Terms Definitions
first menstruation
connections between neurons
visual perception
perceptual constancty
Generating previously remembered information
-neurotransmitter similar to norpinephrine-regulation of sleep, mood, and eating-one of the ingredients comes from food.
states which cause behavior
Leta Stetter Hollingworth
Gender differences
(differences in creativity and intelligence)
anything goes, affectionate but extremely lax with rules and discipline
implicit attitude
automatically, without conscious thought, influence our behavior toward the object, influence at the emotional level, formed through direct experience or repeated association
Steps in Research
Formulate Hypothesis-Design Study-Collect data-Analyze data-Disseminate results
What are barbiturates and benzodiazepines examples of?
psychological disorder
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
excessive tendency to seek concurrence among group members
sexual sadism
sexual fantasies involving suffering of victims
Sequential-cohort design
Several overlapping cohorts are studied longitudinally
tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct predictions
“tail” often insulated by myelin sheath, sends signal away from neuron to other cells
1960s and 1970s governmental policy that focused on releasing hospitalized psychiatric patients into the community and closing mental hospitals
psychologists need to make predictions in the form of hypotheses about changes in behavior, mental experiences, or psychological processes.
relative image size
closer things look bigger
- in forebrain- connects sensations and emotions
Process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information into meaningful patterns
Tiny junctions between neurons. The gap between neurons is the synaptic gap.
is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus.
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
-voltage difference b/n neuron's interior & exterior that, if exceeded through stimulation, causes the neuron to fire-inside & outside of cell begins to reverse itself: inside positive, outside negative-positive charge travels down axon-DESTABILIZATION: makes membrane permeable & allows flowing of ions
occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in position of authority
cognitive dissonance
anxiety that results from simultaneously holding incompatible attitudes or beliefs, as when one likes a person but disapproves of their habits
an understanding of the motivational forces behind one's actions, thoughts, or behavior; self-knowledge
The sex chromosome only found in males. When paired with an X from the mother a boy child is created
the questions or statements to which participants provide a response
Behavorial Confirmation
A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to cofirm their expectations.
Psychosexual stages
five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child.
Vestibular Sense
the sense that provides information about the position of the body
responding similarily to a range of similar stimuli
An educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem.
Sensorimotor stage
experiencing the world through senses and actions(looking, hearign touching, mouthing, and grasping) birth-2 yrs.
respond more to color (not intensity) less sensitive, more acute
cognitive therapies
effective for treating conditions such as depression and eating disorders
serotonin reuptake inhibitors
selectively prevent reuptake of serotonin
uses classical conditioning to create a negative response to a stimulus that has elicted problematic behavior
Aversion Therapy
genotype that consists of the same genes for a trait.
Aversive Conditioning
A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behaviour (such as drinking alcohol).
study only what can be directly observed and measured 
A strange false belief firmly held despite evidence to the contrary.
Availability Heuristic
tendency to estimate the probability of an event in terms of how easily you can recall instances of it
What is an internal motivational state created by a physiological need?
a drive
Discriminative stimuli
Stimuli that precede rewarded and non-rewared responses in operant conditioning.
Humanistic Psychology
an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
Humanistic Psychology
shallow level
structural encoding; focus on physical structure of stimulus (font, letter shape)
ratchet effect
that humans continually improve on improvements; do not go bacwards in progress
the state of being concerned primarily with one's own thoughts and feelings rather than with the external environment
cochlea [KOK-lee-uh]
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 217)
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 140)
Behavioral (Watson)
Behavior and mental process result of learning. Biological, genetic, evolutionary factors = raw material. Rewards, punishments, etc shape individual.
(Anxiety Disorder)
When a person feels irrationally and intensly afraid of a specific object or situation.
Bill was admitted to the hospital last week after he fell. When Bill's son visited, he found his father was unable to get words out in a smooth, connected fashion. If Bill's difficulty speaking is due to brain damage, what is the likely location of the da
Higher order conditioning
In classical conditioning, a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through associations with an already established conditioned stimulus.
refers to a family of practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control, go into alpha & theta waves, potentially leads to beneficial physiological state, helps reduce stress
Cognitive-Mediation Theory
Most important aspect of any emotional experience is how the person interprets or appraises the stimulus that causes the emotional reaction
Erectile Dysfunction
A man’s inability or difficulty in achieving an erection. Pg 395
network theory
says we store related ideas in separate categories, or files, called nodes. As we make associations among information, we create links among thousands of nodes, which make up a gigantic interconnected network of files .
movement in the early 20th century to improve a populations genetic stock by encouraging those with good genes to reproduce, preventing those with bad genes from reproducing, or both
ego centric thinking
child only thinks from their perspective
sensorimotor period
birth - 2coordination of input and motor repsonsesdevelopment of object permanence
Night terrors
A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an apperance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occuring during stage 4 sleep, and are seldom remembered.
Do people who are chemically castrated lose their sexual desires?
Not always
a young child's tendency to focus only on his or her own perspective of a specific object and a failure to understand that others may see things differently
What was the CS in Pavlov's experiment?
Musical tone
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are blind about whether the participants received the treatment or placebo
double blind procedure
Random Assignment
The procedure by which random variable are evenly distributed in an experiment by putting participants into various groups through a random process.
What are the two branches of the Autonomic Nervous System?
Random Population is...
a survey population selected by chance, which fairly represents the general population
word association test
a technique for determining a subject's associative pattern by providing a verbal stimulus to which a spoken response is required
In human, the name for the developing organism during the first eight weeks after conception.
which type of memory has the shortest duration?
sensory memory
The distinctive older term psychopath refers to an individual with
D) antisocial personality disorder
List the undesirable side effects of punishment.

Leads to Retaliation/Revenge

The punished do not understand their wrong doing
Teaches violence as a solution to problems
Side Effects:
Increased Agression
Criminal Behavior 
Mental Health Problems
Child Abuse amoung adults who were physically punished as children
Pique technique
Capture the attention of the target by making a novel request.
binocular depth cues
cues for depth that depend on comparisons between the two eyes.
cross cultural approach
examines the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities on pyschological and social functioning of a culture's members
test bias
tendency of a test to predict outcomes better in one group than another
forgetting curve
curve describes the rate at which you forget thingscurve much less steep when remembering meaningful material
Mystical Experiences 
Feelings of unity or oneness with the world, often wit hstorng spiritual overtones
Sensory Deprivation(p 195)
The absence of normal levels of sensory stimulation.
Most dentists in teh U.S. are men, whereas in Russia and Sweden they are women. What significant influence on our behavior do these facts seem to support?
cultural expectations
What is naturalistic observation?
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation
Operant conditioning
A type of learning in which behavior is strenghtened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
a person who draws a source of control from the external world, depending on others as a source of values, ideas, and security
What is the super ego?
The norms, rules and expectations you've been taught in society
the "what" pathway
ventral stream, info sent from V1 to temporal lobe, object identification
Social Cognative approach
What and how people learn from one another
-How does modeling after one another affect behavior
-teaching new behavior
--influencing previous forbidden behanvior
-Increasing similar behavior
buffering hypothesis:
when other people care about us we are better able to cope with stress
all or none law
if axon is sufficiently stimulated, it fired, sending the action potential all the way down.
Describe performance components.
1. More specific to the task.2. The actual mental operations themselves people use to solve specific problems.3. Ex: encoding, making inferences, making comparisons
somatosensory cortex
A narrow strip of the cortex that is located at the front edge of the parietal lobe and extends down its side. It processes sensory information about touch, location of limbs, pain, and temperature. The right somatosensory cortex receives information from the left side of the body and vice versa.
Pre operational 
- the stages from about 2 to 7 years old during which children learns to use language but does not yet comprehend to mental operations of concrete logic.
sequence of sexual maturation for boys
testicular growth - 11.5 yearspubic hair - 12 yearspenis growth - 12.5 yearsgrowth spurt - 12.5 yearsvoice change - 13 yearsspermarche - 14 years
What is Classical conditioning?
A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli.
A neural stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus and begins to produce a responce that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus
extreme response bias
the tendency to use the ends of a scale, regardless of item content
in the form of a pyramid
According to Maslow, human needs can be represented: _________.
What was Hunt's Playboy Foundation survey?
In the 1970's, the Playboy foundation commissioned a survey of sexual behavior in the United States, and in 1974, Morton Hunt reported the results in his book "Sexual Behavior in the 1970's"
Piaget Stages Continued
1. Concrete Operational
2. Formal Operational
1. age 7 to 11 ability to start performing mental opration on physical events. cannot understand hypothetical situations
2. age 11 to adulthood - can start performing hypothetical reasoning
Receptive Fields and Rod vs. Cone Visual Acuity
Cones- in the fovea, one cone often synapses onto only 1 ganglion cell
Rods- the axons of many rods synapse onto 1 ganglion cell..reduces visual acuity and allows rods to be sensitive to dim light
multiple choice
Theory Y
Chemoreceptors detect ?
Wernicke's Area
controls language reception
Cell Body
What are Dendrites?
Common are heroin, morphine, methadone, and codeine. Acts as agonists for endogenous opias. Powerful painkiller and mood elevators. Extreme withdrawal symptoms include coma and death.
Subdivision of the hindbrain.
metencephalon, myelencephalon
Reacquiring knowledge that we'd previously learned but largely forgotten over time
first steps toward a goal
Transfers information to LTM; activelythinking about information and any existingconnections in LTM
psychomotor abilities
coordination, manipulation of objects
hand eye coordination
-peg in hole
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
episode of illness clearly distinguishable from normal
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neural stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
A Stage
Developmental period during which characteristic paterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established.
-person often avoids close emotional ties with family, colleagues, and friends; reminders of event; survivors guilt
the smallest distinctive speech sounds in a language
a relatively permanent change in behavior, knowledge, capability, or attitude that is acquired through experience
This psychologist credited with being the first to study memory scientifically.
Piagets Stages
1). Sensorimotor- experiencing the world through senses and actions.
2). Preoperational- representing things words and images (lack of logic/reasoning)
3). Concrete Operational- Think logically, mature math
4). Formal operational- Abstract reasoning, scientific reasoning.
customary standards for behavior that are widely shared by members of a culture.
bottom-up processing
progression from individual elements to the whole
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
(Definition/Also Called/Examples)
Concerned with the relationship between people and work.
Also called Business Psychology.
Human Resource Management
Turnover Rates
Job Satisfaction
Sodium Channels
Slight depolarization- sodium channels slightly open
Once threshold is reached, sodium channels open wide and Na+ ions rush into cell
At the peak of action potntial, sodium channels close and cannot be opened again for next millisecond or so
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
systematic desensitization
a technique that uses counterconditioning and extinction to reduce the fear and anxiety that have become associated with a specific object or event
the period following childhood before adolescence
A term associated with codependent personality illustrating a behavior of reacting, rather than responding, to stress
the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
external validity
the characteristic of experiment that allows us to generalize our results to the rest of the population
The biological approach
attributes psychological disorders to organic, internal causes. This perspective primarily focuses on the brain, genetic factors, and neurotransmitter functioning as the sources of abnormality
The process of activating knowledge or goals, of making them ready, or accessible, for use
sleep apnea
a disorder in which breathing periodically stops for a few moments causing the person to choke and gasp
Man often given credit for ushering reform of how asylum patients were treated.
decision makingch. 7
the process of considering alternatives and choosing among them
5 cell types in the retina
horizontal cell
bipolar cell
amacrine cell
ganglion cell
optimism vs pessimism
coronary bypass surgery, optimistic patients recover more quickly; 35-year harvard study, pessimists died sooner or were ill by 45-50 because they did not take care of themselves, do not cope as well and appear to have depressed immune functioning
more focused on what is happening in the subconscious 
people who have repressed trauma can be treated with hypnosis, dream interpretation, and talk therapy
different from cognitive because we aren't aware of these thoughts
positive symptoms
exaggerations or distortions of normal thoughts, emotions, and behavior also thought of as direct lead-ins to the full expression of psychosis
Predisposing Causes
things that bring on a disorder
Altered State of Conciousness
differed state of being
how long is a sleep cycle?
90 minutes
techniques of psychoanalysis
1. free association;2. dream interpretation (identifying unconscious desires);3. projective techniques;non-threatening; deals with underlying conflicts
Defenses (Defense Mechanisms)
psychological forces which prevent undesirable or inappropriate impulses from entering cnsciousness (e.g., forgetting responsibilities that we really didn't want to do, projecting anger onto a spouse as opposed to your boss). Also called Defense Mechanisms. Defense System, or Ego Defenses.
negative correlation
relationship in which one variable increase and the other variable decreases from left to right.
the neurons life support center. dendrites - branching fibers
cell body
Who had the First Psychology laboratory in 1879 at the University of Leipzig in Germany? W
Willhelm Wundt
Health Psychologists
Use of psychological principles to promote health and prevent illness.
preconventional morality
"right" is whatever avoids punishment or gains rewards
Pervasive development disorder
Disorders that involve lifelong impairment in mental or physical functioning.
a feeling of happiness, confidence, or well-being sometimes exaggerated in pathological states as mania
Any factor occurring in a study that makes the results uninterpretable because its effects cannot be separated from those of the variables being studied.
Adler's Theory of PersonalityWhat are his two theories?
Inferiority ComplexIndividual Pyschology
alarm stage
The body's first reaction to a stressor.temporary state of shock during which resistance to illness and stress falls below normal limits. In trying to cope with the initial effects of stress, the body releases hormones that, in a short time, adversely affect the functioning of the immune system, the body's network of natural defenses. During this time the individual is prone to infections from illness and injury.
parietal lobe
the middle lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, contains important sensory centers (located at the upper rear of the head)
Personality Tests
A type of psychological assessment. The most famous is the Big Five Personality Test. Asks a series of questions and then places you along a continuum in terms of where you fall in your personality traits.
The GESTALT tendency to see a whole object, even though lines may be missing
depth cue
eye convergence when an object is closer to you
binocular disparity- degree of disparity between the two eyes' view judges distance (stereopsis)
monocular- motion parallax move head back and forth to achiev binocular disparity
occlusion, realtive image size for familiar objects, linear perspective (convergence of parallel lines), texture gradient, position relative to horizon, different lighting of surfaces
terminal button
sends signals from a neuron to adjacent cells
– neural tissue lining the back of the eyeball’s interior, which contains the receptors of vision
Episodic memory
portion of long term memory that stores personally experienced,event; specific time and place.
right and left part of brain
sees other sides
Discriminative stimuli
Events that signal the likelihood of reinforcement or punishment for bx
A state in which a person loses contact with reality in key ways.
association cortex
regions of the cerebral cortex that integrate simpler functions to perform more complex functions.
The Binet and Simon intelligence test measured children on what new concep?
mental age
May appear in different jobs and result from the determinants of performance; John Campbell and colleagues identified 8 performance components, some or all of which can be found in every job.
Performance Components
The smallest unit of sound that is recognizable as speech rather than as random noise (there are about 40 in the English language)
class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
anxiety disorders
state-dependent memory
something we learn is more easily recalled when we are in the state we learned it (happy, drunk, sober, sad, etc)
Biological Approach
This approach examines how our genes, hormones, and nervous system interact with our environment to influence various aspects of behavior.
texture gradient
a monocular cue; a gradual change from course, distinct texture to fine, indistinct textures signals increasing distance
Post convetional
- develop your own rules and moral compass. 14 ->
limbic system
a group of brain structures that play an important role in our survival, memory, and emotions
postreinforcement pause
The absence of responding for a period of time following reinforcement; an effect commonly produced by fixed interval and fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement.
A body mass index score of 30 or above, but this is only a rough index
Guilty Knowledge Test
A lie detection procedure in which individuals are asked multiple-choice questions to which only guilty persons would know the answers.
developmental psychology –
a branch of psychology that studies, physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Brain Structures dealing with Aggression
limbic systemneurotransmitters - lower serotonin
biological needs
(primary needs)
these are certain things that humans need to survive. if humans are deprived of these certain things then they will be motivated to get them no matter what.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
o Abraham Maslow… certain needs have priority over others. First physiological needs, then safety needs, then belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, then last is self-actualization needs.
more likely if a weapon was used in the crime
What is muscular-anal?
1 year to 15 monthsautonomy vs. shame/doubtthe child who does not develop a sense of self will feel shame and doubt
social influence
others present can have an impact on our level of performance
The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to supply oxygenate blood to the working muscles for energy metabolism
Cardiovascular endurance
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 069)
General adaptation syndrome
(GAS) is Selye's term for the common effects on the body when demands are placed on it• The GAS consists of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. Selye's model is especially useful in helping us understand the link between stress and health.
Stimulus over-selectivity
over attention to only one aspect of a stimulus (can explain both autism and savant syndrome)
REUPTAKE-are all neurotransmitters the same?
THE PROCESS BY WHICH EXCESS NEUROTRANSMITTER CHEMICALS ARE REABSORBED BY THE SENDING NEURON-no , diff chem. prop. an shapes but diff receptor sites recieve diff chemicals properites, if cant find one that fits then...reuptake!!
Mary Whiton Calkins
Who was a student under William James and was the first woman to become the president of the American Psychological Association?
4 Basic Scheduals of Reinforcement:
2. Variable Ratio
Behavior is reinforced aftter an unpedictable number of responses
Results in a high rate of responding that is resistent to extinction
EX: slot machine
What is self-talk coping?
silent mental speech used to solve problems and think positively
Rorschach Inkblot
cards with blots of ink in a specified order and subject is asked to describe
Why Individuals Drink Alcohol
Relaxes and reduces stress, can make a dull situation fun, their peers drink, to escape boredom or problems, and to put them in a "romantic (sexual) mood"
Second Order Conditioning
Being able to not only pair 1 stimulus to a response, but also pair another one above that.
What is a theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking, wishing, and hoping? B
What is Associative Learning?
How are IQ scores distributed
2-99 score lower that 70 ur mentally retarded over 130 gifted and talented
What are the two main types of statistics?
Descriptive statistics - numerical characterizations that describe data
inferential statistics - mathematical methods that allow us to determine whether we can generalize findings from our sample to the full population
baby/infant sleeps____ hours a day; in/of____ sleep.
16 to 18hrs a day of REM sleep
What are the two components of the Nervous System?
Central Nervous System & Peripheral Nervous System
(6.4) A. What explanation of each problem is most likely?
1. April always has trouple tasting foods, especially those with subtle flavors.
2. May, a rock musician, does not hear as well as she used to.
3. June has chronic shoulder pain, though th
A. 1. April may have an impaired sense of smell, possibly due to disease, illness, or cigarette smoking.
2. Hearing impairment has many causes, but in May's case, we might suspect that prolonged exposure to loud music has damaged the hair cells of her cochlea.
3. Nerve fibers that normally close the pain "gate" may have been damaged, or a matrix of cells in the brain may be producing abnormal activity. 
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