telling and crafts.
Characteristics of traditional witchcraft
social subversion, nocturnal activity, transformation, flight, familiar, witches' sabbat, blamed for spread of disease, abduct children, illicit sexual behavior, ritual murder, cannibalism/vampirism, association with death.
Sun Dance
a world renewal ritual. Many cultures believe that the world needs to be renewed, frequently once a year. Happens in the northern and central plains, also great basin. Occurred whenever something wasn't right with the world. The entire Indian nation had to practice it together. Sun dance lodge is a sacred place - faced east, circular, had places for the four sundance priests to sit, fire pit in the middle. Separated secular from sacred. There was an element of self-torture that caused it to be banned - posts in chest that you had to tear away from! Caused stress to individual, relieved stress from group.
Examples of suicide terrorists
kamikaze, shi'i suicide attacks against sunni officials in the 11th through 13th centuries.
"Rainbow Family"
where Jim Jones adopted children of many different races.
Jonestown
town started in Amazon by Jim Jones. Had about 900 to 1000 people. Cut off members from families. Killed people if they tried to leave. When a group tried to free some people, they got shot, and everyone else was forced to drink poison. IF they didn't, they got shot.
Bonnie Lu Nettles
the female founder of heaven's gate
Genocide
the destruction of one people by a more powerful people.
Redneck humor
gives city dwellers a sense of superiority over rural people? Like arcansas.
Pequot
a group of native americans who lived in an area around new england. IT was the law of the Puritans to exterminate the Pequot, and they damn near well succeeded.
Leopard men
West Africa c8ulture area. They fought against colonialism and those who benefitted from it. Men in leopard skins were given mandates to kill certain white people with a big metal claw. As initiation, they had to drink a magical potion.
Ti bonanj
the little guardian angel in voodoo, conscience and spiritual energy.
"Satanism in America"
a television documentary by Geraldo Rivera that was the most watched documentary in American history with its initial showing.
"Danubian" approach to Gypsies
Exploitation of gypsy labor, some slavery.
Terrorism in the Americas
South and Central america, spanish. North america, europeans.
"The Black Flame"
the magazine of the church of satan.
Terrorism
the use of violence, or the threat of violence, against people to obtain a goal - political, religious, or other.
Suicide terrorist basic facts
terrorist understands that if he/she does not kill themselves, the attack will not work; attack instills a feeling of helplessness in the population under attack; population feels that there is no way to protect them; end result is fear and panic; allows for a large scale attack without sophisticated technology.
popé
the key leader of the Tewa revolt, or the Pueblo revolt.
Gypsy conflict
They do not often have disputes with the settled population. Most internal debates are over marriage, sexual relations, travel routes, and the duration of camp stay.
Agnatic succession
the limitation of the inheritance of a throne or fiefdom to heirs descended from the titleholder through only the male line, excluding descendents through females.
Where Science and Magic Meet
book written by Serena Roney-Dougal.
Homie the Clown
A killer clown reported in the 1980s.
Disaster jokes
These will be appearing again in the near future, after the disaster in Japan. Branch davidian jokes, chernobyl jokes, OJ simpson jokes. Ethiobian jokes based on the huge famines. Holocaust jokes.
Stages of a revitalization movement
steady state, increased individual stress, cultural distortion, prophetic formulation of code, communication of code, organization of movement, adaptation of the movement, transformation of the culture, routinization of the culture, new steady state.
Jung's technique of dream analysis
encouraged amplification of the dream
Unconscious
the mind of man that acts out in dreams and influences waking actions.
Navajo and Australian Aboriginals
these indigenous groups have opinions of dreams similar to Jung's.
Sand Creek Massacre
600 men, women and children were at Sand Creek in the southern part of Colorado. Settlers wanted them out, so 700 volunteer soldiers were sent to decimate the village. The chief raised a white flag, but it was entirely ignored. The leader said that it was "honorable to use any method on God's earth to kill indians." He got off scott-free, the bastard.
Witchcraft beliefs are usually found among
sedentary societies, usually farmers. IT's also associated with rapid culture change and new urban homelessness.
Characteristics of urban legends
in some cases, based on actual occurrences that in telling and retelling have been exaggerated or distorted; others come from people misinterpreting or misunderstanding stories from the media or witnesses of the actual event; they all claim to have happened to someone else.
Kuikuru example of witchcraft
they are an egalitarian people, with houses that have 40-50 people, a lightning strike caught two houses on fire and it was explained by witchcraft. They accused a man who wasn't there and had no kinship group to back him up. They left the village to find and kill him.
Example of use of humor to relieve personal conflict
Eskimo sing downs
Some points on witchcraft
found throughout the world, has been best studied in africa, europe, and south america; most anthropological studies have been on non-european cultures; involves belief that most misfortune is man-made; witchcraft is a form of social control (eliminates a few antisocial individuals)
Gypsy division of labor
women do domestic tasks, but will sometimes work as well.
Problems with relieving tension through humor
Sometimes, something that will relieve tension for one person will create it for another!
Gypsy death practices
They expect death for all and bury quickly in the camp, although that is not as easy to do nowadays. In the off season, they may organize ceremonies for the dead. Often, local religion determines views on afterlife.
Other examples of urban legends
Yeti, bigfoot, sasquatch; green m&ms with sex drive, stuck couples (man has to call help because his penis is stuck!_
Some ideas of luck/bad luck
unlucky number 13, some cultures worship cats while others fear them.
Hopi snake handling
was not snake worship, but they used snakes as messengers to talk to the gods and bring rain.
Gypsy Demography
There are no true counts and we are not likely to get any. Europe: 3.5 mil to 5.5 mil; india 6 mil+; russia 200,000+; central asia 156,000+; USA and Canada 20,000.
Omaha gender roles
A person's gender will be chosen based on whether it crawls to a pot or a bow and arrow as an infant!
Dead Baby Jokes
may have come from people dealing with the unpleasant idea that they may have to be parents some day.
Terrorism could be found at the
International level, national level, sub-cultural level, individual level.
Gypsy political organization
They do not pay much attention to state or regional governments. Don't get involved in politics and do not vote. Do deal with minor police officials in most cases.
Egalitarian society
a society in which all persons of a given age-sex category have equal access to economic resources and prestige.
Examples of Terrorism in North America
Pequot extermination, nexus blankets, sand creek massacre, wounded knee II, KKK
Major themes within Wiccan beliefs
a rejection of traditional religion and dominant cultural values, with a willingness to engage in experimentation with other beliefs and values; a focus on nature and ecological concerns; and an acceptance of the values of feminism, including the rejection of the patriarchy of the major religions and dominant cultures.
Anti-cult movement
a movement that has come to define new religious movements as a major social problem within American society and elsewhere.
Three major goals of terrorism
Take out the leaders, disrupt the group; create a climate of fear; cause shifting alliances.
What do shamans do today?
often work with doctors and provide psychological support, rituals for patients.
Manifest content, latent content
Freud believed in two types of content in dreams.
Freud's theory of what dreams were
consciously remembered wishes from the day's experiences; wishes that occurred during the day but were unacceptable and were repressed; wishes arising during the night stimulated by bodily needs; wishes originating in the unconscious that are incapable of ever passing beyond censorship into the conscious awareness
Altered state of consciousness
a mental state in which a person's normal accepted understanding of time and space is suspended.
In The Literature and Curiosities of Dreams, Alexander Grant postulated that dreams were important because
dreams have intelligible meaning, dream content is traceable to dreamer's personality structure and to the dreamer's thoughts/emotions during the preceding day, dream imagery can reflect incorporation of external physical stimuli or internal symptoms of physical illness, the dreaming mind is capable of problem solving, dreams can compensate for satisfactions lacking in waking life and thereby serve as safety valves, vividness and credibility of the imaginative faculty in dreams raises important questions about mind-body relationships that should be investigated by psychologists
Stages of the urban legend
would start by saying the story is true, it happened to a person known by a friend, names the person and describes the event, and will end by telling what happened to the person.
Humor could be in these mediums;
verbal, in print form, through email, through fax.
World of Shamanism; New Views of an Ancient Art
book written by Robert Walsh
Jung's belief in dreams
each dream is unique and needed to be interpreted on its own merits, with an opening scene, development of plot, emergence of a major conflict, the response to the conflict by the main character.
Children's books that never made it
"All Cats go to Hell," "Strangers have the Best Candy," "You were an Accident," "Daddy Drinks because You Cry," "Your nightmares are real!"
Carl Jung's opinion on reality of dreams
he visited with many cultures and noted that many observed synchronicity within the universe and acknowledged telepathic dreams. Tarot cards were linked to the present and the past at the same time.
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