Psychological Disorders Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Schizotypal
Personality
Stress Disorder
Anxiety
clinical disorder
Axis I
vivo desensitization
confront actual fear
Psychodynamic Perspective


Stem
from early unresolved experiences, unconscious sexual or aggressive conflicts


Narcissistic
Those with __________ personality disorder exaggerate their own importance, aided by success fantasies. They find criticism hard to accept, often reacting with rage or shame.
Reinforcement
helps maintain phobias and compulsions. Avoiding a feared situation reduces anxiety and produces reinforcement.
Personalization
incorrectly taking responsibility for bad events in the world
Catatonic individuals...
Stare off into space.
Symptoms of ADHD


•Significant problems with: 

–Focusing
attention

–Physical
hyperactivity

–Easily
distraction


Schizophrenia
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate actions
disorganized schizophrenia
schizophrenic disorder in which bizarre and child like behaviors are common
Catatonic Schizophrenia
immobility or excessive, purposeless movement, extream negativity, or parotlike repeating of another's speech and movement.
Bipolar disorder
manic depression- involves both depressed and manic episodes
paranoid schizophrenia
preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution or grandiosity
Dissociative Fued
Person runs away from home
Mood Disorders
Major Depression- disturbances in emotion, behavior, cognition, body functionPeople feel deeply sad and there is no coming out. Don't participate in activities. No light at end of tunnel. Sleep disturbed, weight involved Highly diagnosed in women
psychological disorders
Mental processes and/or behavior patterns that cause emmomtional distress and/or substantial impairment in functioning.
Personality disorders
inflexible and enduring patterns of behavior that impair one's social functioning
Ex.'s - Avoidant Personality Disorder, Schizoid PD, Narcissistic PD, Paranoid PD, Histrionic PD, Antisocial PD
Winter
People are more likely to experience depression during the __________.
insanity
legal term where the person doesn't understand their actions
fetishism
a paraphilia in which a nonhuman object is the preferred or exclusive method of achieving sexual excitement
panic disorder
type of anxiety disorder involving repeated episodes of sheer terror called panic attacks
generalized anxiety disorder
unexplained anxiety attacks lasting for at least 6 months
social phobia
any phobia (other than agoraphobia) associated with situations in which you are subject to criticism by others (as fear of eating in public or public speaking etc)
What percentage of violent crimes in the united states are linked to mental illness
3%
Psychosocial & environmental problems (e.g. family)
Axis 4 of DSM-IV
somatoform disorders
disorders in which there is an apparent physical illness for which there is no organic basis
secondary gain
reward value of having a psychological or physical symptom, such as release from ordinary responsibilities
antidepressant drugs
increase the presence of serotonin and norepinephrine; monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
cognitive perspective
behavior result of faulty thinking and distorted perceptions; treatment is cognitive therapy
generalized anxiety disorder
panic disorder
agoraphobia
social phobia
ocd
5 tyes of anxiety disorders
paranoid personality disorder
personality disorder in which the person is inappropriately suspicious and mistrustful of others
Dissaciative Amnesia
not remembering a particular trama ( no biological reason)
Antisocial Personality Disorder
A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
Fear Conditioning
rats are conditioned to fear the lab enviornment, after receiving shocks everytime they entered.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (D/EP)
Individuals have an unrealistic sense of self-importance
agoraphobia
fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or embarrassing, or in which help is unavailable in the event of a panic attack
dissociative identify disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
posttruamatic stress disorder (PTSD)
an anxiety disorder in which a person who has experienced a traumatic or life threatening event has symptoms such as psychic numbing, reliving of the trauma, and increased physiological arousal
One finding of the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) is that:A)women were twice as likely as men to have substance abuse or dependence disorders.B)there do not appear to be any gender differences in the prevalence of mental disorders.C)most of the people
C)most of the people who had experienced the symptoms of a mental disorder in the previous year seemed to survive their symptoms without becoming completely debilitated.
Borderline
Personality
Major Depression
Mood
Cultural Terms
Ultural General:
psychotic
break from reality, dillusions
obsessive-compulsive
disorder


•Anxiety disorder in which a person suffers
from recurrent obsession, compulsions, or both


Anxiety Disorders
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Schizo- catatonic
marked psychomotor disturbance: immobility or ecxessive motor activity
Paranoid Type
Delusions and hallucinations without the incoherence
mania
a mood disorder characterized by euphoric states, extreme physical activity, excessive talkativeness, distractedness, and sometimes grandiosity
conversion disorder
type of somatoform disorder characterized by change or loss of a physical function that cannot be explained by medical causes
catatonic
peculiar movement such as posturing, overly prominent gesturing or grimacing
Bulimia Nervosa
Binge and purge eating pattern.
DSM
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
Personality disorders, mental retardation
Axis 2 of DSM-IV
Psychopathology
A mental illness is also sometimes known as a(n) __________.
social phobia
an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, inappropriate fears connected with social situations or performances in front of other people
cyclothymic disorder
mood disorder characterized by a chronic pattern of relatively mild mood swings
Aversive conditioning
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior
Dissociative Disorder
Psychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity
voyeurism
desire to watch others having sexual relations or to spy on nude people
psychological disorder
a "harmful dysfunction" in which behavior is judged to be atypical, distubing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable
Survivor Resiliency
About half of adults experience at least one traumatic even in their life-time, but only about 1 in 10 women and 1 in 20 men develop PTSD.
Cognitive-behavioral model of disorders
view that psychological disorders result from learning maladaptive ways of thinking and behaving
Neurotic disorder
# Usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially
# Freud saw the neurotic disorders as ways of dealing with anxiety
dissociative figure
sudden, unexpected travel from home -- can't remember past
Name the Personality Disorders
Antisocial: cold/unemotional -> Ex: Dexter or BTK Killer.Borderline: emotional swings/attention seeking.
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by the presence of excessive, uncontrollable anxiety and worry about two or more life circumstances, for six months or longer, accompanied by some combination of restlessness, fatigue, muscle tension, irritability, disturbed concentration or sleep, and somatic symptoms.
gender-identity disorders
disorders that involve the desire to become, or the insistence that one really is, a member of the other biological sex
manic episodes symptoms
intence, pressured, tights, lots of talking- overally high self esteemdelusionalracing thoughtspressured speechlittle or no need for sleepexcessive involment in pleasurable activitied that have high risk for promblems or danger last at least a week or untill hospital
Anterior Cingulate Cortex
A brain region that monitors our actions and checks for errors. It seems especially likely to be hyperactive in those with OCD.
Rett's Disorder
only occurs in females, very rare, up to the age of two the girl is normal, and then suddenly the head stops growing and she becomes mentally disabled.
Name 2 types of Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative Identity Disorder: multiple personalities.Dissociative Fugue: forget about past life -> start a new one.
exaggerated sense of self importance & self absorption--narcissistic individual preoccupied with fantasies of own importance, power, and brillianceDemand attention and admiration feels entitled to special favors without reciprocate
Antisocial personality disorder (APD)
According to the information presented in the Critical Thinking box on smoking and psychological disorders:A)researchers are exploring the use of nicotine gum and patches as an alternative to antidepressant medications for people with major depression or
B)people with multiple psychological disorders have higher rates of smoking and smoke more cigarettes per day than people with one or no psychological disorders.
Name five Anxiety Disorders
1 - G.A.D2 - Panic Disorder3 - Phobias4 - O.C.D5 - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
what are some of the risk factors for suicide?
mood disorders, schizophrenia, substance abuse, particular life stressors, and suicidal behavior runs in families.
histronic
extremely dramatic
Undifferentiated schiz
basic symptoms
compulsion
presistent,irresistable,and irrational urge to perform an act or ritual repeatedly
Behavior Therapy
Techniques: exposure therapy, systematic desensitization, virtual reality exposure therapy, aversive conditioning, token economies
psychosis
an extreme mental disturbance involving distorted perceptions and irrational behaviour; it may be psychological or organic causes


Dysthymic Disorder




More chronic and with
fewer (two of six) symptoms than major depressive disorder.


systematic desensitization
-imagine fear
-developed by joseph wolpe
-graded exposure
Bio-psycho-social Perspective
a contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors cobine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
catatonic type
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by bizarre movements, postures, or grimaces
tardive dyskinesia
involuntary movement of facial muscles, tongue, and limbs due to long-term use of antipsychotic drugs
schizophrenia
A type of psychotic disorder characterized by hallucinations and/or delusions, disorganized speech and thought, and social withdrawal.
sexual sadism
obtaining sexual gratification from humiliating or physically harming a sex partner
delusions
false beliefs that often are symptoms of psychotic disorders
symptom substitution
something gets healed but something else is picked up
vaginismus
involuntary muscle spasms in the outer part of the vagina that make intercourse impossible
Dissociative Disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
phobia
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
anxiety
a general state of apprehension or psychological tension
Dissociative Identity Dis.
alternate identities w. different names
 
frequent gaps in memory for personal history
Abnormal Behavior Statistical Deviance (Michael Jordan, Bill Gates) Cultural Deviance Emotional distress Dysfunction (breakdown of normal functioning)Concept of Insanity (legal term)DSM-IV-TR -muliaxial classification (diagnosing) -5 axesClinical Disorders and other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attentionPersonality Disorders and Mental RetardationGeneral Medical ConditionsPsychosocial and Environmental ProblemsGlobal Assessment of Functioning (GAF) ScaleAnxiety Disorders -GAD (6 months) -Panic Disorder -OCDDepression -Major (at least 2 weeks) -SAD (seasonal affective disorder) -Dysthmic disorder (2 years-depression)Somatoform disordersconversion: real physical problems, no apparent cause (girl who goes blind during the week)Hypochondriansis: misinterpretation of normal body reactionsSomatization disorder: preoccupation with symptoms (not concern about actual disease)Dissociative Fugue: loss of personal id, flight from home, adopt a new idDissociative Amnesia: sudden memory loss Dissociative Identity Disorder: multiple personality disorderBipolar Disorder: mania and depressionsSchizophrenia -Types: -Causes: -Treatment:Personality disorders (AXIS II) -Paranoid -Antisocial -BorderlineBiologyCognitionEnvironment
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD)
a childhood disorder characterized by inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity
delusion
false belief not generally shared by others in a culture
Manic episode
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
obsessive compolisive
little more extreme
they are proud of it
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and or actions.
Rational emotive therapy
the therapist points out the irrational thoughts and illogical ideas of the patient
mental disorder
any behaviour or emotional state that causes an individual great suffering, is self-destructive, seriously impairs the person's ability to work or get along with others, endangers others or community
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
have difficulty recognizing how others feel
specific phobias
intense fear of objects, places, or situations that are greatly out of proportion to their actual threat
dissociative fugue
dissociative disorder in which one has complete loss of memory of one's entire identity, travels away from home and assumes anew identity
Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF Scale)
Axis 5 of DSM-IV
psychosomatic disorders
disorders in which there is a real physical illness that is largely caused by psychological factors such as stress and anxiety
Dissociative identity disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)
a widely used objective personality test
narcissistic personality disorder
is a personality disorder that is characterized by extreme feelings of self-importance, a high need for admiration, and a lack of empathy.
Histrionic Personality Disorder (D/EP)
Individuals seek a lot of attention and tend to overreact
Ataque de nervios is:A)the medical term for what is commonly called a “nervous breakdown.”B)a syndrome resembling panic disorder that typically follows a severe stressor and is seen in Puerto Rico and many Latin American countries.C)one of the key sym
B)a syndrome resembling panic disorder that typically follows a severe stressor and is seen in Puerto Rico and many Latin American countries.
Which of the following statements about patterns of suicide in the United States is FALSE?A)Women outnumber men in the number of suicide attempts.B)Men outnumber women in the number of suicide deaths.C)The highest rate of suicide occurs in the adolescent
C)The highest rate of suicide occurs in the adolescent age group.
Lou Ann has been diagnosed with a psychological disorder called agoraphobia. Lou Ann is afraid of:A)heights.B)having a panic attack in a public place.C)her home.D)lightning.
B)having a panic attack in a public place.
Depersonalization Disorder
Dissociative
genetic predispositionneurotransmitters- excess domapint activity
Dissociative Disorders
Neologisms


Invented words, not
used by other people.


Dyslexia
Reading disability (brain problem); some say due to complexity of language (English has 1120 ways to produce 40 sounds)
Communication Disorders
Expressive Language disorder, phonological disorder, and stuttering.
hypochondria
excessive preoccupation with one's health
DMS-IV
Used for classifying psychological disorders
word salad
make up your own language
Observational Learning
Learning from observing others' fear.
histrionic personality disorder
shallow, attention-getting emotions and goes to great lengths to gain others' praise and reassurance
Hallucination
Sensory experiences with out sensory stimulation
compulsions
repetitive behaviors or mental acts performed to reduce or prevent stress
DSM-IM-TR
manual published by APA, diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
Dose-response relationship
This relationship explains that the greater one's emotional stress during trauma, the more likely one is to experience PTSD.
token economy-instrumental conditioning
rewards desired behavior
exchange token for some sort of treat
the mood disorders
major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, bipolar disorder
Dhat syndrome
culture-bound syndrome found in India in which men develop intense fears about losing semen
Electroconvulsive Therapy
last resort for depression, causes some memory loss of events leading up to ECT and the procedure itself
schizoid personality disorder
expresses eccentric behaviors, the emotionless disengagement
bipolar disorder
characterized by moods that alternate between mania (feeling indestructible, hyperactive and overly self-confident) and depression (feeling intensely sad and hopeless). The periods of mania and depression vary in length and are unpredictable. Periods of mania usually follow longer periods of depression.
characterized by rigid- self destructive traits that cause distress or inability to get along with others Includes paranoia, narcissistic, and anti social behaviors
Paranoid Personality Disorders
hallucinations
sensory experiences in the absence of external stimulation
General Anxiety Disorder
Persistent and pervasive feelings of anxiety, without any external cause; extremely severe
thought disorder
breakdown in the logical structure of thought and speech, revealed in the form of a loosening of associations
Arbitrary inference
drawing conclusions in the absence of sufficient evidence or of any evidence at all
bipolar disorder
major depressive disorder
2 types of mood disorder
Anxiety Disorders Part Two
Panic Disorders involves sudden, intense attacks of profound fear racing heart, sweat,increased breathing, high blood pressure, sense of fear, dizzyness, vertigoPhobias- global- specific irrational fear of a specific situation
Culture, Context, and Time
What defines "deviant behavior" varies with _________ (3 things).
learning model of addiction
examines the role of environment, learning, and culture in encouraging or discouraging drug abuse and addiction
parietal lobe
this part of the brain is the center for processing mathematical and spatial information
sociocognitive explanation of MPD
holds that this phenomenon is simply an extreme form of the ability we all have to present different aspects of our personalities to others. In this view the diagnosis of MPD provides a culturally acceptable way for some troubled people to make sense of their problems.
Which of the following statements about the Jerusalem syndrome is FALSE?A)Tour guides and hotel employees in Jerusalem are familiar with the symptoms of Jerusalem syndrome and will notify authorities if they observe someone displaying the symptoms.B)Appr
D)The incidence of Jerusalem Syndrome has increased dramatically in the past decade, suggesting that the disorder may be a reflection of increased media coverage rather than a true psychological disorder.
In the Focus on Neuroscience box on schizophrenia and the brain, neuroscientist Paul Thompson used high-resolution brain scans to compare brain development in _____ over a five-year period.A)adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia and adolescents with
B)normal adolescents and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia
/ 150
Term:
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